Page images

a prominent place in the Association's programme, and rightly so, for they have promoted the advancement of science in many directions; but, while we recognize their value to scientific workers, we plead for something more for the great mass of people outside the section-rooms, for a statement of ideals and of service, of the strength of knowledge and of responsibility for its use. These are the subjects which will quicken the pulse of the community and convert those who hate and fear science and associate it solely with debasing aspects of modern civilization into fervent disciples of a new social faith upon which a lever made in the workshops of natural knowledge may be placed to move the world. RICHARD GREGORY

A NOTABLE MATHEMATICAL GIFT As trustee of the Edward C. Hegeler Trust fund Mrs. Mary Hegeler Carus, of La Salle, Illinois, recently promised to make the Mathematical Association of America a yearly contribution of twelve hundred dollars for five years to be used for the publication of mathematical monographs under the auspices of this association. As is well known the publication of scientific literature has been much hampered in recent years by the greatly increased cost of publication. Hence this gift is especially timely and noteworthy.

The letter confirming this gift was addressed to Professor Slaught, of the University of Chicago, and includes the following significant statement:

If at the end of five years this project shall have proved successful it is my intention to then give to the Association a permanent endowment fund, and I will so direct my legal representatives, which will yield at least twelve hundred dollars annually.

As the great success of the project seems practically assured in view of the wide and deep interest already manifested therein on the part of leading mathematicians the Mathematical Association of America seems to have good reasons for expecting a substantial permanent endowment to aid it in the futherance of its great cause of improving collegiate mathematics.

There are now three national mathematical organizations in America. The oldest of these is the American Mathematical Society, which was organized in 1888 as the New York Mathematical Society, but was reorganized about six years later under its present name. This Society devotes most of its energies to mathematical research, and, to further this cause, Professor L. L. Conant, who died in 1916, bequeathed to it ten thousand dollars, subject to Mrs. Conant's life interest, the income of which is to be offered once in five years as a prize for original work in pure mathematics.

The Mathematical Association of America was organized in 1915 with a view towards supplementing the work of the American Mathematical Society along the line of collegiate teaching. It has always collaborated with the Society holding joint meetings with it and having a large common membership. The gift announced above will make it possible to collaborate still more effectively in promoting the interests of advanced mathematics in this country. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, organized in 1920, is mainly devoted to the interests of the teaching of secondary mathematics and hence represents more distinctly a separate field, but it too has already begun to cooperate with the Mathematical Association of America.

The latter organization took steps several years ago towards the publication of a modern mathematical dictionary and has a standing committee on this subject. It has, however, not yet been able to push this laudable enterprise on account of lack of funds. The difficulty of such a work is increased by the fact that at present there exists no good mathematical dictionary in any language, and hence most of the material for such a work has to be collected from original sources. G. A. MILLER


A NEW ALASKA BASE MAP THE U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey of the Department of Commerce reports the completion of a new outline map of Alaska on the Lambert conformal conic projection,

scale 1/5,000,000; dimensions 17 X 26 in., price 25 cents.

The map extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the State of Washington in the south, and includes all of the Aleutian Islands and a part of Eastern Siberia. It is intended merely as a base map to which may be added any kind of special information that may be desired. For this reason only national boundaries, the adjacent Canadian provinces, and the names of a few of the important towns are given. The shoreline is compiled from the most recent Coast and Geodetic Survey charts and in respect to southeast Alaska and westward to Kodiak Island, the coast-line is better represented than heretofore. The accumulation of the yearly surveys in the extensive and largely unsurveyed waters of Alaska as here embodied, presents a delineation of the coastline in a more really true shape than heretofore and in this respect the map is more reliable than other existing maps of similar scale.

In addition to this feature, the employment of a more suitable system of map projection adds to the general accuracy. On account of the predominating east and west extent of Alaska, the Lambert conformal conic projection with two standard parallels offers advantages over other projections formerly used in mapping this region. This is the system which came to prominent notice during the World War and was employed by the allied forces in their military operations in France.

