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That the previous may be justly so called is pain, because they are essentially prior to all things else. The whole visible first order, transcendent and superior to ανθρώπου έχουσιν, (ως επί του ύστερον particulars, which through its uniform ελθόντος, και θεασαμένου τα κηρία) άνεnature is the cause of that sameness exist- μαξάμεθα αυτό εν τη διανοία και λέγεται ing in them, as through its multiform pre- τούτο επί τοις πολλοίς, ήγουν μετά τα conception it is the cause of their diversity: πολλά, και ύστερογενές: “Intelligatur anthat of the second order, what is infused nulus, qui alicujus, utpote Achillis, imafrom the first universal cause into the ginem insculptam habeat: multæ insuper various species of beings, and which has its ceræ sint, et ab annulo imprimantur: veexistence in those several species: that of niat deinde quispiam, videatque ceras omthe third order, what subsists by abstrac- nes unius annuli impressione formatas, antion in our own understandings, being of nulique impressionem in mente contineat: subsequent origin to the other two." Ibid. sigillum annulo insculptum, ante multa

dicetur: in cerulis impressum, in multis : To Simplicius we shall add the two fol- quod vero in illius, qui illo venerat, intellilowing quotations from Ammonius and Ni- gentia remanserit, post multa, et posterius cephorus Blemmides, which we have ven- genitum dicetur. Idem in generibus et tured to transcribe, without regard to their formis intelligendum censeo: etenim ille uncommon length, as they so fully establish optimus procreator mundi Deus, omnium the doctrine here advanced, and the works rerum formas, atque exempla habet apud se: of these authors are not easy to be pro- ut si hominem efficere velit, in hominis cured.

