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of Xanthippe is amusing and clever. Dr. Zeller urges in her defence, that her husband's peculiarities were of such a nature that few women could fail to be wroth with him; he was ugly in looks, negligent in dress, careless about earnings, and not particularly affectionate, as his behaviour just before death shows.

THE HOLY SCRIPTURES OF THE NEW TESTAMENT CONNECTEDLY INVESTIGATED. Division II. ; Subdivision 2. The Second Epistle to the Corinthians.' – This is part of a work that bids fair to be of great size, and which, if its idea be realized, will be of the utmost importance. It is to be feared, however, that the plan is too extensive ever to be fully carried out. The individual parts, however, hitherto published, are considered by competent judges to be very valuable contributions to the better understanding of the New Testament as a whole and in its several sections. The leading idea of the work is, by an investigation of the historical characteristics of each separate writing, to establish its authenticity and antiquity, and to show it to form a necessary link in the whole chain of the record of revelation. One fault Dr. Hofmann is exposed to fall into

that of too great subtilty; but this is amply compensated by the novel points of view which he opens up, and the suggestiveness which marks every page. This and his other works ought to be better known to our theological readers than they are; but they require hard study.

RAISED

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EXAMINATION OF THE Most IMPORTANT CRITICAL QUESTIONS

THE PRESENT TIME RELATIVELY TO THE FOURTH GOSPEL.' — This little work is a German translation of part of a Commentary on the Gospel of John, published in French. We have read it through and can fully subscribe to what Professor Riggenbach of Basle says in his prefatory introduction. “He who reads the present portion will desire to possess the entire work. What we have here is a fragment; but it is a very valuable fragment.” In six chapters the following subjects are discussed: 1. The facts nfirmed; 2. The genuineness ; 3. The credibility of the discourses; 4. The circumstances of composition; 5. The preservation of the text; 6. The certainty of the Gospel history. The treatment, though very brief, is clear, sober, and frequently both very novel and very acute. M. Godet tries to show in particular that a main and conscious design of John was to supplement and in part correct the

1 Die heilige Schrift des neuen Testaments zusammenhängend untersucht. 2 Theil, 3 Abtheilung: Der Zweite Brief an die Corinther. Von Dr. I. Ch. K. v. Hofmann. Nördlingen : Beck'sche Buchhandlung; London : Asher and Co., Trübner and Co. 1866. Price, 50 silbergroschen.

2 Prüfung der wichtigsten Kritischen Streitfragen unserer Tage über das vierte Evangelium. Von. F. Godet. Zürich : Carl Meyer; London : Asher and Co., Trübner and Co. 1866.

synoptics; the latter being in his view three branches of one traditional stem, and therefore related to John as one to one, and not as three to one.

SYSTEM OF CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE FOR EDUCATED READERS OF ALL RANKS AND DENOMINATIONS.' — A popular system of theology from the strict Lutheran point of view. It is divided into three great sections entitled : 1. God and the world in their original union ; 2. God and the world in their antagonism ; 3. God and the world in their re-union. The first section treats of God prior to the world; creation as a free act of God; the world as God's creature; the relation of God to the created world as its Creator ; the mission of the creature in its state of innocence. The second section, of the present state of the world ; the doctrine of the devil ; the doctrine of sin; the doctrine of death and corruption ; the reciprocal relations of God and the fallen creature. The third section, of the divine preparations for re-union; the person of Christ as the real centre of the re-union of God with the fallen world; the work of Christ; the nature and attributes of the Christian church ; the equipment of the church by its Head with divine powers, offices, and gifts; the life of the church in its members; the complete re-union of God and the world in the church triumphant.

The work is marked by one great defect, - it is too exclusively German; i.e. the author writes as though all the possible forms of church life and developments of doctrine had been exhausted in Germany; America and England are never alluded to. Otherwise the compendium is a useful

one.

