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elevatiin and depression. r'or, as the acute accent, as was sco, a hove, is in place only when the elevation, throwzh its qrartity or its tone, si a ir a certain equilibrium with ti? following der ression ( ここここ

L'us' or " ), so, on the other hand, the practed accent takes its place when the syllable of elevazion, brc gh its nature and position, has a decided preponderance over the following depression, or (by mcu: of contraction) absorbs it into itself. Hence the ancient giammarians describe this tone not merely as simply protracted, but as curved, i.e. as rising and then 1. in", thus uniting in itself elevation and depression, which was appropriately represented by the sign - or ^, and d esiynate! by the term περισπώμενος (also συνημμένος and κεκλασμένος Or TEPLXEKNaouévos. Consequently it stands (1) not on aj lable merely lengthened by position, but on.y (1 ore long by nature, because only such an one is capable ví pro raction and of a preponderance; (2) not on the anceputultii ate (because the two following syllables completely ilance the elevation), but only one of the last two; (3) als no long penultimate, when one equally long follows also then again the depression forms the same equilibrium with the elevation as in the preceding case, and keeps the latter within bounds), but only when the following syllable is short, and thus gives the preponderance to the preceding, and gives to the accent full liberty to extend itself at pleasure, and thus, in a certain sense, to take a part of the depression into itself, as is wont to be done involuntarily in following the rhythmical impulse to fill up the measure and restore the equilibrium, e.g. πρώτος = .

but πρώτου

(wliereas άλλος is

on à

his own faint, yet well-grounded doubts, nevertheless, without examining more carefully the correctness of the premise. Also the usual designation of the words in question as ágútova I must consider incorrect, and not justified by the fact that they appear at the close of the sentence. This position gives the accent a special force, and raises it thus to a high tone, but proves noning as to the normal tone of the ultimate in connected discourse, any more than does in Hebrew the lengthening of a syllable in pause as to the normal quantity.

1 This is also virtually confirmed by the fact that in cases of enclisis another accent may follow this one immediately in the same word, as owud mou, olós Te.

ratar a pure trochee,= g); (4) on the last syllable only either when it is known or obscurely felt to be a syllable formed by the contraction of two into one, hence really etymologically composed of rise and fall, as is shown in the sign

(musically represented • or P), in which cases very early contractions have to retained in the feeling of the language (as, that of wr fru úwy, cf. Lat. -árum, found even in the Sanscrit), or whut, as an inflection-ending, it receives special emphasis (a grave inflection-ending). Here belong, in the noun, in the 1st and 2d Decl., the terrainations of the oblique cases of the genitive and dative, in distinction from those of the casus recti, which receive the sicple urave tone (on which see p. 34, note): 1st Decl. -ns, - rîv, -, ais, but he à -ał, -às ; 2d decl. -oû, -, -oiv, -wv, ois, boat ', -oi, -cus; Attic 20 Decl. -co -øv, wv, -øs, but wsiv, wis , whs (only the Gen. sing. -^ deviates from the rule); co...racted forms of thiw 3d Tecl. -ous, -oi, -oîv, wv, vis, but .rirth. Ne, and Acc. ing. aud dual.1 Here at to be reckonec also scine adserbial forms, which str !!. in all languages, are similar oblique cases; not only ihost bat are ccnmonly counted among this class, in - , -ńs, -oll, î fc. - , -o (1:1 names of places, as locative), as étis, ónov, elit, but als), as I think, the most common adverbial ending -ws, when the final syllable is accented (cf. tlia Sanscrii adverbial endings -ût and -usja, the former a121", t. lawer genitive of words in -as =-os, from which -ws). BC ? the yorb, the grave endings in the simple (shortened) ste. "vo!!}: 2d dor. Inf. -eîv, Subj. pass. -ú, -ns, etc., Imp. middle - -) of the so-called 2d Fut. of

I these are commonly exp! ed Ly the miles or contraction, and for the recrisant Accusativa -- (inside ex fre my be an arbitrary analogy, i.e. conformity to the Nom., is assumel. Put by reference to be abovgeneral law of declensions the difficulty 13 golver without being y rick-nca. The difficult Vocative oi, found with resom. è (vhost Jiphthong also in Scrit undergoes a gunitication in a diphthongification of the i ane! in the loc. in ê, ô = ni, au (eu)) has the crmflex probaviy on noon

diphthong (which, as being compound, is everywhere held to be longer than a s." 'n lang sy able, and accordingly can more casily draw the circumtes io itself, ci ioin eùs (in an open syllable, maie such by the dropping of thu tinal s).

the verbs in M., , v, p: -, -els, etc., eiv, wv, and of the socalled Attic Fut. --, -cels, etc. ; whose strong circumflex endings I would derive, not, with Buttmann, from contraction after the previous rejection of the s in the future, but from the weak or pure stem and an inflection peculiar to itself, and independent of that of the 1st Fut. (as of the 1st Aor.).1 As to the cases in which this accent stands on monosyllables which seem to be neither contractions nor inflection-endings, the interrogatives πώς, που, που, etc. are doubtless to be taken as case-endings, like the corresponding adverbial-endings; in other cases, the antithesis as vũv and the enclitic VUV — and other emphasis, or an effort to make up for the smallness of the word by a counter-weight, as trüp, jūs, etc., may

have led to it. Moreover it cannot but be that in final syllables or monosyllables which have also the downward slide the boundary between the two is often indistinct, and our present means of investigation allow us to come to no determinate result.

