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Desormeaux Dictionaire de Legislation, 446 Institutiones Grammaticæ, a scarce Work -Latin translation of a tale of Prior,
Alliterative Epitaph, 671.-Ode on Pin-
Political History, Foreign and Domestic, 57,
120, 185, 246, 311, 377, 441, 499, 571,
633, 696, 760.
Popham's, Sir Home, embassy in Egypt,
125, 249, 443
as Portugal, present state of, ........ 374, 494
Pratt's reply to the Reviewer of his last vol.
of Gleanings, ...............
Prize questions of-Batavian Academy of
Sciences at Haarlem, 256.-Academy of
Scierices at Berlin, 384.-Friends of the
Another, ...................... 671
Sciences at Warsaw, 384.-Society of
Sciences at Montauban, 384.-Academy
of Sciences at Bourdeaux, 448.--The Athe-
næum at Vaucluse, 511.-Royal Society at
for renouncing his right to the throne of
Gottinjen, 512.-Utrecht Society of Arts,
701.- Amsterdam Society, 703.-Acade
my of Fine Arts at Caen, 768.--Academy
of Sciences at Grenoble, .......... 768
.. ...... ................ 512
politics, 488.-Female Boarding schools, Rivers, a picture of man, ........... 482
rowing, 621.-Reply to Cecilia, 681.- Royal Institution, notice respecting, .. 446
An English Christmas, 745.-Y. on Fe-
Society, sittings of, .. 576, 701, 763
Shipwreck, :..................... 320 256.- Encouragement of literary men, 507
to diffuse the lights of Science in the East Shakspeare and Sophocles, coincidence of
satire on Mary
........... 555). Queen of Scots, .
Us Shower of seeds which fell in Spain, .. 038
| Mineral Cabinets, office for exchange of, 62 Siberia, mines of, .....
o 500 l Smithfield Cattle Club, prizes for 1804, 707
310 Société de médécine at Paris, ......... 255
mesmerisme at Paris, ....... 256
103 Spain and Portugal, observations, ..... 499
Storck's substitute for Yeast, ....... 359
| Sunday Schools at Berlin, ...... 638
504 Timber, increase in price of, ......... 383
| Trees, on the planting of, ............
Truchsess Gallery, ................. 320
Orchestrino, a new musical Instrument, 640 Van Marum's experiments to extinguish fire
with little water, ., ................ 617
| Varnish for earthen ware from pumice stone,
ion or riatina and literary undertaking, ............... 225
Reply to D. 284.-Correction, ........ 426
Volpato, John, death of, ..
POETRY, ORIGINAL,-Prophecy of Nereus, 41. Westrumb's process for extracting brandy
-Ode written at Eaglehurst, 42.-Ad- from corn, ..................... 558
dress to Enterprise, 220.-Ode on a Wolfe's instruction to his regiment on an
rainy first of May, 478.-Epitaph on expected Invasion, ................ 379
055 vourite Village for the University, 610. I Zaccaria, Abbé, account of, ......... 104
[NUMBER 1. LITERATURE
| which he finds, from various authorities, to have been
that of the ASS, whose oracular character he derives REVIEWS OF BOOKS.
from the faculty which that apimal is known to have Observations upon some Passages in Scripture, uchich the possessed in discovering water-springs in the desert.'
Enemies to Religion have thought most obnorious, and Hence, the animal became symbolical of the God, attended with difficulties not to be surniounted. By and was accordingly made his companion : for Priapus, Jacob Bryant, 4to. pp. 256. Mawman.
being the same with Pan, and Peor, the Ass was equally * No writer of the present age hath contributed so || appropriate under each denomination, and therefore, much to overthrow an objection often raised against the reason of its being placed near the god, may be the clergy, and their defences of Revelation ; that learned from the following reference : (PRIAPETA, they proceed from interested motives ; because no Epig. 31.) lay-man hath written so much in behalf of revelation,
Priape, as our author. Exclusive of his immortal work on
Ad fontem, quæso, dic mihi qua sit iter. mythology, the main drift of which has that tendency, Thus was this animal considered in these countries we have a considerable quarto of observations before, as oracular; and for the like reason employed at besides one treatise, expressly on the evidences of chris- || Athens in the mysteries of Ceres, to bear the sacred tianity, and another in defence of the miracles of | vessels and appendages at her festival; as well as Moses. This volume, though published, as we under- || transferred to the heavens. “But it was at Pethor stand, in the author's eighty-seventh year, will in no that the idolatry was established, and a deity worshiprespect lessen his reputation.
