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For liberty and home, that I may see,
And stretch myself, and die upon that grave.

He was

5. Androcles, the slave of a noble Roman, who was proconsul of Africa, having filed into the deserts to escape punishment for some offence, went into a cave, in which he had scarcely seated himself, when a huge lion entered, and, coming up to him, laid its paw upon his lap. When he had recovered from his fright, he pulled out a large thorn, which he observed had caused the lion's foot to swell; upon which the grateful animal went away, and soon after returned with a fawn, which it had just killed. For many days he was supported in the same manner; till, tired of this savage society, he determined to give himself up to his master. condemned to fight with wild beasts in the amphitheatre at Rome. When the day at last arrived, and every thing was ready, a monstrous lion sprung from its den; but it no sooner saw Androcles, than it fell to the ground, and began to lick his feet. It was his friend of the African deserts; and the spectators having heard the story, interceded for the slave, who was immediately set at liberty, and received the lion as a present. He used to lead it through the streets of Rome, the people saying to one another, as they passed, “ This is the lion, who was the man's host; this is the man, who was the lion's physician.”

6. Then Commerce brought into the public walk

The busy merchant; the big warehouse built ;
Raised the strong crane; choked up the loaded street
With foreign plenty ; and thy stream, 0 Thames,
Large, gentle, deep, majestic, king of floods !
Chose for his grand resort. On either hand,
Like a long wintry forest, groves of masts
Shot up their spires ; the swelling sheet between
Possess'd the breezy void ; the sooty hulk
Steer'd sluggish on; the splendid barge along
Row'd regular, to harmony ; around,
The boat, light-skimming, stretch'd its oary wings;
While deep, the various voice of fervent toil
From bank to bank increased; whence, ribb’d with oak,
To bear the British thunder, black and bold,
The roaring vessel rush'd into the main.


EXPRESSION OF IDEAS (continued). Let the Pupil write from the following hints, expressing the ideas in sentences of his own construction and arrangement:


The Rein-deer; in what countries found; importance to the inhabitants ; what animals it supplies the place of; in what respects ; what got from it ; what trained to draw ; mode of travelling.

The rein-deer is a native of the icy regions of the north, where, by a wise and bountiful arrangement of Providence, it exists for the support and comfort of a race of men, who would find it impossible to subsist among their frozen lakes and snowy mountains, without the advantages which they derive from this inestimable animal. To the Laplanders, the horse, the cow, and the sheep, are unknown; but the rein-deer supplies the place of them all. It supplies the place of the horse, in carrying them over tracks that would otherwise be impassable ; that of the cow, in affording them milk ; and that of the sheep, in clothing them. Its flesh affords excellent food; its very sinews supply them with thread; and there is scarcely any part of the animal that is not, in some way, condu. cive to their comfortable existence. The rein_deer are, at an early age, taught to draw the sledge, which is an extremely light sort of carriage, that can be used only in winter, when the ground is covered with snow.

The person who sits in it, guides the animal with a cord fastened to its horns, and drives it with a goad. The Laplander will in this manner travel about thirty miles a-day, without forcing the rein-deer to make any extraordinary effort.


1. The Camel; where found; the varieties of this animal found in some countries ; description of countries in which found; what got from it; what its special use; how adapted for travelling; its docility; anecdotes of the camel.

2. The Cotton-plant; where cultivated; how raised; what it yields ; how produce gathered; how prepared; cotton-manufactures; where carried to greatest perfection ; by what means ; improvers of cotton-manufactures ; influence upon comfort, habits, and civilisation of mankind.

3. Fable of the Boy and the Butterfly ; why he pursued it; where and how he tried to seize it ; where at last he caught it; what the butterfly an emblem of; moral of the fable.

4. Regulus; by whom taken prisoner; for what purpose sent to Rome; what advice gave to the Romans; why he gave this advice; what he had pledged himself to do ; what he did in consequence of this pledge; what he suffered ; of what virtue an extraordinary example.

5. Who are our neighbours ; in a literal sense ; in the Scriptural sense; who taught us this; in what parable; what gave rise to it; the circumstances of the parable; the practical lessons which it teaches.

6. A Waterfall; the surrounding country ; the approach; the stream above; the banks; the precipice; the fall; the noise ; the foam ; the mist; the pool beneath; the course ; a comparison ; a quotation.


EXPRESSION OF IDEAS (continued). Let the Pupil write from memory the substance of the lessons read in the class, expressing the ideas in sentences of his own construction and arrangement.*


EXPRESSION OF IDEAS (continued). Let the Pupil write from memory the substance of what has been told or read by the Teacher, or of lectures or sermons which he may have heard, expressing the ideas in sentences of his own construction and arrangement.

* The exercises under this and the following Section are necessarily left to the Teacher.

+ The Teacher will find it of great use, in teaching his Pupils fluency of expression, to make them do orally what they are required to do in writing in the two preceding sections.



STYLE is the peculiar manner in which ideas are expressed in language.

The most important quality in a good style is perspicuity.

Perspicuity of style depends upon the choice of words and phrases, and the structure of sentences.

Perspicuity in the use of words and phrases, requires purity, propriety, and precision.

Perspicuity in the structure of sentences, requires clearness, unity, strength, and harmony.



Purity of style consists in the use of such words and constructions as belong to the idiom of the language, and are sanctioned by the use of the best authors.

To attain purity of style, avoid—I. Grammatical errors ;-II. Foreign, obsolete, and new-coined words and phrases.


I. Correct the grammatical errors in the following sentences :

1. A variety of pleasing objects charm the eye.

2. If the privileges to which he has an undoubted right, and has so long enjoyed, should now be wrested from him, would be flagrant injustice.

3. The religion of these people, as well as their customs and manners, were strangely misrepresented.

4. Whether one person or more was concerned in the business, does not yet appear.

5. The mind of man cannot be long without some food to nourish the activity of his thoughts.

6. They ought to have contributed the same proportion as us, yet we gave a third more than them.

7. Who should I meet the other evening but my old friend.

8. Those sort of favours do real injury under the appearance of kindness.

9. I saw one or more persons enter the garden.

10. Every person, whatever be their station, is bound by the duties of morality and religion.

11. The conspiracy was the easier discovered from its being known to many.

12. The pleasures of the understanding are more preferable than those of the senses.

13. Virtue confers the supremest dignity on man, and should be his chiefest desire.

14. Eve was the fairest of all her daughters.

15. I cannot tell who has befriended me, unless it is him from whom I have received so many favours.

16. The confession is ingenuous, and I hope more from thee now, than I could if you had promised.

17. Each of these words imply some pursuit or object relinquished.

18. No nation gives greater encouragement to learning than we do; yet, at the same time, none are so injudicious in the application.

19. I should be obliged to him, if he will gratify me in that particular.

20. We have done no more than it was our duty to have done. 21. The not attending to this rule is the cause of a very com

mon error.

22. His vices have weakened his mind, and broke his health.

23. They could not persuade him, though they were never so eloquent.

24. We need not, nor do not, limit the divine purposes. 25. The greatest difficulty was found of fixing just sentiments. 26. The error was occasioned by compliance to earnest entreaty. 27. You know the esteem I have of his philosophy. 28. He is resolved of going abroad.

29. Neither the one nor the other shall make me swerve out of the path, which I have traced to myself.

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