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terms here enumerated, and for syllogisms, which have for their materials the several species of propositions, both these naturally make subsequent and distinct parts of logic, and must therefore be consigned to some future speculation.
back further, and recur to theorems of science, or to sciences themselves, these will be found not properly parts of logic, but works of a different and higher character; works where logic serves the philosopher for an instrument or organ, as the chisel serves the statuary, the pencil serves the painter.
At present we are to proceed to the speculation concerning substance,
If we go
CONCERNING SUBSTANCE NATURAL-HOW CONTINUED, OR CARRIED ON,
PRINCIPLES OF THIS CONTINUATION, TWO-INCREASED TO THREEREDUCED AGAIN TO TWO. THESE LAST TWO, FORM AND A SUBJECT, OR RATHER FORM AND MATTER.
To explain how natural substances originally began, is a task too arduous for unassisted philosophy. But to inquire after what manner, when once begun, they have been continued, is a work better suited to human abilities: because to a portion of this continuity we are personally present; nay, within it we ourselves are all included, as so many parts.
Now as to the manner, in which subsists the continuity of natural substances, and as to the causes* by which that continuity is maintained, there is no one, it is probable, who imagines every birth, every recent production that daily happens in the universe, to be an absolutely fresh creation ; a realizing of nonentity; an evocation (if it may be so described) of something out of nothing. What then is it? It is a change or mutation out of something which was before. It appears, therefore, that to inquire how natural substances are continued, is to inquire what are the principles of mutation or change.
First, then, let us observe, what is in fact most obvious, that there can be no mutation or change, were every thing to remain precisely one and the same; hot and cold, precisely as they are, one hot, the other cold; so likewise crooked and straight, black and white, &c. On the contrary, mutation or change is from one thing into another :' from hot into cold, or from cold into hot; from straight into crooked, or from crooked into straight; and so in other instances. It follows hence, that the principles of mutation or change are necessarily two; one, a principle out of which; the other, a principle into which.
* The doctrine of causes, and their dif- explored, and of course had separate and ferent species, is treated at large through distinct treatises for logic, physics, and the the whole Treatise upon Art, and in the many other branches of science, as well the notes subjoined to the same, particularly practical as the speculative. Not so the page 59.
author of this treatise : he by no means The author desires to inform his readers, pretends to emulate the comprehensive vathat in the subsequent disquisitions he hath riety of that sublime and acute genius, not confined himself merely to logic, but whose writings made him for more than has interspersed many speculations of dif- two thousand years the admiration of Gre ferent kinds; acting in this view differently cians, Romans, Arabians, Jews, and Chrisfrom the model set him by the Stagirite. tiang. Such esteem could not have been The Stagirite left no part of philosophy un- the effect either of fashion or of chance.
Again, these two principles are not merely casual and temerarious. Hot changes not into crooked, but into cold; crooked not into cold, but into straight; white not into moist, but into black; moist not into black, but into dry. The same holds in other instances more complicated. The becoming a statue is a change from indefinite configuration into definite; the becoming a palace, a change from dispersion into combination, from disorder into order. Already the principles which we investigate have appeared to be two; and now it further appears that they must be contraries or opposites."
Authority is not wanting to countenance this last position. The Seripture tells us, that the earth in the beginning was "without form and void ; and darkness was upon the face of the deep." After thus it became enlightened as well as replenished: replenished with various forms, both vegetable and animal; enlightened by the sublime command of, “ Let there be light, and there was light." In the whole of this progress we may rrimark contrariety; formless opposed to form ; void to replewiskeel; and darkness to light. Thus Aristoke: Nasa netaBoA COTW production of what is musical,” &c. Arist. Among the ancient philosophers, some held the principles of things to be hot and cold; others, to be moist and dry; others, to be dense and rare; others, in a more abstracted way, to be excess and defect; even and odd; friendship and strife. Among the moderns, we know the stress laid on action and reaction; attraction and repulsion ; expansion and condensation ; centripetal and centrifugal: to which may be added those two principles, held by many ancients as well as moderns, the principles of atoms and a void," which two stand opposed nearly as being and non-being.