ped TA ONOI wogon exwr," under the Ass's form. The subjects professedly discussed by him are the As now it was a rule with the God of Jacob to disfour particular histories, in the sacred writings, which play his supremacy to his people, by making all other relate to Balaam and his ass ;-Samson, who with an deities and their agents subservient to his will; he, ass's jaw-bone defeated the Philistines ;—The standing ll on this, as on other occasions, forced their represtill of the sun and moon, at the command of Joshua; ll sentatives and prophets to become the ministers of -and the swallowing up of Jonah by a whale. his commands, and to bear witness of his controlling
Upon these topics it would not be easy to collect power. Nor is there any example more striking of the sneers and ribaldry which infidelity has at various | the fact, than this history affords. If aught be times disgorged; nor has it been the object of Mr. || alleged against the meanness of the object in itself, it Bryant to collect them. On the contrary, his efforts l is sufficient to reply, that the term meapness, or any have been applied to shew their impertinence, and notion of degradation, as simply applying to the anithat their proper effect is to recoil upon their authors. | mal, exists only in our own association of ideas, and There is an old aphorism, “ understand first, and then can have no reference to the divine estimate ; but rebuke," which is appropriate in this instance, and even allowing it otherwise, it is a further proof, that we doubt not, though our readers, who are competent God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to conto decide on these discussions, should not see all Mr. Il found the wise ; and the weak things of the world to conBryant's statements in the same light with himself, I found the things that are mighty.' they will so far concur with him, as to perceive that The further researches of our author on this subject what he hath advanced is more than sufficient to are highly interesting, and though, in explaining the efface every imputation of absurdity and ridicule, Il prophecy of Balaam, he does not develope and apply its which have so abundantly been thrown on those sub-particular parts as we hoped, there is notwithstanding jects; and to be convinced that these attach only to much to admire, and for which he merits our praise ; the ignorant self-sufficiency of their authors.
whilst particular positions occur, which, we are conThe difficulties on the first subject being stated and vinced, will be strongly met with; these however do considered, Mr. Bryant sets himself to ascertain the not interfere with his primary object.. region and place of Balaam's residence, and with this The like reference to the worship of the Ass, Mr. view submits some geographical considerations the bet-|| Bryant imagines is preserved in his second topic of ter to fix them. Whether, however, he may have suc- || discussion, and the extraordinary faculty of that aniceeded in establishing his positions, will be matter of mal in its finding out water-springs. The history is little consequence as to the facts themselves, which are included in Judges xv. 14-19, and the place whence the principal objects of concern. Having stated his | Samson slaked his thirst at Lechi, not only reinained, authorities to shew that Balaam was the chief priest of || but was thence termed Maxilla Asini, or, as Glycas Midian, dwelling at Pethor in Idumea, called by the l-and others mention, Tou Gayeros Foropa Souson mwyn, Grecians Petra, where an oracular temple had been the fountain of the jaw. The elucidation of this hisfounded; and that Balak sent thither to Balaam, the tory, according to Mr. Bryant, is as follows :- When interpreter of the god Baal Peor, Mr. Bryant enters the Israelitish chief was brought from Etam by the into an inquiry concerning the worship there offered, Pbilistines at Lechi, they appear to have been celea:
brating a festival in honour of their divinity, who || Mr. Bryant, displays much ingenuity and learning, had in that place a Petra, or temple of divination, but however sanguine the author may be of his own called Maxilla dsini, where they proposed to receive success in it, we are compelled to declare that we their captive; and at whose appearance the concourse | must differ from him. raised a loud shout. Before, however, they could | The very first position of his comment states what, Jay hold on him, he burst his fetters, and finding a in the sense his words most decidedly bear, and which new, or fresh, jaw-bone of an ass, he put forth his is absolutely necessary to his hypothesis, the narrative hand and took it ; and slew a thousand men. He then does not warrant, and indeed is incompatible within his turn shouted Chomar Chomartin-with the jaw namely, that the sun and moon both stood still, and bone of an ass, heaps upon heaps : with the jaw-bone of ll appeared, over the two places mentioned. Mr. Bryant an ass have 1 slain a thousand men. From the bone ! also, to make way for his own interpretation, is oblibeing new and fresh, Mr. Bryant infers that it had | ged to treat as spurious, and discard what has ever belonged to an ass just sacrificed; and asks, how, made part of the text; but surely if such a proceedotherwise, should the head have been separated from ing be justifiable, it were better to have carried it the neck, or the jaw from the head -After the exer- || further, and instead of beginning to amputate at the tion of prowess here noticed, it is said that a vehe- || 13th verse of the xth chapter, to have commenced ment thirst came upon Sampson, and he was so far || cutting off at the 12th-then all embarrassment depressed as to fear lest he should fall into the hands would have been at an end.-But upon what authority of the Philistines. In this distress, however, he does Mr. Bryant reject the citation from Jasher? applied not to the waters of Lechi, as being a place l-because Jasher did not live till some centuries after of idolatry, and under a curse, whence the fountain the time of Joshua, and not earlier than the reign of was considered unholy; but to the God of Israel, the David. There is not however the slightest shadow only true resource, who was pleased in return to l of proof in all this. On the contrary, the presumpcleave a hollow place in the jaw, where issued for his tion, from the authority quoted, has in our juda ment, relief a miraculous overflow, which, having assuaged the very opposite tendency. See the 1st chap. of 2d his thirst, he called En-Hakkore, the fountain of inco
Il Samuel, v. 18. cation. When therefore Eusebius, Glycas, and others Mr. Bryant adds, that “ many, among whom is mention in oriceyeros the fountain of the Jaw at Lechi, Grotius, suppose very truly that there was no miraMr. Bryant thinks the reference was to a fountain, || cle, and that the sun did not stand still, nor is this the antecedent to the fact. Accordingly, it was un- || meaning of the words." Is it not strange, if so, that doubtedly recent that, as Samson had been revived by the contrary should have been hitherto understood the supernatural source from the limb which had || from the words ?—and that exclusive of the book of wrought his deliverance, styled by the seventy aan Jasher, the author of the interpolation from it Tov doÂcousty, the fountain of the God whom he || should have so understood the history ; as well as implored, and not from the polluted waters of Lechi, || Habakkuk, and the writer of Ecclesiasticus, in their he also was to be invoked, as superior to the gods of || assertions or references to it?-But these writers, it springs and rivers, and to all the demons of Canaan, 3) seems, misunderstood the passage in the sacred writer, who had suffered their votaries to be defeated within and in these last ages of the world Mr. Bryant comes the precincts of their own temple and its fountain. Il to correct them. The objections raised from the After silencing an objection taken from the question : many difficulties suggested by all attempts at solution. how could a single jaw-bone contain such a quantity || in the ordinary way appear to us nugatory. We admit of water? and tracing the further extent of the ono- l that the sun and moon-if that be required, did not, latria, or worship of the Ass, Mr. Bryant proceeds to nor could stand like two plates of metal in the sky, the jorcs and fire-brandi, under which head he cites over Gibeon and Ajalon; nor does the history say so, instances which shew the prevalence of the practice. though Mr. Bryant hath taken it for granted ; but Thus, Ovid, in allusion to it, mentions that foxes that the sun stood still in the MIDST OF HEAVEN, and tire-brands were annually exhibited at Rome in ll and hasted not to go down about a whole day. Yet, the Circus :
says Mr. Bryant, this is the account of Jasher, and Cur igitur missæ vinctis ardentia tædis
not of Joshua. True: but both Jasher and Joshua Terga ferant Vulpes, causa docenda mihi.
