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SAADI. See SADI.

SAADIAS-GAON, or Saadias the Excellent, a learned rabbi, the chief of the academy of the Jews, was born at Pithom in Egypt, about the year 892. In the year 927, he was invited by David Ben-Chair, the prince of the captivity, to preside over the academy at Sora, near Babylon, where one of his first objects was to explode the doctrine of the transmigration of souls, which was very prevalent, even among the Jews. But having refused to subscribe to a new regulation, which appeared to him to be repugnant to the Jewish laws, a breach arose between David and Saadias, which after some years was made up, and Saadias was restored to his professorship, in which he continued with great reputation till his death, in the year 942. His principal works are, “ Sepher Haemunah," or a trea. tise concerning the Jewish articles of faith, in ten chap, ters; but we have only a translation of it from the original Arabic into Hebrew, which was printed at Constantinople in 1647, and often reprinted. “A Commentary on the Book Jezira," printed, with other Commentaries on that book, at Mantua, in 1592; “An Arabic translation of the whole Old Testament,” of which the Pentateuch is inserted in Jay's and Walton's Polyglotts, accompanied with the Latin version of Gabriel Sionita; “A Commentary on the Song of Songs,” in Hebrew, printed at Prague in 1609, 4to; “A Commentary on Daniel,” likewise in Hebrew, inserted in the great rabbinical bibles of Venice and Basil; "A Commentary on Job,” in Arabic, the MS. of which is in the Bodleian library at Oxford; and a commentary on illicit alliances, mentioned by Aben Efra.

SAAVEDRA. See CERVANTES.

SAAVEDRA-FAXARDO (Diego DE), a Spanish political and moral writer, was born May 6, 1584, at Algezares, in the kingdom of Murcia, and studied at Salamanca. In 1606, he went to Roine as secretary to the cardinal Gaspar de Borgia, who was appointed Spanish ambassador to the pope, and assisted in the conclaves of 1621 and 1623, held for the election of the popes Gregory XV. and Urban VIIL For theşe services Saavedra was rewarded with a canonry in the church of St. James, although he had never taken priest's orders. Some time after he was appointed agent from the court of Spain at Rome, and his

- Moreri.-Simon Crit. Hist.

conduct in this office acquired him general esteem. In 1636, he assisted at the electoral congress held there, in wbich Ferdinand III. was chosen king of the Romans. He afterwards was present at eight diets held in Swisserland, and lastly at the general diet of the empire at Ratisbonne, where he appeared in quality of plenipotentiary of the circle and of the house of Burgundy. After being employed in some other diplomatic affairs, he returned to Madrid in 1646, and was appointed master of ceramonies in the introduction of ainbassadors; but he did not enjoy this honour long, as he died Aug. 24, 1648. In his public character he rendered the state very important services, and, as a writer, is ranked among those who have contributed to polish and enrich the Spanish language. The Spanish critics, who place bim among their classics, say he wrote Spanish as Tacitus wrote Latin. He has long been known, even in this country, by his “ Emblems," which were published in 2 vols. 8vo, in the early part of the last century. These politico-moral instructions for a Christian prince, were first printed in 1640, 4to, under the title of « Idea de un Principe Politico Christiano representada en cien empresas," and reprinted at Milan in 1642; they were afterwards translated into Latin, and published under the title of “ Symbola Christiano-Politica," and have often been reprinted in various sizes in France, Italy, and Holland. He wrote also “ Corona Gotica, Castellana, y Austriaca politicamente illustrada," 1646, 4to, which was to have consisted of three parts, but he lived to complete one only ; the rest was by Nunez de Castro; and « Respublica Literaria," published in 1670, Svo. Of this work an English translation was published by I. E. in 1727. It is a kind of vision, giving a satirical account of the republic of letters, not unlike the manner of Swift. Tue French have a translation of it, so late as 1770."

SABATIER (PETER), a learned French Benedictine, was born at Poictiers in 1682, and died at Rheims March 24, 1742. He spent twenty years of his life in preparing for the press a valuable edition of all the Latin versions of the Scriptures, collected together, and united in one point of view. It consists of three volumes, folio; but he lived only to print one volume; the others were completed by La Rue,, also a Benedictine of St. Maur. The title is

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“ Bibliorum Sacrorum Latinæ Versiones antiquæ seu Vetus ltalica, et ceteræ quæcumque in codicibus MSS. et antiquorum libris reperiri potuerunt," Rheims, 17431749.'

SABATIER (RAPHAEL - BIENVENU), a very eminent French surgeon, was born at Paris in October 1732, and after studying there, acquired the first rank in his professio:, and in every situation which he filled, his knowledge, skill, and success, were equally conspicuous. He became censor-royal of the academy of sciences, professor and demonstrator of the surgical schools, secretary of correspondence, surgeon-major of the hospital of invalids, and a member of the institute. His education had been more liberal and comprehensive than usual. He not only was an excellent Greek and Latin scholar, but was well acquainted with the English, Italian, and German languages. Besides his public courses of lectures on anatomy and surgery, he instructed many private pupils, not only of his own country, but those of foreign nations who were attracted to Paris by bis fame as a teacher, and were delighted with his unaffected politeness and candour. In bis latter days Bonaparte appointed him one of his consulting surgeons, and be was one of the first on wbom he bestowed the cross of the legion of honour. Sabatier died at Paris July 21, 1811. He retained his faculties to the last, but we are told became ashamed of his bodily weakness. “Hide me,” he said to his wife and son, “ from the world, that you may be the only witnesses of this decay to which I must submit." A little before his death he said to his son, “ Contemplate the state into which I am fallen, and learn to die." His humane attention to his patients was a distinguished feature in his character. During any painful operation be used to say, “Weep! weep! the more you express a sense of your sufferings, the more anxious I shall be to shorten them.”

