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legislative assembly; nor shall any citizen or class of citizens be granted privileges or immunities which upon the same terms shall not be granted to all citizens.

Sec. 21. The provisions of this Constitution are mandatory and prohibitory unless, by express words, they are declared to be otherwise.

Sec. 22. All courts shall be open, and every man for an injury done him in his lands, goods, person or reputation shall have remedy by due process of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial or delay. Suits may be brought against the State in such manner, in such courts, and in such cases, as the legislative assembly may by law direct.

Sec. 23. Every citizen of this State shall be free to obtain employment wherever possible, and any person, corporation, or agent thereof, maliciously interfering or hindering in any way any citizen fron obtaining or enjoying employment already obtained, from any other corporation or person, shall be deemed guilty of misdemeanor.

Sec. 24. To guard against transgressions of the high powers which we have delegated, we declare that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government and shall forever remain inviolate.

ARTICLE II.

The Legislative Department.

Sec. 25. The legislative power shall be vested in a Senate and a House of Representatives.

Sec. 26. The Senate shall be composed of not less than thirty nor more than fifty members.

Sec. 27. Senators shall be elected for the term of four years, except as hereinafter provided.

Sec. 28. No person shall be a Senator who is not a qualified elector in the district in which he may be chosen, and who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and have been a resident of the State or Territory for two years next preceding his election.

Sec. 29. The legislative assembly shall fix the number of Senators, and divide the State into as many senatorial districts as there are Senators, which districts, as nearly as may be, shall be equal to each other in number of inhabitants entitled to representation. Each district shall be entitled to one Senator

and no more, and shall be composed of compact and contiguous territory; and no portion of any county shall be attached to any other county, or part thereof, so as to form a district. The districts as thus ascertained and determined shall continue until changed by law.

Sec. 30. The senatorial districts shall be numbered consecu tively from one upwards, according to the number of districts prescribed, and the Senators shall be divided into two classes. Those elected in the districts designated by even numbers shall constitute one class, and those elected in districts designated by odd numbers shall constitute the other class. The Senators of one class, elected in the year 1890, shall hold their office for two years, those of the other class shall hold their office four years, and the determination of the two classes shall be by lot, so that one-half of the Senators, as nearly as practicable, may be elected biennially.

Sec. 31. The Senate, at the beginning and close of each regular session, and at such other times as may be necessary, shall elect one of its members President pro tempore, who may take the place of the Lieutenant-Governor under rules prescribed by law.

Sec. 32. The House of Representatives shall be composed of not less than fifty nor more than one hundred and forty members.

Sec. 33. Representatives shall be elected for the term of two years.

Sec. 34. No person shall be a Representative who is not a qualified elector in the district for which he may be chosen, and who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years, and have been a resident of the State or Territory for two years next preceding his election.

Sec. 35. The members of the House of Representatives shall be apportioned to and elected at large from each senatorial district. The legislative assembly shall, in the year 1895, and every tenth year, cause an enumeration to be made of all the inhabitants of this State, and shall at its first regular session after each such enumeration, and also after each federal census, proceed to fix by law the number of Senators which shall constitute the Senate of North Dakota, and the number of Representatives which shall constitute the House of Representatives of North Dakota, within the limits prescribed by this Consti

tution, and at the same session shall proceed to reapportion the State into senatorial districts, as prescribed by this Constitution, and to fix the number of members of the House of Representatives to be elected from the several senatorial districts: Provided, that the legislative assembly may, at any regular session, redistrict the State into senatorial districts, and apportion the Senators and Representatives respectively.

Sec. 36. The House of Representatives shall elect one of its members as Speaker.

Sec. 37. No Judge or Clerk of any court, Secretary of State, Attorney-General, Register of Deeds, Sheriff or person holding any office of profit under this State, except in the militia, or office of the Attorney-at-Law, Notary Public or Justice of the Peace, and no person holding any office of profit or honor under any foreign government, or under the government of the United States, except postmasters whose annual compensation does not exceed the sum of three hundred dollars, shall hold any office in either branch of the legislative assembly or become a member thereof.

