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the Pacific Ocean, would pass though the Sandwich Islands; twenty-five degrees, through Northern Florida, near New Orleans, through Texas, and Northern Mexico, cutting the Gulf of California on its' northern part; thirty-five degrees, through south-eastern North Carolina, the extreme northern part of South Carolina, forming the northern boundary of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, through Arkansas, Indian Territory, New Mexico, Arizonia, and Southern Cal. ifornia; forty degrees, through the middle of New Jersey, Southern Pennsylvania, and near the cities of Philadelphia, Columbus, Indianapolis, and Spring. field, Ill., through Northern Missouri, forming the boundary line between Kansas and Nebraska, through Northern Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and Northern California; forty-five degrees, through the middle of Maine, the extreme northern part of New Hampshire, forming the north boundary line of Vermont, and North-eastern New York, through Canada West, Lake Huron, Michigan, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Near St. Paul's, Dakota, Idaho, and Northern Oregon; sixty degrees, through Cape Farewell, the southern point of Greenland, Hudson's Bay, the middle of British America, and Southern Russian America.
With the longitude of the guide points above mentioned already in the mind, it will not be necessary to learn the course of many of the meridians. But we can now group together, for the purpose of association, places whose latitude or longitude is the same, or nearly the same. There will, of course, be an advantage in such groups in taking one or more of the guide points whose position is already known, when it can be done. They should be places whose importance or prominence renders them worthy of having their position retained in the mind, as a part of the pupil's permanent stock of geographical knowledge.
Among the places of the same or similar latitude, are: Washington and St. Louis; Boston, Albany, Detroit, Lansing, and Chicago, (nearly); Augusta, Me., the White Mountains, and Montpelier, Vt.; Concord, N. H.; Toronto and Milwaukee; San Francisco, and Richmond, Va.; Hartford, Ct., and Cleveland. Places of similar longitude: New Orleans and St. Louis ; Havana and Detroit; Milwaukee and Mobile; Charleston and Pittsburg; Cleveland and Savannah; Philadelphia and Eastern Cuba; and Boston and the middle of St. Domingo, or Hayti.
The difference in the latitude or longitude of the places thus grouped, is in no instance great, and would not, in any case, amount to more than a few miles. Where points cannot be taken on precisely the same parallel or meridian, similarity of position is sufficient for all practical purposes. The number of places selected should not be large, no larger than the above; and it should not be understood that the latitude and longitude of all those places must be committed to memory; for those not already included among the guide points are so situated with reference to those points, that their position can be readily inferred from them. The same is true of intermediate places whose situation it is desirable to retain in the memory.
By a similar system of grouping, the relative position of places on the two continents, and the grand divisions of the globe, may be learned and remembered. Thus: Washington corresponds very nearly in latitude with Lisbon ; New Orleans with Cairo in Egypt; Richmond, with Athens; New York, with Madrid and Pekin, China; Providence, R. I., with Rome ; Newfoundland, with Paris; London with the Straits of Belle Isle and Southern Labrador; and the parallel of sixty degrees, spoken of above as passing near Cape Farewell, if extended to the other continent, would pass very near three European capi. tals-Christiana, Stockholm, and Saint Petersburg. The parallel of the middle of Cuba passes through the Great Desert of Africa, the Red Sea, and near Calcutta; Rio Janerio corresponds with the southern part of Madagascar, and the middle of Australia ; and the meridian of seventy degrees west passes near the capital of Maine, through the Island of Hayti, and the western part of South America, riding, as it were, the Andes mountains for several hundred miles between Chili and La Plata.
The reader will please remember that we have selected these places princi. pally for the purpose of illustration. The teacher's judgment must decide what particular places, and how many of them, are to be used in practice.
We have great confidence that the hints here suggested will accomplish something for the learner, if judiciously carried out. One thing, however, is absolutely necessary for their success; Too much must not be attempted. And in closing this article we can do the teacher no greater favor than to observe, that the same remark applies, with great emphasis, to all that is done, or attempted to be done, in teaching the much abused science of Geography.-Mass. Teacher.
14. I am composed of 24 letters:
HISTORY AND POLITICAL EDUCATION. The Proceedings of the State Association held at Milton, show that much prominence was given in the Papers and Discussions to the subjects above named. This is well. Although savoring somewhat of the plan of lockiag the stable after the horse is stolen, for us to begin now to urge seriously the importance of teaching our youth lessons of patriotism, their rights and duties as citizens, and the structure of the general and local governments under which they live, it is the way to prevent the stealing of a second horse-future disaffection, corruption and rebellion.
Not to repeat remarks made last month, upon the subject of National Education, we may advert briefly to some of the points brought out at different times, in the discussions following the Papers read by Messrs. Seaman, Maxon, Searing and Hobart. (See Proceedings.) The Papers themselves we hope to publish in future numbers.
Mr. Pickard of Chicago, said that a more careful inculcation of a principle and habit of obedience, in the family and school, would tend to lay the foundation of good citizenship; that teachers themselves were sometimes recreant and dishonest in submission to rules, and if so, could not expect pupils to be otherwise.