formam, quam habet, intueatur, et ad illius Εννοείσθω τοίνυν δακτύλιος τις εκτύ- exemplum ceteros facint omnes. At si quis πωμα έχων, ει τύχοι, 'Αχιλλέως, και κηρία restiterit, dicatque rerum formas apud Creaπολλά παρακείμενα και δε δακτύλιος σφραγι- torem non esse: quæso ut diligenter atζέτω τους κηρούς πάντας ύστερον δέ τις tendat: opifex, quæ facit, vel cognoscit, vel εισελθών και θεασάμενος τα κηρία, επιστή- ignorat: sed is, qui nesciet, nunquam quicσας ότι πάντα εξ ενός εισιν εκτυπώματος, quarm faciet: quis enim id facere aggreditur, εχέτω παρ' αυτό το εκτύπωμα τη διανοία. quod facere ignorat? Neque enim facul“Η τοίνυν σφραγίς ή εν τω δακτυλίω λέγε- tate quadam rationis experte aliquid aget, ται προ των πολλών είναι η δε εν τοι prout agit natura (ex quo conficitur, ut κηρίοις, εν τοις πολλοίςδε εν τη διανοία natura etiam agat, etsi que faciat, non του απομαξαμένου, επί τους πολλούς, και advertat :) si vero ratione quadam aliquid υστερογενής. Τούτο ούν εννοείσθω και επί facit, quodcunque ab eo factum est omnino των γενών και ειδών και γάρ Δημιουργός, cognovit. Si igitur Deus non pejore ratione, ποιών πάντα, έχει παρ' εαυτώ τά πάντων quam homo, facit quid, que fecit cognovit : παραδείγματα: οίον, ποιών άνθρωπον, έχει si cognovit que fecit, in ipso rerum formas το είδος παρ' εαυτό του ανθρώπου, προς και esse perspicuuin est. Formæ autem in opifice αφορών, πάντας ποιεί. Ει δέ τις ενσταίη sunt perinde ac in annulo sigillum, hecque λέγων, ώς ουκ εισί παρά τω Δημιουργώ τα forma ante multa, et avulsa a materia dicitur. είδη, ακουέτω ταύτα, ώς και Δημιουργός δη- Αtqui hominis species in unoquoque homine μιουργεί, ή ειδώς τα υπ' αυτού δημιουργού- est, quemadmodum etiam sigilla in ceris ; et μενα, και ουκ ειδώς. 'Αλλ' ει μεν μη ειδώς, η multis, nec avulsa a materia dicitur. Αt ουκ αν δημιουργήσει. Τις γάρ, μέλλων cum singulos homines animo conspicimus, et ποιήσειν τι, αγνοεί και μέλλει ποιεϊν; ου γάρ, eandem in unoquoque formam atque efigiem ως ή φύσις, άλόγω δυνάμει ποιεί. (όθεν και videmus, illa effigies in mente nostra insiποιεί η φύσις, ουκ εφιστάνουσα γνωστικώς dens post muίta, et posterius genita dicetur: τω γιγνομένω) Ει δέ τι καθ' έξιν λογικήν veluti in illo quoque dicebamus, qui multa ποιεί, οίδεπου πάντως το γιγνόμενον υπ’ sigilla in cera uno et eodem annulo imαυτού. Εί τοίνυν μη χείρον, ή κατά άνθρω- pressa conspexerat.” Ammon. in Porphyr. πον, ο Θεός ποιεί, οίδε το υπ' αυτού γιγνό- Introduct. p. 29. Β. μενον. ει δε οίδεν ο ποιεί, αυτόθι δη- Λέγονται δε τα γένη και τα είδη προ λον, ώς έστιν εν τώ Δημιουργώ τα είδη. των πολλών, εν τοις πολλοίς, επί τοις "Έστι δε το είδος εν τώ Δημιουργώ, ως και εν πολλοίς· οιον εννοείσθω τι σφραγιστήριον, το δακτυλίω τύπος και λέγεται τούτο το έχον και εκτύπωμα το τυχόν, εξ ου κηρία είδος προ των πολλών, και χωριστών της πολλά μεταλαβέτω του εκτυπώματος, και ύλης. Έστι δε το είδος του ανθρώπου και τις υπ' όψιν αγαγέτω ταύτα, μή προκατιδών εν τοις καθ' έκαστον ανθρώποις, ώς τα εν μηδ' ολως το σφραγιστήριον έωρακώς δε τοις κηροίς εκτυπώματα και λέγεται τα τα εν οίς το εκτύπωμα, και επιστήσας ότι τοιαύτα εν τοις πολλοίς είναι, και αχώριστα πάντα του αυτού μετέχουσιν εκτυπώματος, της ύλης. Θεάσαμενοι δε τους κατά μέρος και τα δοκούντα πολλά τα λόγω συναθροίανθρώπους, ότι πάντες το αυτό είδος του σας εις έν, εχέτω τούτο κατά διάνοιαν.

m

world exhibits nothing more, than so many passing pictures of these immutable archetypes. Nay, through these it attains even a semblance of immortality, and continues throughout ages to be specifically one, amid those infinite particular changes that befall it

