History of Astronomy: An Encyclopedia

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John Lankford, Marc Rothenberg
Taylor & Francis, 1997 - 594 pages
Focuses on developments since the Scientific Revolution. Five categories covered are 1)historical overview of astronomy. 2)Astronomy in natural contexts. 3)History of observatories. 4)Social history of astronomy. 5)Biographies.

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History of astronomy: an encyclopedia

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While there are several astronomy encyclopedias on the market (e.g., The Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992), this encyclopedia, which launches a new series from ... Read full review

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In present time, the Universe not Expanding
The presence/existence of absolute time were in space, time and field before the expanding of the universe, its two dimensions were in the field or in
the field of energy in single dimension. There was no length of space and time and was no present and past but the presence of the present in the time of constant and its boundary were in the deepest. The length of time and space and along with the presence of rest two dimensions has been created through big bang, in the present situation; the boundary of length is large in the difference of space, time and field. The boundary of depth length in the past, remaining in the similarity of solar evolution dimension is increasing accordingly. Therefore, the beginning of the universe was from large field of energetic dimension or from single energetic dimension of absolute time of absolute space of big black hole in the nuclear fusion.
According to law of expandable gravitation; the gravitational worlds of the Universe are expanding from each other in the motion of different dimension. The difference of matters have come by the touch of different motion in the expanded gravitational worlds or due to deduction of velocity speed of the gravitational worlds in different dimension, the evolution of energy dimension is differently going on. The existence of different matters in the physical world has come by the lowest evolution dimension and the black hole in the critical evolution dimension. The gravitational worlds were in the deepest place of the past, and its reality we found in the single dimension of matters. The single dimension in the last position of all types of matters which is energy or ray. So, the big bang occurred in the joining of this theory together with the law of expanding. We know that the difference of changing in matters is by the velocity of the matters and as per this theory in the absolute zero or before departure or before the touch of speed, the physical worlds were in the big black hole of nuclear fusion in the single dimension of matters from which the motion of matters in the matters of single dimension had been created in the big bang.
The age of present universe is the length of evolution boundary of single energy dimension: As per logical proof, the big bang had been occurred in the beginning of the creation from the deepest mass of the past. The reality of big bang we realized according to the situation of expanding nuclear theory and the theory of the single dimension of the physical world in the past but side by side of the reality, it is remaining more and more questions that what were happened or remaining before big bang or what were remaining in the past? From that big bang we get the beginning of the place time and field. As the answer of this question, after analysis and experiment it is to be said that in the last boundary of the physical world in the past, we get the existence of energy or ray. This energy and ray is flowing by the nuclear law of gravitation or with the gravitational force is spreading in the space or crunching. According to this law, in the past before big bang there is / was the large field of single dimension of energy or big black hole, from which flowing the gravitational force influences the energetic dimension. In this circumstances, the question may be arise that, what were before big black hole or its before? In answer to this question: there is no depth of imagination or everything stands instantly, i.e. it is impossible to take our imagination back before this. So, the answer of this question is too short that is before this we feel the existence of nature (Allah/God).
Through the big bang from the big black hole or large field of natural power, the parts of energy is divisible, most of energy is stored in the big black hole or in the field of nature. It is found that the difference of the names of the nature in the deepest position in the past which is similar to the religious ideas as big black hole, (a) combination of single dimension of energy (b) The

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About the author (1997)

John Lankford is Special Assistant to the Provost and Adjunct Professor of History at Kansas State University.

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