Mr. Pradt said there was much ignorance among too many teachers them. selves at present, in regard to government, and so they could not teach its nature or structure. He mentioned an examination of teachers at which he happened to be present some months ago, where only one out of twelve or fifteen could give a tolerable account of the process by which the President of the United States is elected, though quite respectably intelligent in the other and usual parts of the examination. Public educational sentiment and law should require teachers to be informed and examined in the elements of political science.
Mr. McMynn, after dwelling forcibly upon the importance of the lessons of history, and politics considered as the science of government and as distinguished from “politics” in the vulgar and partizan sense of the term, said those matters could and should be taught in common schools; not by the formal organization of classes and the use of books, but orally and as a general exercise. He had found this to be practicable in his own experience.
Mr. North somewhat pathetically urged the multitude of subjects and duties already requiring the teacher's attention, and while admitting the importance of the subjects under consideration, asked how the teacher, even if competent to give instruction in them, could find time and opportunity for these studies, in addition to the elementary branches which must be taught.
Messrs. Purdy and Richards also adverted to the difficulty of introducing these subjects into common schools, although of great importance.
Messrs. Botsford (of Detroit) and Maxon, explained how they had success"fully taught history to their pupils in oral lessons; the former stimulating the older and younger ones to some rivalry in investigations and inquiries at home; the latter by making the lessons general exercises, at the close of each day.
Mr. McMynn, having been misunderstood, restated that classes should not be formed, except for quite advanced pupils.
Messrs. Rolfe, Maxon, Whitford, Cheney, Hobart, Pradt, Pickard and Allen made further remarks, but the discussion here assumes a confluent form in our memory, and we can only say that among the points made were: that a little time taken each day for this instruction would be no hindrance but a help to other studies; that more suitable text-books need to be prepared; that passing events admonish us to neglect the matter no longer; that such examples of unselfish devotion to their country's good as those of Tell, Bruce, Warren and Washington should be held up before the young; that all the past history of our English forefathers is ours, as well as their language, literature, laws and religion, and that upon this we should draw for instruction, as well as upon the short history of our own land. May we not add, that all past history and political wisdom is ours, and should be appropriated by us, a composite nation, the star of hope to all lands ?
On the whole, the discussion was spirited and profitable, and will we hope produce good results. A little tendency might have been noticed, to refer the origin of everything noble and valuable in our institutions to “New England's blarney-stone,” Plymouth Rock. Some people in their maligning of poor slavery-ridden Virginia, seem to forget that as she was once the mother state, so she was the “mother of Presidents” and patriots—of Washington, Jefferson, Henry and Marshall. She will become so again. Said Henry Ward Beecher lately: “I expect to see the day when there shall be more genuine propagandism of liberty in Georgia than in New York, * * more enthusisiasm for liberty on the sugar and cotton plantations of the South than we have in the relatively cold and reserved New England and Middle States."
Some extracts touching matters lying at the foundation of this whole subject will be found on former pages.
LEGISLATION. The matters which as we think need to become subjects of Legislative action at the approaching session are :
1. The enactment of a Town Organization of Schools. 2. Incipient steps for Normal Schools. 3. Appropriations for Teachers' Institutes. 4. An appropriation for the Journal of Education. 8. Statement in Teachers' Certificates of their attendance upon Institutes,
and patronage of educational journals.
6. The establishment of an Agricultural College, under the act of Congress.
This låst measure will not again fail we trust through apathy, or parsimony, or the influence of narrow-minded jealousies. Of the Town System and Normal Schools, the Journal has spoken often and at length. Next month we may have something to say of the objections urged against the former. A pervading system of Institutes, sustained by State aid and securing the attendance of those teachers who most need to improve, by making the question of their attendance affect their standing, is much needed. Though the Journal will live through this volume, no one will undertake to carry it through another without some State patronage. While the State should help, a pressure should be brought to bear upon teachers to do their part. At the suggestion of a member of the Committee of the Association on the Journal, we print the following letter received among others in response to their Circular, appended to the Proceedings of the Association on a former page. Its closing words apply not only to educational journals but to institutes and other means of professional improvement.
ROSENDALE, December 3, 1864. Committee on Journal of Education :
DEAR SIRS :- I prize the Journal bighly, and hope the State patronage will be returned to it, at the coming session of the legislature. Few appropriations made by the State are more judicious.
All that can be done for the Journal in this county, shall be done. I do not know whether the “quota” can be filled, but I wish every teacher in the county would take it, and yet those who most need it will be least likely likely to subscribe for it. The best teachers are most conscious that they can yet be taught.
I. N. CUNDALL, Supt. Fond du Lac Co.
EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE. We are indebted to the efficient Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction, Mr. A. J. CRAIG, for the following statistics, which will appear in the forthcoming report of Col. J. G. McMYNN, State Superintendent.--State Journal. Number of Counties reporting, 56. Number of Towns reporting, 772. Number of Towns not reporting, 8. Number of whole districts, 4,072. Number of parts of districts, 1,930. Number of districts, reckoning 2% parts as equal to one whole district, 4,930. Number of districts not reporting, 174.
do * parts of districts not reporting, 127. Whole number of districts not reported, 231. Number of male children betweon 4 and 20 years of age, 166,850.