Saint AUGUSTINE'S SPECULATIVE DOCTRINE OF GOD THE TRIUNE. - Professor Gangauf is a Roman Catholic, but a man of learning and liberal spirit; his work is one of a series on the philosophy and theology of St. Augustine. The present treatise was suggested by the Protestant Professor Thomasius, of Erlangen. Its design is to supply scientific evidence of the objective reality of the Trinity from the writings of St. Augustine, in opposition to the unbelief of the age, with its pretendedly philosophical objections to this article of the Christian faith. After an introduction on the general character of St. Augustine's treatise De Trinitate Dei, he discusses his subject under four heads : 1. The existence of God; 2. The nature of God; 3. Analogies of the Trinity in the creature; 4. The divine subject-objectification (Subjectobjectivirung). St. Augus

1 Christliche Glaubenslehre für gebildete Leser aller Stände und Bekenntnisse. By Dr. Wangemann, Inspector of Missions, Berlin. Berlin : Haupt Verein ; London : Asher and Co., Trübner and Co. 1865.

2 Des Heiligen Augustinus speculative Lehre von Gott dem Dreieinigen. Von Theodor Gangauf, Professor of Philosophy at the Lyceum of Augsburg. Augsburg : B. Schmid; London : Asher and Co., Trübner and Co. 1866.

tine's works will ever be a mine of thought on all the points of Christian theology into which students should industriously dig ; and every contribution to the better knowledge of him, whether supplied by Catholics or Protestants, must be welcome; especially when they furnish the materials for forming an independent judgment, as Professor Gangaut's work does, in the numerous extracts it gives. The four hundred and forty-eight pages consist, indeed, — and we commend the book in saying so, - principally of quotations. Dr. Gangauf was formerly, and probably is still, an admirer of Günther's philosopby, one of the recommendations of which was that it was condemned at Rome.

HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE DURING THE Patristic PERIOD, from 325 till 787 A.D. — Dr. Schwane is also a Roman Catholic; and we are glad to chronicle the appearance of able books by Roman Catholic theologians, because investigation must eventually lead to light; and his Dogmengeschichte, notwithstanding its Romish coloring, is an able work. The first volume, treating of Christian doctrine during the Ante-Nicene period, was noticed with considerable praise by Protestant Reviews at the time of its appearance, the chief fault found with it being the result of the author's ecclesiastical position. As representing in the best way what the Romish church in Germany is doing in this direction, the present

work is worthy of attention. The present volume embraces the first section, and treats of the doctrine of God.

THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS IN GREEK AND GERMAN, with an Explanation of the more difficult Passages, and an Essay on Chap. iii. 20. - So far as we have examined Dr. Matthias's Commentary, it does not seem to us a very great advance on previous works. The translation where new, does not strike us as happy. Take as a sample chap. i. 4, where the author connects townpoll with the following words katà θέλημα του Θεού, instead of with the foregoing words, εκ του ενεστώτος alwvos, translating, “ to deliver us from the present world, evil according to the will of God.” The rendering is new, but scarcely true. Fifty-two pages are occupied with an excursus on the term peoirns which occurs in chap. ü. 20. The older commentary of Usteri is still one of the best in the German language, though, owing to the marked Schleiermacherian leanings of the author, not in every respect satisfactory.

1 Dogmengeschichte der patristischen Zeit. Von Dr. J. Schwane, Professor of Theology in Münster. Münster: Theissing; London : Asher and Co., Trübner and Co. 1866. Price, 40 sgr.

2 Der Galaterbrief griechisch und deutsch nebst einer Erklärung seiner schwierigeren Stellen und einer Abhandlung über, Cap. iii. 20. Von Dr. G. W. Matthias, Director of the Gymnasium at Cassel. Cassel: Theod. Kay; London: Asher and Co., Trübner and Co. 1865. Price, 25 sgr. VOL. XXIV. No. 93.

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as the

HAND-BOOK OF THE HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, from the earliest period down to the present day.' — Any work by the late Profesfessor Niedner will be regarded with special interest at Andover, for his valuable collection of books now forms an iraportant part of the Seminary Library. But even where there are no such associations to invest his productions with interest, their high intrinsic value will recommend them. It is not a value, indeed, which lies exactly on the surface, which a superficial reader is likely to discover; but for the conscientious, painstaking, digging student, both old and young. The judgment of men who may be regarded compeers

of the late Professor is, that his works are strong meat for anybody. Niedner was a philosopher, theologian, and historian. His library bears traces of his devotion to these three branches of study. He was a deep thinker, close observer, and very learned. The work whose title we give above, is the ripest fruit of his prolonged study and instructions as Professor; but while giving evidence on every page of close thought and immense reading, it bears abundant traces of the very marked idiosyncracies of the author. Professor Niedner was a thorough oddity; and the truth of the maxim “ the style is the man,” is thoroughly confirmed in his case.