moment." Το μεν ουν σφραγιστήριον τύπωμα λέγεται et simpliciter pre-existunt ; secundum quas προ των πολλών το δ' εν τοις κηρίοις, εν rationes ille supra-substantialis omnes res et τους πολλούς το δε εξ αυτών καταληφθέν, predestinavit et produxit. Existere autem και κατά διάνοιαν αύλως υποστάν, επί τοις dicuntur genera et species in multis, qιοπολλοίς. Ούτως ούν και τα γένη και τα niam in singulis hominibus hominis species, είδη προ των πολλών μέν εισιν εν τω et in singulis equis equi species est. In Δημιουργώ, κατά τους ποιητικούς λόγους: hominibus eque ac in equis et aliis animaliεν τω Θεώ γάρ οι ουσιοποιοί λόγοι των bus genus invenitur harum specierum, quod όντων ενιαίως προύφεστήκασι, καθ' ους est animal. In animalibus etiam una cum λόγους και υπερούσιος τα όντα πάντα και Zoophytis magis universale genus, nempe προώρισε και παρήγαγεν υφεστηκέναι δε sensitivum exquiritur. Additis vero plantis, λέγονται τα γένη και τα είδη εν τοις spectatur genus animatum. Si vero una πολλοίς, διότι εν τοις κατά μέρος ανθρώποις cum animatis quisquam velit perscrutari το του ανθρώπου είδός έστι, και τους κατά etiam inanimata, totum corpus perspiciet. μέρος ίπποις το του ίππου είδος: εν ανθρώ- Cum autem entia incorporea conjuncta ποις δε, και ίπποις, και τοις άλλοις ζώοις fuerint iis modo tractatis, apparebit primum το γένος ευρίσκεται των τοιούτων ειδών, et generalissimum genus. Atque ita quidem όπερ έστι το ζώον καν τοις ζώοις ομού και τη multis subsistunt genera et species τους ζωοφύτοις το καθολικώτερον γένος, το Comprehendens vero quisquam ex singulis αισθητικών, εξετάζεται συναχθέντων δε hominibus naturam ipsam humanam, et ex και των φυτών, θεωρείται το έμψυχον ει singulis equis ipsam equinam, atque ita δε συν τοις εμψύχοις εθέλει τις επισκοπεϊν universalem hominem et universalem equum και τα άψυχα, το σώμα σύμπαν κατόψεται: considerans, et universale animal ex singulis συνδραμουσών δε τοις ειρημένοις των ασω- ratione colligens, et universale sensitivum, μάτων ουσιών, το πρώτον γένος φανείται et universale animatum, et universale carκαι γενικώτατον και ούτω μεν εν τοις pus, ct maxime universale ens ex omnibus πολλοίς υφέστηκε τα είδη και τα γένη. colligens, hic, inquam, in sua mente genera Καταλαβών δέ τις εκ των κατά μέρος αν- et species iminaterialiter constituit επί τοις θρώπων την αυτών φύσιν, την ανθρωπό- πολλοίς, hoc est, post multa, et posterias τητα, εκ δε των κατά μέρος ίππων αυτών genita.” Niceph. Blem. Log. Epit. p. 62. την ιππότητα, και ούτω τον καθόλου άν- Vid. etiam Alcin. in Platonic Philosoph. θρωπον, και τον καθόλου ίππον επινοήσας" Introduct. c. 9, 10. και το καθόλου ζώον εκ των καθέκαστα τα m The following elegant lines of Virgil λόγω συναγαγών και το καθόλου αισθη- are worth attending to, though applied to τικών, και το καθόλου έμψυχον, και το no higher a subject than bees: καθόλου σώμα, και την καθολικωτάτην Ergo ipsas φuamvis angusti terminus eri ουσίαν εξ απάντων συλλογισάμενος, o Encipiat : (neque enim plus septima ducitur τοιούτος εν τη εαυτού διανοία τα γένη και ætas) τα είδη αύλως υπέστησεν επί τοις πολλοίς, At genus immortale manet. Georg. iv. τουτέστι, μετά τα πολλά και υστερογενώς. The same immortality, that is, the immor" Genera vero et species dicuntur esse ante tality of the kind, may be seen in all perishmulta, in multis, post multa. Ut puta, in- able substances, whether animal or inanitelligatur sigillum, quamlibet figuram ha- mate ; for though individuals perish, the bens, ex quo multa ceræ ejusden figuræ several kinds still remain. And hence, if sint participes, et in mediam aliquis has we take time, as denoting the system of proferat, nequaquam præviso sigillo. Cum things temporary, we may collect the meanautem vidisset eas ceras in quibus figura ex- ing of that passage in the Timæus, where primitur, et animadvertisset omnes eandem the philosopher describes time to be, figuram participare, et quæ videbantur νοντος αιώνος εν εν κατ' αριθμόν ιούσαν multe, ratione in unum coegisset, hoc in αιώνιον εικόνα. “ Eternitatis in uno permente teneat. Nempe sigillum dicitur esse manentis imaginem quandam, certis nuspecies ante multa ; illa vero in ceris, in merorum articulis progredientem.” Plat. 5. multis ; quæ vero ab iis desumitur, et in iii. p. 37. edit. Serran. mente immaterialiter subsistit, post multa. We have subjoined the following extract Sic igitur et genera et species ante multa in from Boethius, to serve as a commentary on Creatore sunt, secundum rationes efficientes. this description of time: Æternitas igitur In Deo enim rerum effectrices rationes una est, interminabilis vitæ tota simul et per