agree ; for, admitting Mr. Bryant's position that the and that much mischief was done by a fox thus
expression of Joshua should be rendered - Sun, be
Tuou silent,' the correspondent expression in the accoutered :
book of Jasher being conformably rendered (so the Quâ fugit incendit vestitos messibus agros,
sun was silent in the midst of heaven,] the subseDamnosis vires ignibus aura dabat.
quent explanation explains what that silence meant; The third part of these discussions, comprizing the land hASTED NOT TO GO DOWN about a whole day. author's remarks on the standing still of the sun in | Now if we admit with Mr. Bryant' that Jasher, or Gibeon, presents a comment on the history preceding | the author of that book, did not live till a thousand the phenomenon, the opinions of different writers | years after Joshua, it must follow, if Mr. Bryant's concerning it, various expositions of the passage, and rendering be just, from the author's own gloss, that he his own attempt to maintain what he conceives to be l was ignorant of Hebrew, and that by his explanation its true purport, in support of which he adds some l it is now made evident he did not understand his own geographical observations.
language. This dissertation, like every thing from the pen of Mr. Bryant however maintains that the invocation
of the Israelitish chief had respect not to the sun and || A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the moon, but to the rites appertaining to the worship of South Sea, or Pacific Ocean. Part I. By James these luminaries in the two places mentioned, and Burney, Captain of the Royal Navy. 4to. Payne. accordingly, seeks by etymologies to establish in them | The volume now published by Captain Burney is the existence of such oracular temples. Allowing
intended as a contribution towards a digest of marihowever those temples to exist, the controlling the time geographical discovery: and he has chosen for immediate objects of worship in their courses was the ll his subject the Discoveries made in the South Sea, to best possible proof of the superior power of Jehovah. l which his attention has been principally directed, If the sun's progress were impeded in the midst of
from having sailed with that great discoverer and exheaven for a day, its light must have remained fixed || cellent navigator, the late Captain Cook, under whose upon Gibeon, and the moon's have been prevented ll command he served as lieutenant in his last two from appearing in Ajalon which is in perfect agree
voyages. meat with the Hebrew ; for, literally rendered, they | The work is divided into twenty chapters. The are : Sun, stand thou still, (or, be thou silent) in, or, | first, which is introductory, contains a brief accounc on Gibeon! And thou moon (RISE NOT) on the valley ll of the discoveries of Columbus. Cabot. Corte Real. of Ajalon! The ellipsis after the address to the moon || Americus Vespucius, Juan de Solis, and Basco Nunis here supplied by rise not, that being the expression
nez, the first European who saw the South sea, the understood, as is evident from what follows, “ and discovery of which immediately provoked, or rather the moon 799 was at a stay. See Levit. xiii. 5, 37. I gave a new stimulus to an eager desire of finding a necessarily evinces this to be the sense. It is scarcely passage to it from the Atlantic ocean. In the year requisite to observe, that Mr. Bryant's difficulty taken || 1415, the King of Spain ordered Juan de Solis to from the flight of the Canaanites being southward
attempt a passage into the South sea, and to the Mofrom Gibeon, makes no difficulty but on his own as
lucca islands : but in Rio de la Plata, Solis quarrelled sumption. The sun being in the midst of heaven
with the natives, and was killed, whereupon the ships when addressed by Joshua, and being there stopped
returned to Spain. Soon after, when the Spaniards in his course, his full effulgence must during that stay
bad begun to inake settlements on the south coast of have been poured northward on Gibeon.
