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those places are already filled; the nominative by the substance sun; the accusative by the substance earth. Not as attributes to these last, or to any other thing; for attributes by nature they neither are, nor can be made. Here then we perceive the rise and use of prepositions. By these we connect those substantives to sentences, which at the time are unable to coalesce of themselves. Let us assume, for instance, a pair of these connectives, through and with, and mark their effect upon the substances here mentioned. “ The splendid sun with his beams genially warmeth through the air the fertile earth." The sentence, as before, remains entire and one; the substantives required are both introduced; and not a word, which was there before, is detruded from its proper place.

It must here be observed, that most, if not all prepositions seem originally formed to denote the relations of place. The reason is, this is that grand relation which bodies or natural substances maintain at all times one to another, whether they are contiguous or remote, whether in motion or at rest.

It may be said, indeed, that in the continuity of place they form this universe, or visible whole, and are made as much one by that general comprehension, as is consistent with their several natures and specific distinctions. Thus it is we have prepositions to denote the contiguous relation of body, as when we say, “Caius walketh with a staff; the statue stood upon a pedestal; the river ran over a sand:” others for the detached relation, as when we say, “he is going to Italy; the sun is risen above the hills; these figs came from Turkey.” So as to motion and rest, only with this difference, that here the preposition varies its character with the verb. Thus if we say, "that lamp hangs from the ceiling,” the preposition from assumes a character of qui

But if we say, “that lamp is falling from the ceiling," the preposition in such case assumes a character of motion. So in Milton,

To support uneasy steps
Over the burning marle.

Par. Lost, i.
Here over denotes motion.

He, with looks of cordial love
Hung over her enamour'd.

Par. Lost, iv. Here over denotes rest.

But though the original use of prepositions was to denote the relations of place, they could not be confined to this office only. They, by degrees, extended themselves to subjects incorporeal, and came to denote relations, as well intellectual as local. Thus,



1 Omne corpus aut movetur aut quiescit: tremorum, in quibus fit quies. Hinc eliquare opus fuit aliqua nota, quæ td moû ciemus præpositionis essentialem definitio significaret, sive esset inter duo extrema, Scal. de Caus. Ling. Lat, c. 152. inter quæ motus fit, sive esset in altero ex


because, in place, he who is above, has commonly the advantage over him who is below, hence we transfer over and under to dominion and obedience; of a king we say, " he ruled over his people;" of a common soldier, “he served under such a general.' So, too, we say, " with thought, without attention, thinking over a subject, under anxiety, from fear, out of love, through jealousy,” &c. All which instances, with many others of like kind, shew that the first words of men, like their first ideas, had an immediate reference to sensible objects, and that in after-days, when they began to discern with their intellect, they took those words which they found already made, and transferred them by metaphor to intellectual conceptions. There is indeed no method to express new ideas, but either this of metaphor, or that of coining new words; both which have been practised by philosophers and wise men, according to the nature and exigence of the occasion.m

In the foregoing use of prepositions, we have seen how they are applied, kata zapácou," by way of juxta-position," that is to say, where they are prefixed to a word without becoming a part of it: but they may be used also, katà cúvdeoiv, “ by way of composition,” that is, they may be prefixed to a word, so as to become a real part of it." Thus in Greek we have émiotaodai, in Latin, intelligere, in English, “to understand ;" so also, to foretell, to overact, to undervalue, to outgo, &c., and in Greek and Latin, other instances innumerable. In this case, the prepositions commonly transfuse something of their own meaning into the word with which they are compounded; and this imparted meaning, in most instances, will be found ultimately resolvable into some of the relations of place, as used either in its proper or metaphorical acceptation.

m Among the words new coined we may and his scct ; the whole philosophy of such ascribe to Anaxagoras, duotouépera : to sect, together with the connections and Plato, roubtnS: to Cicero, qualitas : to dependencies of its several parts, whether Aristotle, évteléXera: to the Stoics, oùtus, logical, ethical, or physical ; he, I say, that, Kepátis, and many others. Among the without this previous preparation, attempts words transferred by metaphor from com- what I have said, will shoot in the dark; mon to special meanings, to the Platonics will be liable to perpetual blunders ; will we may ascribe idéa: to the Pythagoreans explain, and praise, and censure merely by and Peripatetics, katnyopía and kateyo chance; and though he may possibly to peiv: to the Stoics, karáinvis, útóanyes, fools appear as a wise man, will certainly Kalhkov: to the Pyrrhonists, FeOTI, è among the wise, ever pass for a fool. Such δέχεται, επέχω, &c.

