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and the physician, who permitted into Spain about the same time; fuch amusement to his majesty, for Herrera mentions, that upon seems not to have considered the the conquest of Mexico' (which ill consequence to his health by happened in 1519, Montezuma losses at play, which so much in- look great pleasure in seeing the flame the passions. Some stress Spaniards thus amusing themselves.' likewise may be laid upon

And here it may not be improper try not being followed by another to observe, that if the Spaniards of money issued to the winners, as were not the first inventors of there seems to be little doubt, but cards (which at least I conceive that his majesty in this state of them to have been) we owe to mind must have been in modern them undoubtedly the game of terins, a pigeon to his hawks of ombre (with its imitations of quacourtiers,

drille, &c.),which obtained so long Another observation to be made throughout Europe till the introupon this entry is, that the year duction of whisk. 1392 cannot be justly fixed upon The very name of this game is as the date of this invention, for Spanish, as ombre signifies a man ; though Charles the fixth lott his and when we now lay • I am the fenses at that time, yet he lived ombre,' the meaning is, that I am thirty years afterward, so it will the man' who defy the other playnot be fair to suppose these cardsers, and will win the stake. The. were made the first year of his terms for the principal cards are phrenly, but to take the middle allo Spanish, viz. Spadill, Manill, year of these thirty, which would Basto, Punto, Matadors, &c. bring it to 1407. At that time, The four suits are named from indeed, this anusement seems to what is chiefly represented upon have become more general, as in them, viz. spades, from spado, a 1426, no person was permitted to sword; hearis are called oror, from have in their house - tabliers, el- a piece of money being on each chiquiers, quartes,' &c. which last card; clubs, baflos, from a stick or word I conclude to be the same club; and diamonds, copas, from with carles or cards.

the cups painted on them. It seems moreover to afford a The Spanish packs confist but of strong presumption against Mr. forty-eight, having no ten, which Anstis's explanation of the game probably hath been added by the ad quatuor reges (known to our Ed- French or perhaps Italians. ward the first), that cards are not The king is a man crowned as alluded to by such an article in the in our cards; but the next in dewardrobe rolls, because we hear gree is a person on horseback nothing about them, either in Rye named el caballo, nor have they mer's Federa, or our statute book, any queen.--The third (or knave till toward the latter end of the with us) is termed foto (or the footreign of Henry VIII.

man) being inferior to the horseThis fort of amusement, however, was not unknown to the Another capital game on the court at least of Henry VII, for cards (piquet) we seem to have a in the year 1502, when the daugh- dopted" from Spain, as well as omter of that king was married to bre, it having been thence intro. James the fourth of Scotland, se duced into France about 140 years, played at cards soon after her ar- ago. The French term of piquet rival at Edinburgh.

hath no signification but that of a Cards had allo found their way little axe, and therefore is not



12 On the Antiquity of Card-Playing in England. taken from any thing which is re- vention of cards, unless Edward markable in this game; whereas the first having played ad quatuor the Spanish name of cientos (or a reges should be lo confidered; and hundred) alludes to the number of I have already suggested, that the points which win the stake. finding nothing further relative

Upon the whole, the Spaniards to this pastime till 1902 affords having given fignificant terms to a strong presumption that the their cards, the figures of which quatuor reges were not playing they still retain, as well as being cards. the acknowledged introducers of . During the reigns of Henry VIII. ombre, seem to give them the best and Edward Vị. this amusement pretensions of being the original seems not to have been very cominventors of this amusement. If mon in England, as scarcely any they had borrowed cards from the mention of it occurs either in RyFrench, surely they would at the mer's Fædera or the statute-book. same time have adopted their names It is not improbable, however, and figures, as well as their prin- that Philip the second, with his cipal games from that nation, which suite, coming from the court of on the contrary (in ombre-and piquet Charles the fifth, made the use of at least) have been introduced from cards much more general than Spain.

it had been, of which some preNor do other reasons seem want- sumptive proofs are not wanting. ing why the Spaniards should have We name two of the suits clubs excelled in card-playing before the and spades, when neither of those other nations of Europe.