the Isthmus of Darien, they attempted to sail from We hasten to the observations on the article of ll thence to the Moluccas : but their vessels, being built Jonah, from which we have derived the highest satis of timber which was rendered useless by the worm faction. These contain an account of the time and
in one month, were incapable of performing such a place of Jonah's birth and history, particularly of his
voyage. apostacy and flight, which is followed by researches
The second and third chapters contain the voyage concerning the principal deities of the Philistines, of Fernando de Magalhanes, a disgusted Portuguese in and especially the Cetus and Dove, as applicable
| the service of Spain, to whoin was reserved the hoto the history in question, with inferences thence nour of conducting the first European vessels into the deduced. Having shewn that the prophet was ac
South sea; an account of the Patagonians, people quainted with cities in which this worship prevail
above seven feet high, with a specimen of their laned, the consequences which ensued from the flight
guage, and the treacherous seizure of two of them; of Jonah, and his restoration from the deep are dis- | the passage through the Straits, since known by the tinctly stated, and evidence of a very peculiar nature
name of Magalhanes, (corrupted by us to Magellan); is applied in confirmation of the history. In par his passage across the great ocean, to which, from the ticular, the fact is recorded by P. Mela, that the large long continuance of mild and temperate weather, he bones of a sea animal were preserved at Joppa, and gave the name of Pacific; the arrival at the islands of held in religious reverence. These, which, as Pliny the Ladrones, where they first saw the fast-sailing relates, were at length carried to Rome, became there
boats, which go with either end foremost; their arobjects of public exhibition. Mr. Bryant assigns his rival at Zebu, an island, wherein the business ot. reason for believing these were the spine of the very
trade was well understood, the natives were fair Cetus to which the history of Jonah refers. What is l dealers, they used scales and weights, and in this porf adduced on this subject, and what follows is especially there were junks from Siam, and vessels from various entitled to attention.
parts of India.' The king of Zebu allowed MagalWe should be happy if our limits would have ad
hanes to erect a chapel, wherein he had mass celemitted us to have entered more at large into the sub- || brated. The king and the chief people of the island, ject, but we must refer for satisfaction to the work
who attended to see the ceremony, and behaved with itself. To Mr. Bryant we render our thanks for the
great decorum, are said to have desired to be made abundant pleasure and instruction we have derived | Christians. That they could have no knowledge of from bis work which, notwithstanding the dissent
the religion, to which the Spaniards pretended to conwe have expressed in one instance, (and which vert them is pretty evident, nor indeed is it probable we might have stated in another, respecting the that they supposed the ceremonies they witnessed, or passage in Deuteronomy proposed to be rejected, in those they underwent, any way connected with relireference to the history of Balaam) we earnestly re
Il gion. Indeed, it is acknowledged, that the most efcoinmend as highly interesting, and one of his most || fectual argument for the conversion of the king was curious and best written books,
an assurance, that by being baptized, he should acquire the power of vanquishing his enemies with ease. Be that as it may, Magalhanes, now elated with the neral, and the information he had previously received, it prospect of acquiring the fame, not only of a great || would not have entered into their imaginations to examine discoverer, but also of a great apostle, and enlarger of
ll the opening before them, could be no other than a thoughtthe Spanish empire, became indefatigable in the work
less mode of expression. Their object was to seek a of conversion. "He made his convert Carlos, the king
Il passage, and very superficially must they have gone to
work, if, on finding such an opening, they had passed it of Zebu, profess himself the vassal of Carlos, the ||
| without examination. emperor and king of Spain. He actually proceeded
• In Herrera's History of the Indies, there are sentences to order the other princes to acknowledge the Chris
of a similar tendency, which he seems to have taken, tian king (so he is called) for their sovereign. But with some allowance, from Pigafetta, or from the same the chief of a small island, called Matan, in return to || source of information. Herrera says, that Christopher bis demand of obedience to the emperor, and submis Columbus was confirmed in his opinion of a western navision to the Christian king, answered, 'that he desired
gation, by Martin de Bohemia, his friend; and that Mato be on good terms with the Spaniards, and, that he galhanes went more assured of finding a Strait, because might not be accounted inhospitable, he sent them a
he had seen a chart made by M. de Bohemia, from which
he obtained much light. In another passage, he relates, present of provisions. As to obedience, he could owe
that Magalhanes, at the court of Spain, produced a globe, none to strangers, of whom he had never before heard,
finely painted, on which was clearly delineated all the earth, neither would he submit to do reverence to those he