a man's intellect comprehends ancient phiAnd here I cannot but observe, that he losophy, as his eye comprehends a distant who pretends to discuss the sentiments of prospect. He may see, perhaps, enough to any one of these pbilosophers, or even to know mountains from plains, and seas from cite and translate him, (except in trite woods ; but from an accurate discernment and obvious sentences,) without accurately of particulars, and their character, this, knowing the Greek tongue in general; the without further helps, it is impossible he nice differences of many words apparently should attain. synonymous ; the peculiar style of the au- n See Gaz, Gram. 1. iv. cap. de Præposit. thor whom he presumes to handle ; the • For example, let us suppose some given new coined words, and new significations space ; e and ex signify "out of that space ;" given to old words, used by such author per, “through it," from beginning to end ; and the English verb, “ to take off," seem On the contrary, in and sub diminish both to carry the same allusion. And thus and lessen. Injustus, iniquus, “ unjust, in- it is that prepositions become parts of other equitable,” that lies within justice and words. equity, that reaches not so far, that falls P See before, p. 177.

Iliad. T. 362

Lastly, there are times when prepositions totally lose their connective nature, being converted into adverbs, and used in syntax accordingly. Thus Homer:

Γέλασσε δε πάσα περί χθών.

“And earth smiled all around." But of this we have spoken in a preceding chapter. One thing we must, however, observe, before we finish this chapter, which is, that whatever we may be told of cases in modern languages, there are, in fact, no such things; but their force and power is expressed by two methods, either by situation, or by prepositions ; the nominative and accusative cases, by situation; the rest, by prepositions. But this we shall make the subject of a chapter by itself, concluding here our inquiry concerning prepositions.



As cases, or at least their various powers, depend on the knowledge, partly of nouns, partly of verbs, and partly of prepositions, they have been reserved till those parts of speech had been examined and discussed, and are for that reason made the subject of so late a chapter as the present.

There are no cases in the modern languages, except a few among the primitive pronouns, such as I and me, je and moy; and the English genitive, formed by the addition of s, as when from lion, we form lion's ; from ship, ship's. From this defect,

in, “ within it ;" sub, “ under it.” Hence, short of them ; subniger, “blackish ;" sub then, e and per, in composition, “augment;" rubicundus,“ reddish;" tending to black, enorinis

, “ something, not simply big, but and tending to red, but yet under the big in excess;" something got out of the standard, and below perfection. rule, and beyond the measure ; dico, “to Emo originally signified,“ to take away;" speak ;" edico, “ to speak out ;" whence hence it came to signify to bay, because he, edictum, “an edict,” something so effectually who buys, takes away his purchase. Inter, spoken, as all are supposed to hear, and all “between,” implies discontinuance; for in to obey. So Terence:

things continuous there can nothing lie beDico, edico vobis. Eun. v. 5, 20. tween. From these two comes interimo, which (as Donatus tells us in his Com- “to kill;” that is to say, to take a man ment) is an adtnors. Fari,“ to speak ;” ef- away in the midst of life, by making a disfari, “ to speak out.” Hence effatum, continuance of his vital energy. So also axiom,” or self-evident proposition; some perimo, “ to kill” a man ; that is to say, to thing addressed, as it were, to all men, and take him away thoroughly ; for, indeed, calling for universal assent. Cic. Acad. what more thorough taking away can well i. 29. Permagnus, perutilis, “great through- be supposed ? The Greek verb, avaipeiv, out, useful through every part."


however, we may be enabled to discover, in some instances, what a case is; the periphrasis, which supplies its place, being the case (as it were) unfolded. Thus equi is analysed into du cheval,

of the horse;" equo into au cheval,“ to the horse.” And hence we see that the genitive and dative cases imply the joint power of a noun and preposition; the genitive's preposition being a, de, or ex; the dative's preposition being ad, or versus.

