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energy to research. Such men have taken an active part in the development of their phase of geology and have made many valuable contributions to the subject. Those employed by a definite company have less control of their time and therefore less independence in the direction their studies take. In both cases the research is likely to contain an element of secrecy and results of research which can not be published, no matter how good they may be, can not contribute to the advancement of the science. Recent studies show an actual decrease of published matter occurring at just about the time the call for oil geologists became pronounced. This is no indication that geologists should not go into professional geologic work, but it does point out that if a man feels he would enjoy the publication of the results of his research, there are far better openings than commercial work in his particular case.
There seems to be no need of discussing the various fields of what is more commonly considered geology. The sources of support are the same as above and the opportunities for subjects of study as endless as the topics of the text-books. Stratigraphy, physiography, economic geology, dynamical, and historical geology, with their accompanying theoretical aspects, all offer their attractions according to the taste of the investigator.
Compensation is unquestionably of two sorts-material and mental. In material compensation, there can be no doubt that the practising geologist leads. He also has the satisfaction that comes from active participation in the development and winning of material wealth. There is, however, a field of research where the results are not utilitarian and are of no apparent practical value. Here the financial reward is less, but there comes instead what to many men is the greatest joy of life-the personal discovery of new facts and the increase of human knowledge. A geologist said recently "I am doing just what I would do if I had a million dollars." The true research spirit has in it also
an underlying motive of service to humanity. The reading of biography or personal observation will surely verify this statement.
Great advances of the future are not dependent upon having every man do everything as an expert, but they will rest upon a wide appreciation of the importance of constructive thought, of organized knowledge, and of the continuous advance of knowledge.1
If a man's inclination is to add to this " continuous advance of knowledge" by personal effort, he may be sure that he will eventually feel well paid.
GEOLOGY AS A PROFESSION2
Why enter geology as a profession? The reasons are most diverse and will make varying appeals according to the likes and dislikes of the individual. No claim is made that the facts advanced are all peculiar to geology, but the combination of advantages is certainly hard to match elsewhere.
For the sake of clarity these reasons will be discussed under numerical headings.
1. The science is young. Any man of good ability may hope to make worth while contributions to it. The joy of discovery, already alluded to, is open to all.
2. The range of possible employment is large. The three most open to the beginner are teaching, work under government or state bureaus, and commercial employment. If one type of work proves distasteful, there are opportunities to utilize the same training in a different occupation. This fact has been amplified on a preceding page.
3. The investigator may feel that his work has an intimate relation with the winning and best utilization of the raw materials which contribute to national and world prosperity. This is often true even if his tastes lead him in fields which seem to have no relation to the practical needs of man. Berry, 1 Address by J. C. Merriam. See SCIENCE for November 19, 1920.
2 The writer wishes to acknowledge indebtedness to a splendid paper by R. D. Salisbury, in SCIENCE, April 5, 1918, for much that is good in the following discussion.
in reviewing a recent work on foraminifera, has pointed out that these microscopic animals "have lately been shown to be of profound significance in the location of oil sands. . . in the Texas oil fields."
4. The geologist has the pleasure of realizing close bonds with many kinds of people and many fields of human interest. The successful operation of the federal leasing law depends on the work which many young geologists have been doing in the different sections of the country in past summers. In the settlement of post-war problems in economics, the word of the geologist (and geographer) carried much weight. In matters of conservation and the establishment of national parks he holds an honorable place. And his influence on religious thought has been and still is great.
Geology means contact with people. The geologist in his field work often meets woodsmen, Indians, cowboys, pioneer agriculturalists, prospectors and miners; in consulting work, he deals with "big business"; in classroom or office, with highly trained university men; often his lot is cast with all three types many times in the course of a year. He must develop tact, an understanding and appreciation of people of various kinds, and an ability to adapt himself to varying conditions of life. Incidently, he will probably keep alive the "milk of human kindness." Geology may not be a humanistic subject, but it is a thoroughly human subject.
5. The character of the science is such as to develop the quality of good judgment. Geology being young and many theories still debatable, the first duty of the geologist is to consider the evidence and accept those theories according best with the known facts. Due, perhaps, to this and the preceding fact, many geologists have filled positions as college presidents, executive officers, and public servants with exceptional tact, skill, and integrity.
