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Homesteads and Exemptions. Section 1. The personal property of any resident of this State, to the value of five hundred dollars, to be selected by such resident, shall be and is hereby exempted from sale under execution, or other final process of any court, issued for the collection of any debt.
Sec. 2. Every homestead, and the dwellings and buildings used therewith, not exceeding in value one thousand dollars, to be selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot in a city, town or village, with the dwelling and buildings used thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of this State, and not exceeding the value of one thousand dollars, shall be exempt from sale under execution, or other final process obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes, or for payment of obligations contracted for the purchase of said premises.
Sec. 3. The homestead, after the death of the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minor. ity of his children, or any one of them.
Sec. 4. The provisions of sections one and two of this article shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanic's lien for work done on the premises.
Sec. 5. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow, but no children, the same shall be exempt from the debts of her husband, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit during her widowhood, unless she be the owner of a home stead in her own right.
Sec. 6. The real and personal property of any female in this State, acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may, after marriage, become in any manner entitled, shall be and remain the sole and separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations or engagements of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed, and with the written assent of her husband, conveyed by her as if she were unmarried.
Sec. 7. The husband may insure his own life for the sole use and benefit of his wife and children, and in case of the death of the husband, the amount thus insured shall be paid over to the
wife and children, or to the guardian, if under age, for her or their own use, free from all the claims of the representatives of her husband, or any of his creditors.
Sec. 8. Nothing contained in the foregoing sections of this article shall operate to prevent the owner of a homestead from disposing of the same by deed; but no deed made by the owner of a homestead shall be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of his wife, signified on her private examination according to law.
ARTICLE XI. Punishments, Penal Institutions and Public Charities. Section 1. The following punishments only shall be known to the laws of this State, viz.: Death, imprisonment, with or with out hard labor; fines, removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under this State. The foregoing provision for imprisonment with hard labor shall be construed to authorize the employment of such convict labor on public works, or highways, or other labor for public benefit, and the farming out thereof, where and in such manner as may be provided by law; but no convict shall be farmed out who has been sentenced on a charge of murder, manslaughter, rape, attempt to commit rape or arson: Provided, That no convict whose labor may be farmed out shall be punished for any failure of duty as a laborer, except by a responsible officer of the State; but the convicts so farmed out shall be at all times under the supervision and control, as to their government and discipline, of the penitentiary board or some officer of the State.
Sec. 2. The object of punishments being not only to satisfy justice, but also to reform the offender, and thus prevent crime, murder, arson, burglary, and rape, and these only may be punishable with death, if the General Assembly shall so enact.
Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall, at its first meeting, make provision for the erection and conduct of a State's prison or penitentiary, at some central and accessible point within the State.
Sec. 4. The General Assembly may provide for the erection of houses of correction, where vagrants and persons guilty of mis. demeanors shall be restrained and usefully employed.
Sec. 5. A house or houses of refuge may be established when. ever the public interests may require it, for the correction and instruction of other classe: of offenders.
Sec. 6. It shall be required by competent legislation that the structures and superintendence of penal institutions of the State, the county jails, and city police prisons, secure the health and comfort of the prisoners, and that male and female prisoners be never confined in the same room or cell.
Sec. 7. Beneficent provision for the poor, the unfortunate and orphan, being one of the first duties of a civilized and Chris. tian State, the General Assembly shall, at its first session, appoint and define the duties of a board of public charities, to whom shall be intrusted the supervision of all charitable and penal State institutions, and who shall annually report to the Governor upon their condition, with suggestions for their improvement.
Sec. 8. There shall also, as soon as practicable, be measures devised by the State for the establishment of one or more orphan houses, where destitute orphans may be cared for, educated and taught some business or trade.
Sec. 9. It shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as practicable, to devise means for the education of idiots and inebriates.
Sec. 10. The General Assembly shall provide that all the deafmutes, the blind and the insane of the State shall be cared for at the charge of the State.
Sec. 11. It shall be steadily kept in view by the Legislature and the board of public charities, that all penal and charitable institutions should be made as nearly self-supporting as is con. sistent with the purposes of their creation.
Militia. Section 1. All able-bodied male citizens of the State of North Carolina, between the ages of twenty-one and forty years, who are citizens of the United States, shall be liable to duty in the militia: Provided, That all persons who may be averse to bear. ing arms, from religious scruples, shall be exempt therefrom.
Sec. 2. The General Assembly shall provide for the organizing, arming, equipping and discipline of the militia, and for paying the same, when called into active service.
Sec. 3. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief, and shall have power to call out the militia to execute the law, suppress riots or insurrection, and to repel invasion.
Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall have power to make such exemptions as may be deemed necessary, and to enact laws that may be expedient for the government of the militia.
Amendments. Section 1. No convention of the people of this state shall ever be called by the General Assembly, unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly, and except the proposition, Convention or No Convention, be first submitted to the qualified voters of the whole State, at the next general election in a manner to be prescribed by law. And should a majority of the votes cast be in favor of said convention, it shall assemble on such day as may be prescribed by the General Assembly.
Sec. 2. No part of the Constitution of this State shall be altered unless a bill to alter the same shall have been agreed to by three-fifths of each house of the General Assembly. And the amendment or amendments so agreed to shall be submitted at the next general election to the qualified voters of the whole State, in such a manner as may be prescribed by law. And in the event of their adoption by a majority of the votes cast, such amendment or amendments shall become a part of the Consti. tution of this State.