We have not this assistance as to the accusative, which, in modern languages, (a few instances excepted.) is only known from its position, that is to say, by being subsequent to its verb in the collocation of the words.

The vocative we pass over, from its little use, being not only unknown to the modern languages, but often in the ancient being supplied by the nominative.

The ablative, likewise, was used by the Romans only; a case they seem to have adopted to associate with their prepositions, as they had deprived their genitive and dative of that privilege; a case certainly not necessary, because the Greeks do as well without it, and because with the Romans themselves it is frequently undistinguished.

There remains the nominative, which, whether it were a case or no, was much disputed by the ancients. The Peripatetics held it to be no case, and likened the noun, in this its primary and original form, to a perpendicular line, such, for example, as the line A B.

в с



The variations from the nominative they considered as if A B were to fall from its perpendicular; as, for example, to AC, or A D. Hence, then, they only called these variations, TTTWGELS, casus, “ cases,” or “fallings.” The Stoics, on the contrary, and the grammarians with them, made the nominative a case also : words they considered (as it were) to fall from the mind, or discursive faculty. Now when a noun fell thence in its primary form, they then called it @ois opo», casus rectus, “an erect, or upright case or falling;” such as A B, and by this name they distinguished the nominative. When it fell from the mind under any of its variations, as, for example, in the form of a genitive, a dative, or the like, such variations they called tôDELS Taylaı, casus obliqui, “oblique cases, or sidelong fallings,” (such as A C, or AD,) in opposition to the other, (that is, A B) which was erect and perpendicular. Hence, too, grammarians called the method of enumerating the various cases of a noun,

9 See Ammon. in Libr. de Interpr. p. 35.

Kriors, declinatio, "a declension;" it being a sort of progressive descent from the noun's upright form through its various declining forms; that is, a descent from A B to AC, A D, &c.

Of these cases we shall treat but of four, that is to say, the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, and the dative.

It has been said already, in the preceding chapter, that the great objects of natural union are substance and attribute. Now from this natural concord arises the logical concord of subject and predicate, and the grammatical concord of substantive and attributive." These concords in speech produce propositions and sentences, as that previous concord in nature produces natural beings. This being admitted, we proceed by observing, that when a sentence is regular and orderly, nature's substance, the logician's subject, and the grammarian's substantive, are all denoted by that case which we call the nominative. For example: Cæsar pugnat, as fingitur, domus ædificatur. We may remark, too, by the way, that the character of this nominative


be learnt from its attributive. The action implied in pugnat shews its nominative Cæsar to be an active efficient cause; the passion implied in fingitur shews its nominative as to be a passive subject, as does the passion in ædificatur prove domus to be an effect.

As therefore every attributive would, as far as possible, conform itself to its substantive, so for this reason, when it has cases, it imitates its substantive, and appears as a nominative also. So we find it in such instances as Cicero est eloquens; vitium est turpe; homo est animal, &c. When it has no cases, (as happens with verbs,) it is forced to content itself with such assimilations as it has, those of number and person ;' as when we say, Cicero lo quitur; nos loquimur; homines loquuntur.

From what has been said, we may make the following observations: that as there can be no sentence without a substantive, so that substantive, if the sentence be regular, is always denoted by a nominative; that on this occasion all the attributives, that ave cases, appear as nominatives also; that here

may regular and perfect sentence without any of the other cases, but that without one nominative, at least, this is utterly impossible. Hence, therefore, we form its character and description: the nominative is that case, without which there can be no regular and perfect sentence. We are now to search after another case.

When the attributive in any sentence is some verb denoting action, we may be assured the principal substantive is some active efficient cause ; so we may call Achilles and Lysippus in r See before, p. 193,

nominative. Of this kind are all sentences, * What sort of number and person verbs made out of those verbs called by the Stoics have, see before, p. 170, 1.

παρασυμβάματα, Or παρακατηγορήματα : We have added regular, as well as such as Σωκράτει μεταμέλει, Socrates perfect, because there may be irregular pænitet, &c. See before, p. 169, sentences, which may be perfect without a

be a

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