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OF THE MOST EMINENT PERSONS OF ALL AGES, COUNTRIES, CON-

DITIONS, AND PROFESSIONS,

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PRINTED FOR J. JOHNSON, ST. PAUL'S CHURCH-YARD; G. KEARSLEY, FLEET-STREET ; AND B. CROSBY
AND CO. STATIONERS' COURT, LUDGATE-STREET.-ALSO FOR BELL AND BRAD-

FUTE, EDINBURGH; AND J. ARCHER, DUBLIN.

By T. Davison, White-friars.

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GENERAL BIOGRAPHY.

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two years.

Kaau-BOERH.
AAU-BOERHAAVE, ABRAHAM, an able nerves, &c.

nerves, &c. He also inserted some anatomical anatomist and ingenious physiologist, born at papers in the Memoirs of the Petersburg Acathe Hague in 1715, was the son of a doctor of demy, and published two separate descriptions law and medicine, by a sister of the illustrious of monstrous human fætuses. Eloy Dict. Hist. Boerhaave. He studied physic at Leyden under de la Médic. Halleri Bibl. Anat.-A. Albinus, Van-Royen, and Gaubius; and dis KAEMPFER, ENGELBERT, a distinguished tinguished himself as a diligent dissector, and traveller, was born, in 1651, at Lemgow, the an assiduous reader of the ancients

. In 1736 chief town of the duchy of Lippe, in Westhe lost his hearing suddenly during the night; phalia, of which his father was a clergyman. which defect was a great inconvenience to him He received a literary education, and at the in society, but did not prevent his rising to age of seventeen was sent to the public school eminence in his profession. He took the de or academy of Lunenburg, at which he spent gree of M.D., soon after which he annexed

An inclination of seeing various the name of Boerhaave to his family name, ac- places, which became his ruling passion, then cording to the desire of his uncle. He was led him to Lubeck, where he prosecuted his invited to Petersburgin 1740, where he occupied studies in the academy, at that time flourishing a medical chair in the university, and was made under professor Nottelmans. Thence he went a court physician. In 1748 he was appointed to Dantzig, where he gave the first public first physician, which post he held till his specimen of his acquisitions, by holding a disdeath, at Moscow, in 1753. He was the pute" De majestatis divisione.” He next author of the following works, “Perspiratio' passed some time at Thorn, which, in 1674, he dicta Hippocrati peruniversum corpus anatomice left for the university of Cracow. There he illustrata," 8vo. 1738: in this treatise he de- applied diligently for two years to the study of scribes with great accuracy all the parts in philosophy, history, and modern languages; in which both the pulmonary and cuticular perspir- the attainment of the last of which he possessed ation are concerned; and discusses the doctrines an extraordinary facility, which was highly of Hippocrates on the subject of this discharge, useful to him in his traves. He asc'fited him together with the recent discoveries of Sanc self for social intercourse, and was able, by his torius. “ Impetum faciens dictum Hippocrati talents for conversation, to ingraziate his self per corpus consentiens, observationibus et ex with such men as prince 'Alex. Lutonirski, and perimentis passim firmatum,” 8vo. 1745: the M. von Hoverbeck, envoy extraordinary from the subject of this piece is, the opinions of the anci- elector of Brandenburg to the Pelish court. ents concerning the human soul, the origin of He took the degree of doctor in philosophy at man, the fabric and motion of the muscles, the Cracow, and then repaired to Konigsberg. nature and action of the nerves, the supposed There he abode four years, applying to the effects of the arterial loops embracing the study of natural history, and of medicine, whick

VOL. VI.