every

May we be allowed then to credit those speculative men, who tell us, “it is in these permanent and comprehensive forms that the Deity views at once, without looking abroad, all possible productions both present, past, and future; that this great and stupendous view is but a view of himself, where all things lie enveloped in their principles and exemplars, as being essential to the fulness of his universal intellection ?" If so, it will be proper that we invert the axiom before mentioned. We must now say, Nil est in sensu, quod non prius fuit in intellectu. For though the contrary may be true with respect to knowledge merely human, yet never can it be true with respect to knowledge universally, unless we give precedence to atoms and lifeless body, making mind, among other things, to be struck out by a lucky concourse.

III. It is far from the design of this treatise, to insinuate that Atheism is the hypothesis of our latter metaphysicians. But yet it is somewhat remarkable, in their several systems, how readily they admit of the above precedence.

For mark the order of things, according to their account of them. First comes that huge body, the sensible world. Then this and its attributes beget sensible ideas. Then out of sensible fecta posscssio. Quod ex collatione tempora- temporis quantitatc, sed simplicis potius lium clarius liquet. Nam quidquid vivit in proprietate naturæ. Hunc enim vitæ intempore, id præsens a præteritis in futura mobilis præsentarium statum, infinitus ille procedit: nihilque est in tempore ita con- temporalium rerum motus imitatur; cumque stitutum, quod totum vitæ suæ spatium pa- eum effingere, aique æquare non possit, ex riter possit amplecti ; sed crastinum quidem immobilitate deficit in motum ; ex simplinondum apprehendit, hesternum vero jam citate præsentiæ decrescit in infinitam futuri perdidit. In hodierna quoque vita non ac præteriti quantitatem ; et, cum totam amplius vivitis, quam in illo mobili transi- pariter vitæ suæ plenitudinem nequeat postorioque momento. Quod igitur temporis sidere, hoc ipso, quod aliquo modo nunquam patitur conditionem, licet illud, sicut de esse desinit, illud, quod implere atque cxmundo censuit Aristoteles, nec cæperit un- primere non potest, aliquatenus videtur quam esse, nec desinat, vitaque ejus cum æmulari, alligans se ad qualemcunque pretemporis infinitate tendatur, nondum tamen sentiam hujus cxigui voluerisque momenti: tale est, ut æternum esse jure credatur. quæ, quoniam manentis illius præsentia Non enim totum simul infinitæ licet vitæ quandam gestat imaginem, quibuscumque spatium comprehendit, atque complectitur, contigerit, id præstat, ut esse videantur. sed futura nondum transacta jam non habet. Quoniam vero manere non potuit, infinitum Quod igitur interminabilis vitæ plenitudinem temporis iter arripuit: coque modo factum totam pariter comprehendit, ac possidet, cui est, ut continuaret vitam cundo, cujus plenineque futuri quidquam absit, nec præteriti tudinem complecti non valuit permanendo. fluxerit, id æternum esse jure perhibetur: Itaque, &c. De Consolat. Philosoph. 1. v. idque necesse est, et sui compos præsens η "Οσα πέρ έστι τα πολλά κατά δή τινα sibi semper assistere, et infinitatem mobilis μερισμόν, τοσαύτα και το εν εκείνο προ του temporis habere presentem. Unde quidam μερισμού κατά το πάντη αμερές: ου γαρ non recte, qui cum audiunt visum Platoni, έν, ως ελάχιστον, καθάπερ ο Σπεύσιππος mundum hunc nec habuisse initium, nec doše déyev, àxi' év, ús navrá. “ As habiturum esse defectum, hoc modo conditori numerous as is the multitude of individuals conditum mundum fieri coæternum putant. by partition, so numerous also is that prinAliud est eniin per interminabilem duci ciple of unity by universal impartibility. vitam, (quod mundo Plato tribuit,) aliud For it is not one, as a minimum is one, interminabilis vitæ totam pariter complexam (according to what Speucippus seemed to esse præsentiam, quod Divinæ Mentis pro- say,) but it is one, as being all things." prium esse manifestum est. Neque enim Damascius trepi Apxwv, MS. Deus conditis rebus antiquior videri debet