suits in the common cards answer I have already proved by a cita- at all such appellation. If the Spation from Herrera, that in 1519 nish cards, however, are examined, Montezuma was much entertained it will be found that each card in seeing the Spanith soldiers play hath a real club in the first of these at cards when they were first in fuits, and a real sword, espado possession of Mexico, which shews (rendered by us spade), in the fethat this amusement must have for cond. some time previous been rather There seems to be little doubt, common in Old Spain. Now therefore, but that the cards used Charles the fifth succeeded to the during the reign of Philip and crown of that kingdom in 1588, as Mary, and probably the more earwell as to the new conquests and ly part of queen Elizabeth, were treasures of the Western India, Spanish, though they were afterwhile his other most extensive do- ward changed for the French, beminions made his monarchy near- ing of a more simple figure, and ly universal. France at the same more easily imported. It appears time was at the lowest ebb, their indeed by a proclamation of this king having been taken prisoner queen, as alfo of her successor, that at the battle of Pavia in 1524. It we did not then make many cards is not therefore extraordinary, that in England, though the amusement the country in which so great had become so general in the reign riches and such extensive territo- of king James, that the audience ries were united, should have pro- at the play-houles used thus to diduced the greatest number of games vert themselves before the play beand gamesters.

gan. It should seem that England But I have been furnished by our hath no pretence to enter the lists worthy and learned member (Mr. with Spain or France for the in- Alle) with a still more decisive


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proof that cards were originally plaved by our gentry till perhaps made in Spain, which I send. as late as the Restoration. Many herewith for the inspection of the other games however are mentionAociety.

cd in Dodsley's collection of old This was an impression from a plays, as Gleek, Crimp, Mounta block of wood, and undoubtedly faint, Noddy, Knave out of Doors, the cover of a pack of cards. The Saint Lodam, Polt and Pair, Wide inscription upon being rendered in- Ruff, and Game of Trumps.' 10 English runs thus:

To Primero the game of Ombre • Superfine cards made by John succeeded, and was probably introHauvola, and (Edward Warman), duced by Catharino of Portugal, the last name being an addition in the queen of Charles the fecond, the room of John Hauvola's first

as Waller hath a poem partner,

«On a card torn at Ombre by the queen.' Now I conceive that this adver. tisement was used by a card maker It likewise continued to be in resident in France, who botified vogue for some time in the present the wares he had to fell in the century, for it is Belinda's game in Spanish terins of cartas furas, or the Rape of the Lock, where every superfine cards, because those which incident in the whole deal is so had been made in Spain at that described, that when ombre is for. time were in the greatest vogue. gotten and it is almost fo already

T'he two words which follow are it may be revived with posterity French, (faictes per, or made by), from that most admirable poem, which were probably in that lan- I remember morcover to have guage, that the French reader inight seen three-cornered tables in houses more readily understand the adver- which had old furniture, and which tisemeni, than if the whole was in were made purposely for this game, Spanish. Thus a London shop the number of players being only keeper would write on his shop in three. English that he sold vermicelli, Quadrille (a species of ombre) though he retains the Italian term obtained a vogue upon the disuse of vermicelli (or little worms) for of the latter, which it maintained the warc he wants to dispose of. till Whisk was introduced, which

But this is got the whole that now prevails not only in England, may be inferred from this curious but in most of the civilized parts cover, for at cach corner are the of Europe. figures from which the four suits of If it may not be posibly supcards are denominated in Spain, poled that the game of trumps viz, cups, swords, clubs, and picces (which I have before taken notice of money, while at the top are the of, as alluded to in one of the old arms of Callile and Leon.

plays contained in Dodiley's colIt seems fairly therefore to be section is Whisk, I rather coninferred from the superscription on ceive that the first mention of that this cover, that cards could not be game is to be found in Farquhar's then disposed of to advantage in Beaux Stratagem, which was writFrance, unless there was some ap- ten in the very beginning of the pearance of their having been ori- present century. It was then playginally brought from Spain, where ed with what were called swab. being first invented they were pro- bers, which were posibly fo termbably made in greater perfection. ed, because they, who had certain

Primero (undoubtedly, a Spanish cards in their hand, were entitled game) seems to have been chiclly to take up a fare of th Itake, in

dependent 14

Anecdote of Henry IV. dependent of the general event of when it was much studied by a fék the game. The fortunate, there- of gentlemen who frequented the fore, clearing the board of this ex- Crown coffee-house in Bedford. traordinary Itake, might be com- row: before that time it was chiefly pared by seamen to the swabbers confined to the servants' hall with (or cleaners of the deck) in which all-fours and put. fense the term is still used.

Perhaps, as games are subje&t to Be this as it may, whisk seems revolutions, whisk may be as much never to have been played upon forgot in the next as Primero is at principles till about fifty years ago, present.