His style is full of corners, angles, extraordinary combinations of words and clauses; and the whole book makes the impression of having “grown," instead of being “made.” The first edition the present is the second was bought up and destroyed after a short time by its author, because he felt its deficiencies, though theologians of all classes had pronounced most favorable judgments on its merits. He commenced a new work of which the present is a revision — in 1858, when called to Berlin to succeed Neander; but refused to publish it though it was printed, and delivered sheet by sheet to his students alone, as they required it. So much about the author and the general features of the work.

Dr. Niedner commences with sections on the idea of the church and of a history of the church, specially in relation to the compass, sources, and aids of the latter. He then narrates the introduction of Christianity into the world, describing the contemporary religions, the natural religions of the East and West, Hellenism considered as philosophy, and the Jewish religion ; the Life of Jesus, and the age of the apostles. Afterwards come the struggles of Christianity with, and its victories over, the heathenism of Greece, Rome, and Germany. A second division of this first part discusses the constitution of the church; a third, its doctrines and institutions. The same method is pursued during the subsequent periods. The compass of the Hand-book is nearly one thousand large octavo pages; a pretty

1 Lehrbuch der christlichen Kirchengeschichte von der aeltesten Zeit bis auf die Gegenwart. Von Dr. C. W. Niedner, late Professor of Theology at the University of Berlin. Berlin : Wiegandt und Grieben : London : Asher and Co., Trübner and Co. 1866. pp. 978. Price, 4 thaler.

good index is appended; the notes, containing often brief characteristic extracts and numerous references to the best works for consultation, both ancient and modern, on all sorts of subjects that bear on church history, are very extensive; the text, though gnarled, is concise and pregnant; the spirit in which those are judged from whom the author differed, both ecclesiastically and doctrinally, is generous and Christian, and the information seems to be accurate; such qualities are enough to recommend any work.

CRITIQUE OF DUnasch Ben LABRAT ON SINGLE PASSAGES FROM SAADIA'S ARABIC TRANSLATION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.' — Dunasch ben Labrat Levita, or as the Jews called him, Adonim, lived about the middle of the tenth century, in Fez, and wrote remarks on passages from Saadia's Arabic translation of the Old Testament, to which a double interest attaches: first, they contain not a little that throws light on Hebrew grammar ånd the Old Testament; secondly, they bear witness to the state of thought and learning among the Rabbis of Spain and Northern Africa, in the tenth century. The text, which is now published for the first time, from an old manuscript, is given in the present book; Dr. Schröter intends to publish shortly an introduction and translation.

God;

THE GODMAN, THE IMAGE OF THE INVISIBLE God. A contribution to Christology.” — This is the second volume of a larger work. The first appeared under the titles, “ Man the Image of God, his Relation to Christ and to the World,” and “ The Account of Creation and the Doctrine of Paradise," and was very favorably noticed by several eminent theologians. The present volume treats of the following subjects: The Invisibility of

The Image of the Invisible God, and the First-born of all Creation; The Brightness of his Glory, and the Image of his Essence; The Logos; Christ in the Form of God; The God of Israel and the Cherubim; The Son of God and the Son of Man; The God-man; The Glory of God and Christ; The Holy Spirit and the Seven Spirits; The Doctrine of the Trinity; The Doctrine of the Good Angels; The Doctrine of Satan and his Angels; The Doctrine of the Exaltation of Christ; The Church in Christ.” One of the writer's peculiarities is that he believes in the pre-existence of Christ as God-man; not merely in the pre-existence of his divine or human nature, but of his divine-human nature. The work is well worth reading.

1 Kritik des Dunasch ben Labrat über enizelne Stellen aus. Saadia's arabischer Uebersetzung des Alt. Test. Von Dr. R. Schröter. Breslau : Skutsch; London : Asher and Co., Trübner and Co. 1866.

2 Der Gott-Mensch, das Ebenbild des unsichtbaren Gottes. Ein Beitrag zur Christologie. Von P. F. Keerl. Basel : Detloff; London: Asher and Co., Trübner and Co. 1866. Price, 2 thaler.

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