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i The very similarity and close relation to one another of the 1st Aor. and 1st Fut. on the one hand, and the 2d Aor. and 2d Fut. on the other, and on the contrary the total difference of the formations on both sides, clearly shows that we have before us here two different modes of formation of the Pret. and Fut., which go independently alongside of each other. In the Aor. this is already acknowledged; but it is true also of the Fut. The one, Ist Aor. and 1st Fut., is formed by welding on the auxiliary verb us (esse) in the corresponding forms, as is now evident from the Sanscrit, and repeats itself in almost all languages. The other, 2d Aor. and 2d Fut., however, is formed from the pure stem in its simplest form with strong mode-endings; the former often with a reduplication in front (so in Sanscrit); the latter has no analogy in Sanscrit, but has it in Latin, and is plainly, in strictness, a Subjunctive (like the Lat. Fut. in the 3d and 4th Conj.), which, as is well known, is most closely related to the Future. That those strong endings with the circumflex however, cannot have arisen merely from contraction, is shown by the Inf. of the 2d Aor. act. -Eiv (Dor. -év or -ñv, with -ev, -7v in the Pres.), which can be derived from no conceivable contraction, and by the Imp. middle -oo, which at least does not conform to the rule of contraction, and points to an -éco, consequently (as in -e of the Imp. act. of many words, in -eolar of the Inf. middle, and -wy, -eis of the Part.) can be explained only by an independent tendency of the accent towards the formationendings, i.e. a tendency lying in the character of the formation. Since, nevertheless, in the case of -eiv there are in Ionic corresponding resolved forms, it is obvious how little reliance can be placed on this argument in the other cases.

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The fundamental idea of Christianity is a deed, rather than a doctrine or a law. As a moral force it had its beginning in the faith of Abel. As a historic fact it began in that marvellous birth at Bethlehem, in which God revealed himself to men in man's nature. Any adequate philosophy of Christianity must, therefore, take into account this central fact. It must be able to construe it in all its modes and tenses; its logical and chronological relations; its vital forces, simple and compound, ethical and psychological. But who can thus compass this most stupendous work of God? Who can ascend to its sublime heights, or sound the depths of its wisdom and love?

When we propound the doctrine of man we have a single idea, an identical and finite organism, and in a department where consciousness helps us and experience gives us light. Even when God is our theme the subject, though illimitable, is homogeneous and a unit. But when we come to study the person of Christ our Lord, we pass from the simple to the complex, from the difficult elements of the problem to its more difficult solution. Ideas, not only distinct, but metaphysically opposite, the infinite and the finite, the absolute and the relative, - require to be conciliated in the most wonderful of all unities and agencies.

Just here comes the real “ conflict of the ages.” Upon this battle-field the contest between faith and false philosophy, reason and revelation, has been sharpest. More and more the opposing forces are drawn towards this centre, where all

1 Concio ad Clerum; delivered at the Commencement of Yale College, July 26, 1864, on the text John i. 1-14. VOL. XXIV. No. 93.


ere the

for the church is to be won or lost. The dwiers of primacie and o 11ystery array their selves more and more pointly again.. this greatest of miracles and profound :st of mysterice. Never, perhaps, has the thinking world been more attracts to tlıe founder of Christianity, as the problem of history is well as theology, than in the present age. Germany, that vast mental kaleidoscope, where beliefs and disbeliefs nuvole and sparkle with the fascinations of genius, where the ben. losophies, atheistic and pantheistic, have ! en employed in coroners' inquests and reputed post-mortem examinations 04 the Christian religion, and in digging its grave; schools, serious and sardonic, have beun interi ... pulling down the kingdom of heaven, - the land of Lviher, notwitlı standing these adverse things, has yet, during the last halfcentury, produced a Christological literature rich in herme. neutical and historical research beyond th of nost any other age or nation.

But, in entering on my subject I liunile ... st contiction that, while the light elicited by ese dns is shi ing more directly than ever upon him whom ve ". Saviou and Lord, philosophy cannot interpret Or us either him or his mission. Scie! Cu cannot do it. The lif, (!irist man explain for us the mystery of his person; and only the pecu liarity of his person is able to account for thc peur. Tra la ts of his life. He himself is the key to himself, and t,;' whole evangelic history, of which he is the central, Chcrolling figure. Christ in the Bible, Christ in e ::!: mi, is “thie light he gives for us to se' wy."

The complex idea of tng el is made up of the sepe. rate ideas of God ar nari ihese two factors perpeak, therefore, cur car ful m. amiratioil. Nu essential element of either can L. left out of the inquiry withis listwebing the focess, and no foreign one caire brought it without prcy'ldicing the result.

I. My first inquiry relates to the wind Nature in Christ

Let me in the outset free my subject tru'n tue incubus of a certain philosophic pre-suppusition, that a conception of the

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