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ARTICLE I. Section 1. No person to be disfranchised. 2. Trial by jury. 3. Religious liberty. 4. Writ of habeas corpus. 5. Bail, fines. 6. Grand jury. 7. Private property.-Private roads. 8. Freedom of speech and of the

press. 9. Two-third bills. 10. Right of petition.-Divorces.

Lotteries. 11. Right of property in lands.

Escheats. 12. Feudal tenures abolished. 13. Allodial tenure. 14. Certain leases invalid. 15. Fines and quarter sales abol

ished. 16. Sale of lands. 17. Old colony laws and acts of the

Legislature.-Common law...
Commissioners to be appointed

-their duties. 18. Grants of land since 1775.-Prior



ries thereof. Board of supervisors of the city of New York to divide the county into Senate districts.-Certificate, etc.,

to be filed. 4. Enumeration to be taken in 1855,

and every ten years.-Senate

districts, how altered. 5. Members of Assembly, number

of, and how apportioned and chosen.-Boards of supervisors in certain counties and board of aldermen in New York city to divide the same into Assembly districts.—Description of Assembly districts to be filed. Contents of Assembly districts. -Legislature to reapportion members of Assembly.-Each county entitled to one member.-Hamilton county.-Counties and towns may be divided

and new ones erected. 6. Pay of members. 7. No member to receive an ap

pointment. 8. Persons disqualified from being

members. 9. Time of election fixed. 10. Powers of each house, 11. Journals to be kept. 12. No member to be questioned,

etc. 13. Bills may originate in either

house. 14. Enacting clause of bills. 15. Assent of a majority of all the

members required, etc. 16. Restriction as to private and

local bills. 17. Existing law not to be made a

part of an act except by insert

ing it therein. 18. Private and local bills, in what

cases they may not be passed. -General laws to be passed.Street railroads, condition upon

ARTICLE II. 1. Qualification of voters. 2. Persons excluded from right of

suffrage.-Challenge.-Laws to be passed excluding from right

of suffrage. 3. Certain employments not to af

fect residence of voters. 4. Laws to be passed. 5. Election to be by ballot.


1. Legislative powers. 2. Senators, number of.-Members

of Assembly, number of. 3. State divided into thirty-two

Senatorial districts. Bounda

Section 4. Superintendent of Prisons, pow.

ers and duties of. 5. Commissioners of the Land Of

fice.-Commissioners of the

Canal Fund.-Canal Board. 6. Powers and duties of boards, etc. 7. Treasurer may be suspended by

Governor. 8. Certain offices abolished.


which they may be author

ized. 19. The Legislature not to 'audit or

allow any private claim. 20. Bill imposing a tax, manner of

passing. 21. Same subject. 22. Board of supervisors. 23. Local legislative powers con

ferred on boards of supervis

ors. 24. No extra compensation to be

granted to a public officer, ser

vant, agent or contractor. 25. Sections seventeen and eighteen not to apply to certain bills.

ARTICLE IV. 1. Executive power, how vested. 2. Requisite qualifications of Gov

ernor. 3. Time and manner of electing

Governor and Lieutenant-Gov

ernor. 4. Duties and power of Governor.

His compensation. 5. Pardoning power vested in the

Governor. 6. Powers of Governor to devolve

upon Lieutenant-Governor. 7. Requisite qualifications of Lieu

tenant-Governor.-To be President of the Senate and to act

as Governor in certain cases. 8. Compensation of Lieutenant

Governor. 9. Bills to be presented to the Governor for signature.-If

returned by him with objections, how disposed of.--Bills to be returned within ten days.After adjournment, bills must be approved in thirty days, else cannot become law.-Governor may object to items of appropriation in any bill.

ARTICLE VI. 1. Impeachment. Assembly has

power of.-Effect of Judgment. 2. Court of Appeals.-Judges, how

chosen.-Appointment of clerk. 3. Vacancies in office of Judge of

Court of Appeals.-How filled. 4. Causes pending in Court of Ap

peals to be referred to Com

missioners of Appeals. 5. Commissioners of Appeals.-Va

cancies, how filled.-Chief

Commissioner to be appointed. 6. Supreme Court.-Jurisdiction.