Sec. 38. No member of the legislative assembly, expelled for corruption, and no person convicted of bribery, perjury or other infamous crime, shall be eligible to the legislative assembly, or to any office in either branch thereof.

Sec. 39. No member of the legislative assembly shall, during the term for which he was elected, be appointed or elected to any civil office in this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during the term for which he was elected; nor shall any member receive any civil appointment from the Governor, or Governor and Senate, during the term for which he shall have been elected.

Sec. 40. If any person elected to either house of the legisla tive asembly shall offer or promise to give his vote or influence in favor of, or against any measure or proposition pending or proposed to be introduced into the legislative assembly, in consideration, or upon conditions, that any other person elected to the same legislative assembly will give, or will promise or assent to give, his vote or influence in favor of or against any other measure or proposition, pending or proposed to be introduced into such legislative assembly, the person making such offer or promise shall be deemed guilty of solicitation of bribery. If any member of the legislative assembly shall give his vote or

influence for or against any measure or proposition, pending or proposed to be introduced into such legislative assembly, or offer, promise or assent so to do upon condition that any other member will give, promise or assent to give his vote or influence in favor of or against any other such measure or proposition pending or proposed to be introduced into such legislative assembly, or in consideration that any other member hath given his vote or influence, for or against any other measure or proposition in such legislative assembly, he shall be deemed guilty of bribery. And any person, member of the legislative assembly or person elected thereto, who shall be guilty of either such offenses, shall be expelled, and shall not thereafter be eligible to the legislative assembly, and on the conviction thereof in the civil courts, shall be liable to such further penalty as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 41. The term of service of the members of the legislative assembly shall begin on the first Tuesday in January next after their election.

Sec. 42. The members of the legislative assembly shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the sessions of their respective houses, and in going to or returning from the For words used in any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

same.

Sec. 43. Any member who has a personal or private interest in any measure or bill proposed or pending before the legislative assembly, shall disclose the fact to the house of which he is a member, and shall not vote thereon without the consent of the house.

Sec. 44. The Governor shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies as may occur in either house of the legislative assembly.

Sec. 45. Each member of the legislative assembly shall receive as a compensation for his services for each session, five dollars per day, and ten cents for every mile of necessary travel in going to and returning from the place of the meeting of the legislative assembly, on the most usual route.

Sec. 46. A majority of the members of each house shall constitute a quorum, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members, in

such a manner, and under such a penalty, as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 47. Each house shall be the judge of the election returns and qualifications of its own members.

Sec. 48. Each house shall have the power to determine the rules of proceeding, and punish its members or other persons for contempt or disorderly behavior in its presence; to protect its members against violence or offers of bribes, or private solicitation, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, to expel a member; and shall have all other powers necessary and usual in the legislative assembly of a free State. But no imprisonment by either house shall continue beyond thirty days. Punishment for contempt or disorderly behavior shall not bar a criminal prosecution for the same offense.

Sec. 49. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and the yeas and nays on any question shall be taken and entered on the journal at the request of one-sixth of those present.

Sec. 50. The sessions of each house and of the committee of the whole shall be open, unless the business is such as ought to be kept secret.

Sec. 51. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting, except in case of epidemic, pestilence or other great danger.

Sec. 52. The Senate and House of Representatives jointly shall be designated as the Legislative Assembly of the State of North Dakota.

Sec. 53. The legislative assembly shall meet at the seat of government at twelve o'clock noon, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in January, in the year next following the election of the members thereof.

Sec. 54. In all elections to be made by the legislative assembly, or either house thereof, the members shall vote viva voce, and their votes shall be entered in the journal.

Sec. 55. The sessions of the legislative assembly shall be biennial, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

Sec. 56. No regular sessions of the legislative assembly shall exceed sixty days, except in case of impeachment, but the first session of the legislative assembly may continue for a period of one hundred and twenty days.

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