Curious and Entertaining ANECDOT E S. Anecdote of HENRY IV. many bags full of gold, which the A all

Henry being very much in can do for the present (adding she, want of money, aiked one of his gracefully), go and relieve the most trusty courtiers where he prince of his anxiety; wish him could procure

fome. The courtier from me all the success and hapreplied, that he knew a very rich piness he deserves ; tell him to be merchant's wife, a zealous royalist, confident that he reigns in the who very probably might lend hearts of his subjcēts, and that my him some. The monarch advised life and fortune are, and will be his confident to pay a visit imme- for ever, at his disposal. Henry diately to the lady, and offered to could not conceal himself any lonaccompany him in disguise. At


ti Generous woman (cried the close of the evening, they both he) my friend has no occasion to set out from Mante, where the far io tell his majesty the excelcamp was, for Mculan, where lence of your heart; here he stands Madame le Clerc, the lady in quef- before you, and is a witness to tion, resided. They were most your effufions of sensibility. Be hospitably received, and after the assured that the favour will be usual congratulations on the fuc- indelibly engraved on Henry's cess of the king's army, the courtier heart.”. Mad. Ic Clerc fell at the affecting an air of deep sorrowamo monarch's feel, without being able Alas, madam, said he, to what to utter a word; the confident purpose are all our victories! We wept, and Henry joined in the

are in the greatest distress imagin- [weet emotions. But the time was able; his majesty has no money totoo precious to devote it solely to pay his troops; they threaten to friendship and gratitude ; for want revolt' and join the Leaguers; of money the troops were ready to Mayenne will triumph at last."- revolt that very morning. Henry • Is it possible! (exclaimed Ma- and his friend took leave of the dame le Clerc) but let not that af- Lady, and went to the army, who, Bict our gracious sovereign; he hearing they were to receive their will still find new resources; he pay, began to cry Vive le Roy! fights for too noble and glorious long live the king.) From that à cause, to bc abandoned ; many,

time success attended every one other persons will follow my ex

of that monarch's enterprizes, ample. On saying this, she quit. and after having subdued his ene: ted the room, and returned with mies, and reridered himself mal


ier of the capital, he sent for Mad. Lider the stripes which the animal le Clerc one day when the court must have suffered, before he could was very brilliant and full; in have been taught to attend so presenting her to the nobility, closely, and obey so implicitly the * You see this lady (fays he) a signs given by his master. “Sir," true friend of mine. To her I replied Johnson, “ I think your owe all the success of my last cam. sorrow and pity are misplaced; the paigns. It was she who lent me animal should rather excite your conliderable sums of money to envy; as to his stripes, except warry on the war, even at a time stripes are inflicted upon the boy, when the troops threatened to it is very rare that the man beabandon me. She shall be reim- comes eminently learned; and bursed with more than lawful in- with regard to the pig, if you put terest; and letters-patent of nobi- his present happiness in opposition lity shall forthwith be issued in her to his former sufferings, the bafavour." "Ah! fire (interrupted lance will be in his favour." "I Mad. le Clerc) do you reckon as do not know," replied the gentlenothing the infinite pleasure I then man, “what his happiness consists felt, and have felt ever since, for in, I do not see any happiness having contributed to the happić that he can enjoy." —Not see ness and success of my sovereign? what his happiness consists in, you That is the only Interest that be- astonish me! is not a consciousness longs to me, and the only reward of superior acquirement happiness; my ambition aims at.' The lady is not being the first of his class accepted the title, but refused the happiness? But above all this,' offered interest. The family of consider, Sir, the pig's learning le Clerc, who have since distin- bas protracted his existence.--Had guished themselves in civil and mi. he been illiterate, he had long litary capacities, flill exist. This since been smoaked into hams, ad, properly drawn and engraved, rolled into collars of brawn, and might be the companion of the ce consigned to the table of some lụxlebrated one, where Sully presents urious citizen, as the companion his master with the moncy he had to a fillet of veal, or a Norwich received by the sale of the Royal turkey. Now he is visited by the Foreits.

philosopher and the politician, by

the brave and the beauteous, by Anecdote of DR. JOHNSON. the scientific and the idle. He is

A GENTLEMĂN telling Dr, gazed at with the eye of wonder, Johnson that he had seen the contemplated with the smile of apo jearned pig; expressed himself probation, and gratified with the allonished at his performances, murmur of applause." but at the same time sorry to con.


in 1788.


4. New arrangement of the horse TOSTILITIES commenced and horle granadier guards, final

by the emperor againit ly settled. the Turks, and Belgrade invested - Extraordinary bett made be. by a large army,

tween the dukes of Bedford and C2


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