6. The geologist derives great reward from his intimate understanding of nature. No journey is so long, no desert so drear, no mountain so forbidding, no streamlet SO
small, no life so insignificant, that it does not bring with it some intimate revelation and fellowship. As is often said of religion, this is something which needs to be experienced to be understood. It is a wonderful possession to have and a wonderful gift to impart to others as teacher and as investigator. The geologist may not express his thoughts in a "Psalm of Life" as did Longfellow after viewing a fossil foot-print, but his inspiration may be even greater from his fuller understanding of its meaning.
7. Geology is an invigorator—physically. The researches of the active geologist will take him into the open, far away from the contaminated air of city and laboratory, for several weeks or months, each year. Few other learned professions can offer this inducement to their votaries. The geologist must love the out-of-doors and from this love he will draw physical fitness. Geology is pre-eminently a profession for the redblooded, athletic type of man.
8. Geology is an invigorator-morally and spiritually. Consider the title of papers by some of the present-day leaders J. M. Clarke, "The philosophy of geology and the .order of the state"; T. C. Chamberlin, "A geologic forecast of the future opportunities of our race"; G. O. Smith, "Geology and the public service"; read the concluding paragraphs of text-books on geology; consider the closing words of a recent address before an important gathering of geologists
The student of earth sciences was once a contributor to the wider philosophy of nature. It may be his duty now to make sure, not only that his influence is felt in advancement of material welfare, but that he serve also to point out the lesson of the foundations of the earth, and to show that strength may still come from the hills.
In conclusion, for one who has scientific leanings, who cares for investigation, and who has ability, geology offers health, an optimistic outlook on life, human intercourse, abundant opportunity for research, and withal, a livelihood.
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
H. P. LITTLE
ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE REPORT OF THE AUTUMN MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE COUNCIL
THE meeting was called to order in the office of The Science Press, in the Grand Central Terminal Building, New York City, at 3 o'clock, November 20, 1921, Chairman Flexner presiding. The following members were present: Cattell, Fairchild, Flexner, Howard, Humphreys, Livingston, MacDougal, Moore, Osborn, Ward. Excepting A. A. Noyes, the entire committee was present.
1. The minutes of the last meeting (April 24, 1921) were approved as mailed to all members of the committee.
2. The permanent secretary's report was considered in some detail and was accepted and ordered filed. A résumé follows:
The Summarized Proceedings was published October 10. The membership list was closed June 15, so that the published list is corrected only to that date. 2,300 copies were printed at a cost of $5,378.58. The preparation of the manuscript cost $1,313.73 as extra clerical expenses. Adding this amount to the cost of publication gives $6,692.31. This total cost of the book is partially offset by sales of 1,796 copies amounting to $2,183.00. The book thus cost the Association $4,509.31 net, chargeable against the seven years, 1915 to 1921. 130 copies were given away, of which 74 went to general officers, section secretaries, and secretaries of affiliated societies, for their official use. Of the remaining 56 free copies, 53 were complimentary to institutions and libraries outside of the United States, and 3 copies were sent out on account of exchanges.
Three Booklets were printed and circulated since the last meeting of the executive committee. By means of one of these the resolutions recently adopted by the Association were placed in the hands of all members. About 12,500 copies of that booklet were sent out. A booklet of general information was used in the circularization for new members (about 25,000 have been sent out), and another booklet announcing the Toronto meeting was sent to all members with the bills of October 1. New members of the affiliated societies and all members of the newly affiliated societies (The American Mathematical Society, The Mathematical Association of America, The American Geographical Society, The American Society for Testing Materials, The American Society of Agronomy, The Society of Sigma Xi, and the Gamma Alpha Gradu
ate Scientific Fraternity) were invited to join the Association without entrance fee, as far as the necessary lists could be procured. About 20,000 such invitations have been sent out and about 10,000 more will go out when the lists arrive from the society secretaries. 4,300 names for circularization were obtained from the new volume of "American Men of Science." (To Nov. 20, this circularization of about 24,300 names-has secured 557 new members.) A tabulated membership report will be published later.
