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Section 3. Taxation shall be by uniform

rule and ad valorem. 4. Restriction pon the increase of

the public debt, except in cer

tain contingencies. 5. Property exemptions from taxa

tion. 6. Taxes levied by County Com

missioners. 7. Acts levying taxes shall state

object, etc.

ARTICLE VI.

Suffrage and Eligibility to Office. 1. Qualifications of an elector. 2. Registration of electors. 3. Elections by people and general

assembly. 4. Oath of office. 6. Disqualification for office.

Municipal Corporation 8 1. County officers. 2. Duties of County Commission

ers. 3. Counties to be divided into dist

ricts. 4. Said districts shall have corpo

rate powers as townships. 5. Officers of townships. 6. Trustees shall assess property. 7. No debt or loan except by a

majority of voters. 8. Drawing of money. 9. Taxes to be ad valorem. 10. When officers enter on duty. 11. Governor to appoint Justices. 12. Charters to remain in force un

til legally changed. 13. Debts in aid of the rebellion not

to be paid. 14. Powers general assembly

of

ARTICLE IX.

Education. Section 1. Education shall be encouraged. 2. General assembly shall provide

for schools. 2. Separation of the races. 3. Counties to be divided into

districts. 4. What property shall be devoted

to educational purposes. 5. County school funds. 5. Proviso. 6. Election of trustees and pro

vision for maintenance of the

university. 7. Benefits of the university. 8. Board of education. 9. President and secretary. 10. Power of board. 11. First session of board. 12. Quorum. 13. Expenses. 14. Agricultural department. 15. Children must attend school.

ARTICLE X.

over municipal corporations.

Homesteads and E.remptions.

1. Exemption.
2. Homestead.
3. Homestead exempted from debt.
4. Laborer's lien.
5. Benefit of widow.
6. Property of a married female

secured to her.
7. Husband may insure his life for

the benefit of wife and child

ren. 8. How deed for homestead may

be made.

ARTICLE VIII. Corporations Other than Municipal. 1. Corporations under general

laws. 2. Debts of corporations, how se

cured. 3. What corporations shall include. 4. Legislatures to provide for or

ganizing cities, towns, etc.

ARTICLE XI.
Punishments, Penal Institutions and

Public Charities.
1. Punishments.
1. Convict labor.
1. Proviso.
2. Death punishment
3. Penitentiary.
4. Houses of correction.
5. Houses of refuge.
6. The sexes to be separated.

Section
2. How Constitution may be al-

tered.

ARTICLE XIV.

Miscellaneous. 1. Indictments.

Section
7. Provision for the poor and or-

phans.
8. Orphan houses.
9. Inebriates and idiots.
10. Deaf-mutes, blind and insane.
11. Self-supporting.

ARTICLE XII.

Militia. 1. Who are liable to militia duty. 2. Organizing, etc. 3. Governor, commander-in-chief. 4. Exemptions.

ARTICLE XIII.

Amendments. 1. Convention, how called.

2. Penalty for fighting duel.
3. Drawing money.
4. Mechanic's llen.
5. Governor to make appointments.
6. Seat of government.
7. Holding office.
8. Intermarriage of whites and

negroes prohibited.

PREAMBLE. We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to

Almighty God, the sovereign ruler of nations, for the preserva. tion of the American Union, and the existence of our civil, political and religious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him for the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, do, for the more certain security thereof, and for the better government of this State, ordain and establish this Constitution:

ARTICLE I.

Declaration of Rights. That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, and that the relations of this State to the Union and Government of the United States, and those of the people of this State to the rest of the American people, may be defined and affirmed, we do declare:

Section 1. That we hold it to be self-evident that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the fruits of their own labor, and the pursuit of happiness.

Sec. 2. That all political power is vested in, and derived from, the people; all government of right originates from the people, is founded upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole.

Sec. 3. That the people of this State have the inherent, sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof, and of altering and abolishing their Constitution and form of government whenever it may be necessary for their safety and happiness; but every such right should be exercised in prirsuance of law, and consistently with the Constitution of the United States.

Sec. 4. That this State shall ever remain a member of the American Union; that the people thereof are a part of the American Nation; that there is no right on the part of the State to secede, and that all attempts, from whatever source or upon whatever pretext, to dissolve said Union, or to sever said Nation, ought to be resisted with the whole power of the State.

Sec. 5. That every citizen of this State owes paramount allegiance to the Constitution and Government of the United States, and that no law or ordinance of the State in contravention or subversion thereof can have any binding force.

Sec. 6. The State shall never assume to pay, or authorize the collection of any debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; nor shall the General Assembly assume or pay, or authorize the collection of any tax to pay, either directly or indirectly, express or implied, any debt or bond incurred, or issued, by authority of the convention of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, nor any debt or bond, incurred or issued by the Legislature of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, either at its special session of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, or at its regular session of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight and one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, and one thousand eight hundred and seventy, except the bonds issued to fund the interest on the old debt of the State, unless the proposing to pay the same shall have first been submitted to the people and by them ratified by the vote of a majority of all the qualified voters of the State, at a regular election held for that purpose. í Sec. 7. No man or set of men are entitled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in consideration of public services.

Sec. 8. The legislative, executive and supreme judicial powers of the government ought to be forever separate and distinct from each other.

Sec. 9. All power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by any authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exercised.

Sec. 10. All elections ought to be free.

Sec. 11. In all criminal prosecutions, every man has the right to be informed of the accusation against him and to confront the accusers and witnesses with other testimony, and to have counsel for his defense, and not be compelled to give evidence against himself or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of the defense, unless found guilty.

Sec. 12. No person shall be put to answer any criminal charge, except as hereinafter allowed, but by indictment, presentment or impeachment.

Sec. 13. No person shall be convicted of any crime but by the unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful men in open court. The Legislature may, however, provide other means of trial for petty misdemeanors, with the right of appeal.

Sec. 14. Excessive bail should not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel nor unusual punishments inflicted.

Sec. 15. General warrants, whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places, without evidence of the act committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose offense is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty and ought not to be granted.

Sec. 16. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State, except in cases of fraud.

Sec. 17. No person ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed or exiled, or in any manner deprived of his life, liberty or property, but by the law of the land.

Sec. 18. Every person restrained of his liberty is entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the same, if unlawful; and such remedy ought not to be denied or delayed.

Sec. 19. In all controversies at law respecting property, the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights of the people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable.

Sec. 20. The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty, and therefore ought never to be restrained, but every individual shall be held responsible for the abuse of the same.

Sec. 21. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended.

Sec. 22. As political rights and privileges are not dependent upon, or modified by, property, therefore no property qualification ought to effect the right to vote or hold office.

Sec. 23. The people of the State ought not to be taxed, or made subject to the payment of any impost or duty without the consent of themselves, or their representatives in the General Assembly freely given.

Sec. 24. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up, and the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. Nothing herein contained shall justify the practice of carrying concealed weapons, or prevent the Legislature from enacting penal statutes against said practice.

Sec. 25. The people have a right to assemble together to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the Legislature for redress of grievances. But secret political societies are dangerous to the liberties of a free people, and should not be tolerated.

Sec. 26. All men have a natural and inalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, and no human authority should, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience.

Sec. 27. The people have the right to the privilege of education, and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right.

Sec. 28. For redress of grievances, and for amending and strengthening the laws, elections should be often held.

Sec, 29. A frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty.

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