he pursued with a professional view. Still un. of M.D. at Leyden, and, by way of inaugural satiated with knowledge, he made a visit, in dissertation, published a “'Decade of miscel1681, to the university of Upsal, which had laneous Observations” relating to medicine and risen to reputation chiefly by the labours of the natural history, all of which were republished celebrated Olaus Rudbeck. In this place in his “ Amænitates.” He than settled in his Kaempfer was much distinguished, and his native country, where the count of Lippe nomitalents and character acquired him the notice nated him his body physician; which post, toof several eminent persons even at Stockholm. \gether with the great fame he had acquired, Several offers were made to fix him in that procured him very extensive practice. He country; but his leading propensity induced complains, indeed, that his occupations were him to prefer that of the post of secretary of too numerous to allow him to spend the time legation to an embassy then preparing by the he would have desired, in putting in order the court of Sweden to those of Russia and Persia. materials he had collected in the long course of In March, 1683, he set out from Stockholm his travels. For the purpose of managing his with the presents destined for the sophi of concerns, and clearing his paternal estate of Persia, and joined the embassador Fabricius, Steinhoff, near Lemgo, he married in his fortywith his suite, at Narva. They made their ninth year the daughter of an agent to the court entry at Moscow in July, and having dispatch- of the elector of Brunswick-Lunenburg. This ed their affairs at that court, proceeded by did not prove a happy connection; and his latter water to Astrakan. They crossed the Caspian years were clouded with uneasiness. He died, sea with great danger, and arrived at Schamaki, in consequence of repeated attacks of the colic, the neighbourhood of which afforded many in November 1716, at the age of sixty-five. curious observations to our traveller. The Kaempfer, from the variety of his knowledge embassy reached Ispahan in the beginning of and the diligence of his enquiries, has scarcely 1684, and employed nearly two years in nego- been surpassed by any traveller in the number tiations, during which time Kaempfer made and value of the observations which were the every possible advantage of his situation for fruit of his labours. Of these, however, a large acquiring knowledge. When the embassador proportion have been lost to the world. The was about to return, our naturalist declined ac- principal work which he gave to the public in companying him, and engaged himself as chief his life-time is entitled “°Amanitatum Exotisurgeon to the fleet of the Dutch East-India carum Politico-Physico-Medicarum Fasciculi company, then cruising in the Persian gulph. V.” 4to. Lemgov. 1712. It contains a variety He left Ispahan in November, 1685, and pro- of curious matter relative to the Persian court ceeding by Schiras and the ruins of the ancient and the antiquities of that country, and many Persepolis, arrived at Gombron in December. circumstances appertaining to the medicine, That unhealthy place had nearly proved fatal to the economy, and the natural history, of differhim, and he was detained a long time by sick- ent parts of Asia. One of the fasciculi is entirely ness. On his convalescence he spent a summer employed in the history of the date-palm, and is in its neighbourhood, employed in adding to a model of perfect description in its kind. The the store of his observations. In June, 1688, fifth gives a specimen of a Flora Japonica, which he embarked, and after touching at various made a rich addition to the botany of that Dutch settlements on the coasts of Arabia and period. Many medical facts of importance are Malabar, in the island of Ceylon, and the gulph detailed in this work, and accurate accounts of of Bengal, he arrived at Batavia in September, several articles of materia medica are for the 1689. Being appointed physician to the annual first time presented to the European reader. embassy. sent by the Dutch company to the Of his posthumous “ History of Japan" a copy opera: of:Japan, he sailed in May, 1690, and came into the possession of sir Hans Sloane, taking Siam in his way, finished his voyage in which was translated from the original German Septembek:::His:abode in Japan was of two into English by J. Casp. Scheuchzer, and years continuance, affording his time to obtain published at London in 1727, folio; from it a ás:infach. imoght: into the natural and political French translation was made. Two MS. of scate of tbåt remote country as the singular of the same work were purchased from the jealousy of its government, with respect to heirs of his niece, by prof. Dohm of Capel, strangers, would permit. He left it in October, from which a German edition was made by 1692, and returning by Batavia, arrived in him, and published at Lemgow in two vols. 4to. Europe in the following year.

1777, 1779. This is the most complete, and In April, 1694, Kaempfer took the degree contains matter not to be met with in Scheu

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