3. The general secretary's verbal report was accepted. He reported correspondence with the Utah Academy of Science. This Academy has altered its movement for separation from the Pacific Division. He had been in consultation with officers of sections, and it was believed that stronger council sessions would result at future meetings. He reported that arrangements were being made by which various different interests have been centered in the program of Section C for the Toronto meeting.
A recess, from 6:30 to 8:00, was taken for dinner, after which the committee convened again. 4. Mr. J. B. Tyrrell was elected chairman of Section M and vice-president for that section.
5. Mr. L. W. Wallace was elected secretary of Section M.
5a. Dr. A. B. Macallum, professor of biological chemistry at McGill University, was elected a vicepresident, and chairman of Section N.
6. Fifty-six fellows were elected, distributed among the sections as follows:
C D E F G M 0 3 3 1 4 19 3 2 14 7. The American Society of Mammalogists was constituted an affiliated society.
8. It was voted that the American Ceramic Society be invited to become associated and to become affiliated if the number of A. A. A. S. members in the society should prove to warrant affiliation.
9. The Phi Delta Kappa Fraternity was invited to become an associated society.
10. The Canadian Society of Technical Agriculturists was invited to become an associated society. 11. The petition of 32 members resident in State College, Pa., dated November 1, was granted, thus constituting a local branch in that place, to be known as the State College (Pa.) Branch of the A. A. A. S. The branch is to receive 50 cents for each payment of annual dues made to the A. A. A. S. by its members.
12. It was voted that the committee regards it as
desirable that the next volume of Summarized Proceedings be published in fall of 1925, to include the proceedings of the 1924 (Washington) meeting.
13. It was voted that the executive committee recommend to the Council that the 1925 meeting (for the year 1925-6) be held at Kansas City, Mo. 14. The general secretary was instructed to communicate with the Pacific Division and to say that if the Pacific Executive Committee arranged its summer meeting for 1922 in Salt Lake City, the executive committee would consider the matter of arranging a meeting of the whole Association for that time and place.
15. The permanent secretary was instructed to invite all past presidents to be present at the Toronto meeting, especially to attend the sessions of the council at Toronto and to take part in the council's deliberations.
16. The general secretary was asked to invite one or more Russian scientists to attend the Toronto meeting.
The meeting adjourned at 10 o'clock, to meet in Toronto, at 10 A.M. on Tuesday, December 27. BURTON E. LIVINGSTON, Permanent Secretary
AN AMERICAN BAMBOO GROVE OPEN TO
RESEARCH men connected with the state and other institutions are invited to visit the bamboo grove at Savannah on the Ogeechee Road. This grove covers an acre of ground, and the culms rise fifty-five feet into the air, producing a dense forestlike effect with their smooth dark green culms three and four inches in diameter. It is the largest grove of the Madane bamboo (Phyllostachys bambusoides) east of the Mississippi and comparable in beauty to groves of similar size in Japan. Any botanist who has never seen a bamboo grove has waiting for him a thrilling experience, for the sight of a giant grass over fifty feet tall changes one's ideas of grasses just as the sight of a victoria regia changes one's ideas of water lilies or the discovery of the pterodactyl changed our ideas of lizards and birds. A simple laboratory, which is being equipped with limited living accommodations, stands in the center of the grove, and its facilities are at the disposal of
the research workers of the Department of Agriculture and other institutions upon application to this office.
While the grove is wonderfully interesting at any time, it is peculiarly fascinating about the middle of April when the new shoots four inches in diameter are coming through the ground and shooting skyward at a great rate.