ideas, by a kind of lopping and pruning, are made ideas intelligible, whether specific or general. Thus should they admit that mind was coeval with body, yet till body gave it ideas, and awakened its dormant powers, it could at best have been nothing more than a sort of dead capacity; for innate ideas it could not possibly have any.

At another time we hear of bodies so exceedingly fine, that their very exility makes them susceptible of sensation and knowledge ; as if they shrunk into intellect by their exquisite subtlety, which rendered them too delicate to be bodies any longer. It is to this notion we owe many curious inventions, such as subtle æther, animal spirits, nervous ducts, vibrations, and the like; terms which modern philosophy, upon parting with occult qualities, has found expedient to provide itself, to supply their place.

But the intellectual scheme, which never forgets Deity, postpones every thing corporeal to the primary mental cause. It is here it looks for the origin of intelligible ideas, even of those which exist in human capacities. For though sensible objects may be the destined medium to awaken the dormant energies of man's understanding, yet are those energies themselves no more contained in sense, than the explosion of a cannon in the spark which gave it fire. °

• The following note is taken from a acquire to ourselves philosophy, because we manuscript commentary of the Platonic pass from objects of sense to reminiscence, Olympiodorus, (quoted before, p. 224,) upon or recollection.” the Phædo of Plato ; which though perhaps And in another passage he observes : some may object to from inclining to the 'Επειδή γαρ πάμμορφον άγαλμα έστιν η doctrine of Platonic reminiscence, yet it cer- ψυχή, πάντων των όντων έχουσα λόγους, tainly gives a better account, how far the έριθιζομένη υπό των αισθητων αναμιμsenses assist in the acquisition of science, νήσκεται ών ένδον έχει λόγων, και τούτους than we can find given by vulgar philo- προβάλλεται: “ For inasmuch as the soul, Bophers.

by containing the principles of all beings, Ουδέποτε γάρ τα χείρω και δεύτερα is a sort of omniform representation or eαρχαι η αιτίαι εισί των κρειττόνων· ει emplar; when it is roused by objects of δε δει και ταις εγκυκλίους εξηγήσεσι πεί- sense, it recollects those principles, which it θεσθαι, και αρχήν είπείν την αίσθησιν contains within, and brings them forth." της επιστήμης, λέξομεν αυτήν αρχήν ουχ Georgius Gemistius, otherwise called ώς ποιητικήν, αλλ' ώς ερεθίζουσαν την Pletho, writes upon the same subject in the ημετέραν ψυχήν εις ανάμνησιν των καθό- following manner: Tην ψυχήν φασιν οι λου--κατά ταύτην δε την έννοίαν είρηται τα είδη τιθέμενοι αναλαμβάνουσαν έσγε και το έν Τιμαίω, ότι δι' όψεως και ακοής επιστήμην τους εν τοις αισθητους λόγους, το της φιλοσοφίας επoρισάμεθα γένος, ακριβέστερον αυτούς έχοντας και τελεώδιότι εκ των αισθητών εις ανάμνησιν τερον εν εαυτη ισχειν, και εν τοις αισθητούς αφικνούμεθα. “ Those things which are in- έχoυσι. Το ούν τελεώτερον τούτο και ferior and secondary, are by no means the ακριβέστερον ουκ άν από των αισθητων principles or causes of the more excellent ; ίσχειν την ψυχήν, όγε μη έστιν εν αυτοίς. and though we admit the common interpre- Ου δ' αυ μηδαμου αλλόθι ον αυτήν εξ tations, and allow sense to be a principle of αυτής διανοείσθαι· ου δε γάρ πεφυκέναι science, we must, however, call it a prin- την ψυχήν μηδαμή όν, τι διανοείσθαι τάς ciple, not as if it was the efficient cause, γάρ ψευδείς των δοξών ουχί μη όντων αλλ' but as it rouses our soul to the recollection όντων μεν, άλλων δε κατ' άλλων είναι of general ideas. According to the same συνθέσεις τινάς, ού κατά το ορθόν γινομένας. way of thinking is it said in the Timeus, Λείπεσθαι δε αφ' ετέρας τινός φύσεως that through the sight and hearing we πολλά έτι κρείττονός τε και τελεωτέρας