He then subjoins the ety- Phys. I. i. c. 5. p. 14. edit. Sylb. moir of the wond weradesh to confirm & Και τα μή απλά των όντων, αλλά As thΝ»: δηλοί γάμο και τούνια. Μετ' σύνθετα, κατά τον αυτόν έχει λόγον ήτε Δι» και το Αναι το μέν τότερων δηλοί, το γαρ οικία γίνεται εκ του μη συγκείσθαι, * Art, : "errm the name,” says he, αλλά διηρήσθαι ταδί ώδί και ο ανδρίας και "heusit: fir it is something after some Têx eoxnuatuuévWv tid doxnuocúrns, thing is; and one of these things denotes kai ēkaoTOY TOÚTWY id uey tábis, te od piew, the other vienotos suyo." Physic. cúvdesis Tis &OTIV: “ Beings, too, which are ha riel. Ni elit. Sril
not simple, but composite, admit the same Thus the same author: 'Arútar may reasoning—for the house is formed from ve been wolferestre med master, ošte nás certain materials, which are not previously Ivano Fllo storil map Towetos, ouidè so compounded (as to make a house], but
vir want drodd derroy which lie separate; and the statue, and me's **** de ene ral Tortov oik erery one of those things which have power alla* selaras otras metaisfigure given them, are formed out of somexwi empezavo * . d "l'niversair with thing which wants that figure; and each ****** dinner whatever, no one being prxiuction has a different name ; sometimes is All Metin either to act upon any it is onder, sometimes it is composition." ***** Autor to lie upin in Arisi. Phys. 1 i. c. 3. p. 14, 15. Ho vpeti per is any thing prod or Sve the same author in the same treaya kwa wind piniintunier out of any tisc, p. 11, 12, &c. See also the quotation iyi kis mai ar produced in the text from Scripture, which imme Pin and moderne og en brati and this not diately follows, as well as the subsequent
pap sa wikad, but notes 209 when all the same inter- Tienesis chap. i.
it so that the
We shall subjoin the following passage from a treatise of ancient date, because in it the force of contraries is exemplified with elegance.
“Some (says an ancient author) have wondered how the world, if it be composed, as it appears, out of contrary principles, (the dry, the moist, the cold, and the hot,) has not for ages ago been ruined and destroyed. As if indeed men should wonder how a city could subsist, composed (as it is) out of contrary tribes, (I mean, the poor and the opulent, the young and the aged, the weak and the strong, the good and the bad,) and be ignorant that this of all things is most admirable in political concord; I mean, that by admitting every nature and every fortune, it forms out of many dispositions one disposition; and out of dissimilar ones, a similar. Perhaps also nature herself has an affection for contraries, and chooses out of these to form the consonant, and not out of things similar; so that in the same manner as she associated the male to the female, and not each to its own sex, did she establish through contraries, and not similars, the first and original concord. Art, too, in imitation of nature, appears to do the Thus painting, by blending the natures of things white and black, pale and red, produces representations consonant to their originals. Thus music, by mixing together sounds that are sharp and flat, that are long and short, out of different voices produces one harmony. Thus grammar, by forming a mixture out of vowels and
d“ Democritus,” says Aristotle, “holds tions more modern. The tract itself stands the solid and the void," To otepedy kal the fifth in the volume of Aristotle's phyκενόν, , to be principles," av to uév ús ov, sical pieces, according to Sylburgius's ediτο δ' ώς ουκ ον είναι φησι, “ of which he tion, and the passage here translated may says the one is the same as being, the other be found, cap. 5. page 12, of that edition, the same as non-bcing." See Arist. Phys. beginning at the words, Kai tou yé TIS l. i. c. 5. p. 13. See also c. 4. p. 11, where datuage TWS Tote ei ek twv évavtiwv, the other contraries are explained at large. K.T.1. In Apuleius the words are, Et qui
See the treatise, Iepi koopov. It is busdam mirum videri solet, quod, cum ex given to Aristotle, and always makes a part diversis, &c. p. 731. edit. in Usum Delphini. of his works ; but although it be of genuine quarto. antiquity, and truly sublime, both in lan- See Fabricius's Biblioth. Græc. vol. ii. p. guage and sentiment, yet some have thought 127 ; where the learned author, with his it of a later period, and not written in the usual labour and accuracy, has collected all close manner and style of Aristotle. A the sentiments both of ancients and moderns translation of it is extant, as old as by the on this valuable work. philosopher Apuleius, besides other transla
mutes, through these hath established the whole of its art. And this is what appears to have been the meaning of that obscure philosopher Heraclitus. You are, says he, to connect the perfect and the imperfect, the agreeing and the disagreeing, the consonant and the dissonant; and out of all things, one ; and out of one, all things."