Botanists to or from Florida should by all means stop and see this grove. It lies twelve miles from Savannah on a new concrete highway, the Ogeechee Road. Long distance telephone central will connect anyone with the "Government Bamboo Grove," and they can talk with Mr. Rankin, the superintendent. DAVID FAIRCHILD
OFFICE OF FOREIGN SEED AND PLANT
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY
FLIGHTS OF HOUSE FLIES
THAT the house fly not uncommonly makes a journey of five to six miles in the space of twenty-four hours is shown by experiments conducted by the Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture. The ease with which flies travel many miles shows the importance of general sanitary measures to destroy breeding places. Fly flight tests were conducted in northern Texas, where approximately 234,000 flies of many different species were trapped, then dusted with finely powdered red chalk, and liberated. Fly traps baited with food highly relished by the flies were placed at measured intervals in all directions from the points of release. By means of these secondary traps, it was possible to determine the direction and flight of different species of flies. The tests showed that the flies, after regaining their freedom, would travel distances up to 1,000 feet in a few minutes. The screw-worm fly evidenced its power to cover a half mile in three hours, while the black blowfly traveled anywhere from half a mile to eleven miles during the first two days' release. The house fly covered over six miles in less than twenty-four hours. Observations at the Rebecca Light Shoal off
the coast of Florida seemed to show that flies come down the wind from Cuba (ninety miles distant), and at times from the Marquesas Keys (twenty-four miles distant), and even from Key West, Fla., forty-six miles away. The maximum distance traveled by the house fly in these experiments was 13.14 miles. The tests proved that the injurious forms of fly life were not distributed on any large scale by artificial means, but rather that many of the far-flying species showed marked migratory habits.
IMPACT ON BRIDGES
A NEW instrument devised by the Bureau of Public Roads of the United States Department of Agriculture measures with scientific precision the effect of every shock and blow delivered by moving vehicles in crossing a bridge. Attached to any part of the bridge structure, this instrument makes a photographic record of the effect of the moving load. The amount of stretching or shortening of the part as a result of the shocks is represented by a fine black line on the photograph. No blow or shock can be delivered so quickly that the instrument will not record its effect. It has never before been possible to measure the effect of such blows. Engineers have long been able to calculate the effect of standing loads very exactly; but because of their inability to measure the effect of quickly delivered blows or impacts, they have never been able to proportion the various parts of a bridge with absolute assurance. It has been necessary to make a liberal allowance for this unknown quantity. In some cases the allowance has not been sufficient and the bridges have collapsed under moving loads. Many bridges still in service are probably too weak to withstand safely the sharp blows of swiftly moving vehicles, though they will safely carry the same vehicles at rest or moving at a slow speed. The familiar warning posted at the portals of a bridge: "Speed limit on this bridge 8 miles per hour," means that the design of the bridge to which it is attached is not strong enough to allow for impact. In the light of the recent experiments with motor trucks in which it was shown that
a swiftly moving motor truck may strike a blow equivalent to seven times its actual weight, it is rather surprising, the department road experts say, that failures have been so few. It is believed this new measuring instrument will soon do away with uncertainty. The knowledge gained by its use will enable the engineer to design bridges which are sure to hold up under fast-moving vehicles, and to build such bridges without undue waste of material and money.
THE TORONTO MEETING
THE section of medical sciences of the American Association has arranged the following program:
Vice-presidential Address: "The past and the future of the medical sciences in the United States: Professor Joseph Erlanger, professor of physiology, Washington University.
"Hereditary factors in development "': Dr. Charles B. Davenport, director of the Laboratories for Experimental Evolution of the Carnegie Institution.
"The metabolism of children in health and disease ": Professor Harold Bailey, Cornell Medical School, N. Y.
"Newer aspects in dietetics of children "': Dr. Alfred Hess, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York.
"Movie exhibition of tonsil-adenoid clinics in operation": Dr. George W. Goler, health officer, Rochester, N. Y.
"The mental hygiene of children": Dr. C. M. Hincks, associate medical director, Canadian Na tional Committee for Municipal Hygiene, Toronto, Canada.
PROFESSOR E. S. MOERE, secretary of the section of geology and geography, writes:
The section has prepared a very interesting program for the Toronto meeting and the officers of the section will be glad to hear at once from any of the members who wish to contribute. While the meetings of the other societies affiliated with the association are drawing many of the geologists and mineralogists from this side of the international boundary to Amherst, quite a number are going to take part in the Toronto meeting and the Canadian geologists are most heartily cooperating in preparation for the meeting. Many of the geologists of the Canadian Geological Survey and