In short, all minds that are, are similar and congenial; and so too are their ideas, or intelligible forms. Were it otherwise, there could be no intercourse between man and man, or (what is more important) between man and God.

For what is conversation between man and man? It is a mutual intercourse of speaking and hearing. To the speaker, it is to teach ; to the hearer, it is to learn. To the speaker, it is to descend from ideas to words; to the hearer, it is to ascend from words to ideas. If the hearer, in this ascent, can arrive at no ideas, then is he said not to understand ; if he ascend to ideas dissimilar and heterogeneous, then is he said to misunderstand. What then is requisite, that he may be said to understand? That he should ascend to certain ideas, treasured up within himself, correspondent and similar to those within the speaker. The same may be said of a writer and a reader; as when any one reads to-day or to-morrow, or here or in Italy, what Euclid wrote in Greece two thousand years ago.

Now, is it not marvellous, there should be so exact an identity of our ideas, if they were only generated from sensible objects, infinite in number, ever changing, distant in time, distant in place, and no one particular the same with any other?

Again: do we allow it possible for God to signify his will to men, or for men to signify their wants to God? In both these cases there must be an identity of ideas, or else nothing is done, either one way or the other. Whence, then, do these common àphikely 7 YuxÑ TO TEREMTEPOV TOÛTO TÔV double, sesquialter, &c.) but,in a larger sense, εν τοις αισθητους λόγων. * Those who they may be extended to mathematical lines, suppose ideal forms, say that the soul, when angles, figures, &c. ; of all which abyou, or she assumes, for the purposes of science, proportions,” though we possess in the those proportions which exist in sensible mind the most clear and precise ideas, yet objects, possesses them with a superior it may be justly questioned, whether any accuracy and perfection, than that to which one of them ever existed in the sensible they attain in those sensible objects. Now world. this superior perfection or accuracy, the To these two authors we may add soul cannot have from sensible objects, as it Boethius, who, after having enumerated is, in fact, not in them ; nor yet can she many acts of the mind, or intellect, wbolly conceive it herself as from herself, without distinct from sensation, and independent of its baring existence anywhere else. For it, at length concludes, the soul is not formed so as to conceive

Hæc est efficiens magis that which has existence nowhere, since

Longe causa potentior, even such opinions as are false, are all of

Quam quæ materiæ modo them compositions irregularly formed, not

Impressas patitur notas. of mere non-beings, but of various real

Precedit tamen excitans, beings, one with another. It remains, there

Ac vires animi movens, fore, that this perfection, which is superior

Vivo in corpore passio. to the proportions existing in sensible ob

Cum vel lux oculos ferit, jects, must descend to the soul from some

Vel vox auribus instrepit ; other nature, which is by many degrees

Tum mentis vigor excitus, more excellent and perfect.” Pleth. de

Quas intus species tenet, Aristotel et Platonic. Philosoph. Diff. edit.

Ad motus simileis vocans, Paris. 1541.

Notis applicat exteris, The nóyou, or “ proportions," of which Introrsumque reconditis Gemistius here speaks, mean not only those

Formis miscet imagines. relative proportions of equality and in

De Consolat. Philosoph. 1. v. equality which exist in quantity, (such as

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