Thus far this ingenious author, with regard to whose doctrine, as well as that of the many others already mentioned, we cannot but remark, that whatever may have caused such an unanimity of opinion, whether it were that men adopted it from one another by a sort of tradition, or were insensibly led to it by the latent force of truth ; all philosophers, of all ages, appear to have favoured contrariety, and given their sanction to the hypothesis, that principles are contraries.
But further still: “It is impossible for contrarieties to coexist, in the same place, at the same instant.” It is impossible, for example, that in the same place and instant should coexist cold and hot, crooked and straight, dispersion and combination, disorder and order. As therefore the principles of change are contraries, and contraries cannot co-exist, it follows that one principle must necessarily depart, as the other accedes. Thus in the mutation out of disorder into order, when the principle into which, that is, order accedes, the principle out of which, that is, disorder departs. The same happens in all other instances.
A question then arises. If one of them necessarily depart as soon as the other accedes, how can nature possibly maintain the continuity of her productions? To depart, is to be no more, a sort of annihilation, or death; to accede, is to pass into being, a sort of production, or birth. They cannot co-exist, because they are absolutely incompatible ; s so that upon this hypothesis there can be no continuity at all, but every new production must be a realizing of nonentity, a fresh and genuine evocation of something out of nothing.
If this in the continuity of beings appear a difficulty, let us try whether we can remove it by any aid not yet suggested. Crooked, we are told, is changed into straight, a contrary into a
Πάντες γαρ τα στοιχεία και τας υπ' τιότης: “That we should not make two αυτών καλουμένας αρχάς, καίπερ άνευ λόγου principles only, has some appearance of τιθέντες, όμως ταναντία λέγουσιν, ώσπερ reason: for a man may well doubt, how υπ' αυτής της αληθείας αναγκασθέντες: density should be formed by nature to make “For all philosophers hold the elements and rarity, or this last, density; and so in like those other causes, which they call prin- manner with respect to any other contrariety ciples, (though they suppose them, without whatever.” Arist. Phys. 1. i. c. 6. p. 16. giving a reason,) to be contraries, compelled, Simplicius well observesd meg gap as it were, to do so by truth itself.” Aristot. ToLoûv els únouévoy TI TOLEC TO Od drastiev Phys. I. i. c. 5. p. 15.
ουχ υπομένει το εναντίον: “ That which και Το μή ποιείν δύο μόνον, έχει τινά λόγον" acts, acts upon something which remains ; απορήσειε γαρ άν τις, πως η πυκνότης την but contrary does not remain and wait for μανότητα ποιείν πέφυκεν, και αυτή την πυκ- contrary.” Simpl. in Præd. p. 43. B. edit. νότητα ομοίως δε και άλλη οποιανουν έναν- Basil. 1551.
contrary ; one of which necessarily departs, and the other accedes. We admit it. But is there not something which, during the change, neither departs nor accedes? Something which remains, and is all along still one and the same."