His works are, 1. “Theses anatomico-chirurgicæ," 1748, 4to. 2. “ De variis cataractam extrahendi modis," 1759, 4to. 3. An edition of Verdier's “ Abregé d'Anatomie," with additions, 1768, 2 vols. 12mo. 4. An edition of La Motte's “ Traité complet de Chirurgie,” which was followed by his own, 5. " Traité complet d'Anatomie," 1775. Of this a third edition, with many improvements, appeared

1 Dict. Hist.-Saxii Onomast. vol. VIII.

in 1791, 3 vols. 8vo. 6. « De la Medicine expectative,” 1796, 3 vols. 8vo. 7. “ De Ja Medicine operatoire, ou Des Operations de Chirurgie qui se pratiquent le plus frequemment," 1796, 3 vols. 8vo. Besides these he contributed many essays to the medical journals. .

SABBATHIER (FRANCIS), a learned French writer, was born at Condom, Oct. 31, 1735, and after making great proficiency in his studies among the fathers of the oratory in that city, went to Orleans, where he was employed as a private tutor. In 1762, he was invited to the college of Chalons-sur-Marne, where he taught the third and fourth classes for sisteen years, which gave him a title to the pension of an emeritus. His literary reputation took its rise principally from his essay on the temporal power of the popes, which gained the prize of the academy of Prussia. He was then about twenty-eight years old; but had before this addressed a curious paper on the limits of the empire of Charlemagne to the academy of Belles Lettres at Paris. He was the principal means of founding the academy of Chalovs, procured a charter for it, and acted as secre tary for thirty years. Such was his reputation that he had the honour to correspond with some of the royal perso. nages of Europe, and was in particular much esteemed by the kings of Prussia and Sweden ; nor was he less in favour with Choiseul, the French minister, who encouraged his taste for study. It does not appear, however, that his . riches increased with his reputation, and this occasioned bis projecting a paper-manufactory in Holland, which ended like some of the schemes of ingenious men ; Sabbathier was ruined, and his successors made a fortune. He died in a village near Chalon, March 11, 1807, in his seventysecond year. "

He published, 1. “Essai bistorique-critique sur l'origine de la puissance temporelle des Papes," Chalous, 1764, 12mo, reprinted the following year. 2. “ Le Manuel des Enfans,” ibid. 1769, 12mo, a collection of maxims from Plutarch's lives. 3. “ Recueil de Dissertations sur divers sujets de l'histoire de France,” ibid. 1778, 12mo. 4. “Les Meurs, coutumes et usages des anciens peuples, pour servir a l'education de la jeunesse,” ibid. 1770, 3 vols. 12mo. Of this entertaining work, a translation was pub. lished in 1775, 2 vols. Svo, by the late Rey. Percival

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Stockdale. 5. “ Dictionnaire pour l'intelligencedes auteurs classiques Grecs et Latins, tant sacrés que profanes, contenant la geographie, l'histoire, la fable, et les antiquités,” ibid. 1766—1790, 36 vols. 8vo, and 2 volumes of plates. Voluminous as this work is, the troubles which followed the revolution obliged the author to leave it incomplete ; but the manuscript of the concluding volumes is said to be in a state for publication. It is an elaborate collection, very useful for consultation, but not always correct, and contains many articles which increase the bulk rather than the value. A judicious selection, it is thought, would supersede any publication of the kind in France.'

SABBATINI (ANDREA), known likewise by the name of Andrea da Salerno, is the first artist that deserves no. tice, of the Neapolitan school. He is supposed to have been born about 1480. Enamoured of the style of Pietro Perugino, who bad painted an Assumption of the Virgin in the dome of Naples, he set out for Perugia to become þis pupil; but hearing at an inn on the road some painters extol the works of Raphael in the Vatican, he altered bis mind, went to Rome, and entered that master's school. His stay there was short, for the death of his father obliged him to return bome against his will in 1513; he returned, however, a new man. It is said that he painted with Raphael at the Pace, and in the Vatican, and that he copied his pictures well: he certainly emulated his manner with success. Compared with his fellow-scholars, if he falls short of Julio, he soars above Raphael del Colle and the rest of that sphere. He had correctness and selection of attitude and features, depth of sbade, perhaps too much sharpness in the marking of the muscles, a broad style of folding in his draperies, and a colour which even now maintains its freshness. Of his numerous works at Naples mentioned in the catalogue of his pictures, the altarpieces at $. Maria delle Grazie deserve perhaps preference; for his frescoes there and elsewhere, extolled by the writers as miracles of art, are now, the greater part, destroyed. He painted likewise at Salervo, Gaeta, and other places of the kingdom, for churches and private collections, where his Madonnas often rival those of Raphael. This distinguished artist died in 1545.

| Dict. Hist. Supplement.

3 Pilkington by Fuseli.

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