and on it was likewise marked the track he intended to had long been accustomed to command.' Magalhanes, pursue; but that the Strait was purposely left a blank. in the ardour of zeal and indignation, determined to If any mention of such a chart could be traced to a enforce obedience to his commands; and neither the date prior to the voyage of Magalhanes, it would be endissuasions of uis Christian king, nor the remon
titled to some degree of credit : but the assertions above strances of his own officers, could prevail with him
cited, being written posterior to his discovery, they require to abstain from invading the island. Confident in the
the support of strong evidence, such as the production of
the chart in question, with satisfactory proof to establish superiority of European arms and valour, he ordered
the fact of a date early enough to anticipate the claim of his vassal king, who attended him with a thousand of
Magalhanes. When such evidence shall be produced, it his subjects, to remain with his canoes, and quietly will be time to enter seriously into the inquiry; but, till then, behold his victory, while he undertook with sixty ll it would be injustice to the memory of a great enterprise. . Spaniards to conquer the island. But the king of Not with the honours of Magalhanes only, has Martin Matan, an experienced warrior, out-generalled him, || Behaim, (for that is his right name) been invested. Co-. and his own life was the forfeit of his presumption. Il lumbus has been equally stripped, and Behaim decorated Thus perished, in the midst of a career, which, if un
with the title of discoverer of America. Unfortunately stained by the madness and impiety of extending the
for these claims, pretensions have been advanced in favour
of other competitors. bounds of religion and imaginary empire by force of
• It would be extraordinary indeed, if enterprises, so cal. arms, would have been truly honourable, the first
culated to excite curiosity, should, without any apparent commander who undertook the circumnavigation of reason, be kept profoundly secret: and yet more, that the the globe.
reputation of such discoveries should be, by general consent In a few days after the repulse at Matan, the of the European world, assigned to other men, and remain Christian king, seeing that the Spaniards were not to them undisputed, during the life-time of the real disinvincible, formed a plan to kill them all, in order to coverer. regain the friendship of his neighbours; and he ac • Martin Behaim, who was a native of Nuremburg, tually got a considerable number of them inveigled on
made there in 1492 (the same year in which Columbus
sailed on his great voyage of discovery), a terrestrial globe. shore, who were all put to death. Other accounts,
A description and representation of this globe has been however, ascribe the death of the Spaniards to the
published. On it there appears no American continent, or vengeance of the natives for insults offered to their
land to obstruct a navigation westward to China. After women.
the discovery of America, there is reason to believe, that After these accumulated disasters, the remaining Behaim new modelled his geography; and it is not improSpaniards sailed from Zebu. They got involved in || bable, that both Columbus and Magalhanes might have another war at Borneo, and at length arrived at the been preceded in their ideas of a western navigation, by Moluccas, the great object of their voyage, where
M. Behaim, and M. Behaim by many others, though perhaps they got full cargoes of spices for their two ships,
not with ideas so enlightened and correct on the subject; which were all that now remained of the original six;
but the claims advanced are for priority of achievement,
not of idea. Thus much it has been thought necessary to and of these two, only the Vitoria, a vessel of 90 tons,
remark, as doubts concerning the priority of the discovery returned to Spain in September 1522.
have been countenanced by persons whose opinions are In Pigafetta's narrative is the following remarkable entitled to respect.'*_(p. 45.) passage, which has been, and possibly may continue to be, | The advantages, obtained to geography by the voyage a source of much wild conjecture :' “ When the entrance of Fernando de Magalhanes, are to be regarded as very imnear Cape Virgines was first discovered, every one was so portant: he discovered the limits of the continent of fully persuaded that this Strait had no outlet to the West,
America towards the south, and the communication of the that it would not have entered into their imaginations to
* The reader, who wishes to examine the arguments in favour of have examined it, without the great knowledge and expe- || a priority of discovery by Martin Behaim (or Behem) may consult rience of the Captain General, who knew that he musta Memoir on the Discovery of America,) in the Transactions of make his passage through a Strait much concealed, as was the American Philosophical Society, Vol. ii. p. 363) by Mr. Otto, seen in the treasury of the king of Portugal, in a chart
who quotes, among other vouchers, Behem's own letter, dated in made by that most excellent inan, Martin de Boemia."
1486, preserved in the archives of Nuremburg.-If such a letter
really exists, and if the date is gemarine, it ought not to lie hid in • To say that without the experience of the Captain Ge- the archives of Nuremburg.