The stick, for example, changes from crooked into straight; and if there was not a stick, or something analogous, no such change could be effected. Yet is it less a stick for becoming straight; or was it more so when crooked? Does it not remain, considered as a stick, precisely, in either case, one and the
As therefore the stick is to crooked and straight, so is the bar of iron to hot and cold ; the brass of the statue to figure and deformity; the stones of the palace to order and confusion; and something, analogous in other changes, to other contraries, not enumerated.
If, therefore, we were right in what we asserted before, and are so in what we assert now, it should seem that the principles of change or mutation were three : * one, that which de
* Και τούτο ορθώς λέγει Διογένης, ότι εί και το αμούση είναι και το μεν υπομένει, μη εξ ενός άπαντα, ουκ άν ήν το ποιείν και το δ' ουχ υπομένει" το μεν υποκείμενον πάσχαν υπ' αλλήλων οίον το θερμόν υπομένει: (ο γάρ άνθρωπος υπομένει) το δε ψύχεσθαι, και τούτο θερμαίνεσθαι πάλιν άμουσον ουχ υπομένει: “It is necessary ου γαρ η θερμότης μεταβάλλει και η ψυ- that in every production there should be a χρότης είς άλλήλα, αλλά δηλον, ότι το subject, [or a substratum,] and this, though υποκείμενον ώστε εν οίς το ποιείν εστί και one numerically, yet not one in form, (Ι το πάσχειν, ανάγκη τούτων μίαν είναι την mean, by one in form, the same as one in ÚROKELMÉVTV púow : “ And this is rightly reason, in detail, or definition.) Thus it is said by Diogenes, that if all things were not the same thing to be a man, and to be not out of one thing, it would not be pos- a being immusical, or void of musical art. sible for them to act, or be acted upon by [In the formation of a musician,) the one one another: for example, that what is hot remains, the other remains not; the subject should become cold ; or reciprocally, that or substratum remains, (for man remains ;) this should become hot ; for it is not the the being immusical, or void of musical art, heat or the coldness which change into one remains not,” (for that is lost as soon as he another, but it is that evidently changes becomes an artist.] Arist. Phys. l. i. c. 7. which is the subject of these affections: p. 18. edit. Sylb. whence it follows, that in those things The production, or formation here spoken where there is acting, and being acted upon, of, means the becoming a musician by the it is necessary there should belong to them acquisition of the musical art.
The same some one nature, their common subject.” reasoning may be applied to any other art Arist. de Gener. et Cor. lib. i. c. 6. p. 20. or science, which man, as man, is capable edit. Sylb.
of acquiring Aristotle, who gives this quotation, well Again, the same philosopher: "Eti ad remarks, that it was too much to affirm this μεν υπομένει, το δ' εναντίον ουχ υπομένει of all things, but that it should be confined έστιν άρα τι τρίτον παρά τα εναντία: to such things only as reciprocally act, and “ Add to this (says he) there is something are acted upon ; and so in his comment we [in productions of all kinds] which remains ; may perceive he restrains them.
but the contrary does not remain ; there is See more of this one being, the common therefore some third thing over and above subject, or substratum, in the following the contraries.” Metaph. A. p. 196. edit. chapter.
Sylb. The Diogenes here mentioned was a con- If there appear a difficulty in the first temporary of Anaxagoras, and lived many quotation of this note, concerning a subject years before the cynic of the same name. being one numerically, but not so in form, See Diog. Laert. ix. 57.
or character, see note on the word privation, 1 “Οτι δεί αεί τι υποκείσθαι το γιγνό- in the first part of the following chapter. μενον, και τούτο ει και αριθμό έστιν εν, Διόπερ, εί τις τόν τε πρότερον αληθή αλλ' είδει γε ουχ έν (το γαρ είδει λέγω, νομίσειεν είναι λόγον, και τούτον αναγκαίον, και λόγω ταυτόν.) ου γάρ ταύτον ανθρώπω ει μέλλει διασώσειν αμφοτέρους αυτούς,