Justices. — Judicial districts, number of Justices in; may be altered without increasing number. Seven Justices to be designated to act as Associate Judges of the Court of Appeals

for the time being. 7. Terms of Supreme Court. 8. Judge or Justice may not sit in

review of decisions made by

him, etc. 9. Vacancy in office of Justice of

Supreme Court, how filled. 10. Judges of Court of Appeals, or

Justices of Supreme Court, to

hold no other office. 11. Removals.--Proceedings in rela

tion to. 12. City courts. 13. Justice of Supreme Court or

Judges of City Courts, how chosen.-Term of office.-Re

striction as to age. 14. Compensation of Judges or Jus

tices.--Not to be diminished

during term of office. 15. County Courts. 16. Local judicial officers. 17. Judge of Court of Appeals, or

Justice of Supreme Court, elec tion or appointment of.-Ques

ARTICLE V. 1. State officers, how elected and

terms of office. 2. State Engineer and Surveyor,

how chosen and term of office. 3. Superintendent of Public Works,

powers and duties:

Section 8. Appropriation bills. 9. State credit not to be loaned. 10. Power to contract debts limited. 11. Debts to repel invaşion, etc.,

may be contracted. 12. Limitation of the legislative

power in the creation of debts. 13. Sinking funds to be separately

kept and safely invested. 14. Claims barred by lapse of time,

-Limitation of existing claims


ARTICLE VIII. 1. Corporations, how created. 2. Debts of corporations. 3. "Corporations" defined. 4. Charters for savings banks and

banking purposes. 5. Specie payments.' 6. Registry of bills or notes. 7. Individual responsibility


tions to be submitted to the

people. 18. Justices of the Peace. 19. Inferior local courts. 20. Clerks of Supreme Court and

Court of Appeals. 21. No judicial officer, except Justice

of the Peace, to receive fees. 22. Judgments, etc., may be ordered

directly to Court of Appeals

for review. 23. Publication of Statutes to be pro

vided for. 24. Judges, first election of.-When

to enter upon duties. 25. Local judicial officers.-Term of

office of incumbents. 26. Courts of Special Sessions. 27. Surrogates' Courts. 28. Court of Appeals

may order causes to be heard by Commission of Appeals.

ARTICLE VII. 1. Canal debt.-Sinking fund.-June

1, 1846, $1,300,000.-June 1, 1859,

$1,700,000. 2. General Fund Debt.-Sinking

fund, $350,000; after certain pe

riod, $1,500,000.
3. Two hundred thousand dollars

of the surplus canal revenues
annually appropriated to gen-
eral fund, and the remainder
to specific public works.-Cer-
tain deficiencies in the rev-
enues not exceeding $2,250,000,
annually to be supplied from
the revenues of the canals.-
Contractors, no extra compen-

sation to be made to.
4. Loans to incorporated companies

not to be released or. compro

6. Legislature shall, by equitable

taxes, increase the revenues
of the sinking fund in certain

6. Certain canals of the State not

to be leased or sold.-Expend-
itures, for collections and re-
pairs, limited.-Funds from

leases or sale, how applied. 7. Salt springs.

stockholders. 8. Insolvency of banks, preference. 9. Legislature to proyide for the

incorporation of cities and villages, and to define powers

thereof in certain cases. 10. The credit or money of the State

not to be given or loaned. 11. Counties, cities, towns and vil

lages not to give money or property or loan their money or credit.-Their power to contract debts limited.

ARTICLE IX. 1. Common school, Literature and

Uniten States Deposit funds.


1. Sheriffs, clerks of counties, reg.

ister and clerk of New York, coroners and district attorneys.

-Governor may remove. 2. Officers, how chosen or appoint

ed. 3. Duration of office. 4. Time of election. 5. Vacancies in office, how Alled. 6. Political year. 7. Removal from office. 8. When office deemed vacant. 9. Compensation of certain officers.

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We, the people of the State of New York, grateful to Almighty

God for our freedom, in order to secure its blessings, do estab-
lish this Constitution.

ARTICLE I. Section 1. No member of this state shall be disfranchised, or deprived of any of the rights or privileges secured to any citizen thereof, unless by the law of the land, or the judgment of

his peers.

Sec. 2. The trial by jury in all cases in which it has been heretofore used shall remain inviolate forever; but a jury trial may be waived by the parties in all civil cases in the manner to be prescribed by law.

Sec. 3. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed in this State to all mankind; and no person

shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account of his opicions on matters of religious belief; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this State.

Sec. 4. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.

Sec. 5. Excessive bail shall not be required nor excessive fines imposed, nor shall cruel and unusual punishments be inflicted, nor shall witnesses be unreasonably detained.

Sec. 6. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime (except in cases of impeachment, and in cases of militia when in actual service; and the land and naval forces in time of war, or which this State may keep with the consent of Congress in time of peace, and in cases of petit larceny, under the regulation of the Legislature), unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury, and in any trial in any court whatever the party accused shall be allowed to appear and defend in person and with counsel as in civil actions. No person shall be subject to be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense; nor shall he be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Sec. 7. When private property shall be taken for any public use, the compensation to be made therefor, when such compensation is not made by the State, shall be ascertained by a jury or by not less than three commissioners appointed by a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law. Private roads may be opened in the manner to be prescribed by law; but in every case the necessity of the road and the amount of all damage to be sustained by the opening thereof shall be first determined by a jury of freeholders, and such amount, together with the expenses of the proceeding, shall be paid by the person to be benefited.

Sec. 8. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury, that the matter

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