The parallels employed as standards are the latitudes 55° and 65°, and along these parallels the scale is true. Between these parallels the scale becomes too small by less than four-tenths of one per cent., which amount is insignificant. At Dixon entrance in southeast Alaska, the former general chart of Alaska on a polyconic projection was in error by as much as ten per cent. due to a system of projection which was unsuited to the shape of the area involved. In the new base map, the projection error in this locality is entirely eliminated. The maximum er

ror of scale of the Lambert projection is only 1 3/4 per cent. This is in the latitude of Pt. Barrow in the north where the scale is too large by this amount. The same amount of error appears in latitude 48° but this is considerably south of Alaska, which is the subject of the map. The polyconic projection had the effect of exaggerating areas in the most important part of Alaska whereas in the Lambert projection the maximum scale error is placed in the least important part of Alaska, and in amount is only one sixth as large as in the polyconic projection.

For the measurement of distances and areas within the extent of the map, an accuracy is thus obtained that is well within the limits of draftsmanship, paper distortion, and our knowledge of this region as a whole.

The selection of a suitable projection with a conformal grid system of one degree units, makes the new outline map a convenient base for the addition of special and useful information. The inclusion of the northwest part of the state of Washington serves as a connecting link with a similar Lambert conformal base map of the United States which has already been published on the same scale.



THE Pittsburgh Experiment Station of the United States Bureau of Mines, according to a bulletin of the bureau, is working in cooperation with the Research Bureau of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers on a number of problems which affect each individual in his home life, in his place of business, and especially in those places where many people congregate, as in churches, school-rooms and theaters. It is important to ventilate such places with sufficient fresh air to make every one comfortable enough to be able to work at high efficiency. The circulation of excessive quantities of fresh air imposes a considerable cost on the heating system, therefore an efficiently designed heating and ventilating system introduces the least amount of cooled air con

sistent with proper conditions for health. In this connection the use of ozone has frequently been proposed and actually tried in a number of places. The ozone is supposed to deodorize and purify the air by the oxidation of organic matter and possibly by killing bacteria.

It is, however, a question as to whether ozone can be introduced in quantities large enough to kill bacteria without producing very serious irritation of the throat and lung tissues. It is also a question as to whether harmful oxides of nitrogen are not produced simultaneously with ozone. Definite information is needed on this subject. The first step in obtaining such information is to work out methods for accurately determining the percentage of ozone and oxides of nitrogen produced for different types of ozone machines and to develop suitable methods for determining the very small quantities of ozone and oxides of nitrogen that may be present in air treated with such machines. Analytical work of the highest precision is required. The gas laboratory of the Bureau of Mines Pittsburgh Experiment Station is now engaged on this problem, working in cooperation with the Research Bureau of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers which is housed in the same building.


After the chemists have worked out the methods of detecting and analysing these small quantities of ozone and oxides of nitrogen, the next problem will be undertaken in a like cooperation of the two agencies just named working with the United States Public Health Service. Surgeons from this service are detailed to the Bureau of Mines for working on health and sanitation problems. work is being carried on under the joint general direction of A. C. Fieldner, supervising chemist and superintendent of the Pittsburgh Station of the Bureau of Mines, and Dr. R. R. Sayers, chief surgeon of the Bureau of Mines, by G. W. Jones, assistant gas chemist, W. P. Yant, assistant analytical chemist, and O. W. Armspach, engineer of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engi


THE PUEBLO BONITO EXPEDITION OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY NEIL M. JUDD, curator of American archeology in the U. S. National Museum, has returned to Washington from New Mexico where he has been engaged, during the past five months, as director of the National Geographic Society's Pueblo Bonito Expedition. This first summer's explorations in Pueblo Bonito one of the largest and best preserved prehistoric ruins in the United States-is reported to have been entirely successful and to have prepared the way for more intensive research next season. Over forty dwellings and five large ceremonial rooms were excavated; a considerable collection of artifacts and much valuable data were recovered.

As a unique feature of the National Ge ographic Society's newest expedition it is proposed to hold an annual symposium at Pueblo Bonito a conference to which will be invited leaders in various branches of science. The first of these meetings, held late in August, was attended by several archeologists and agriculturists; geologists, botanists and soil experts will be invited to the next conference. Through the willing cooperation of these specialists, each expert in his own branch of science, it is hoped to gain a deeper understanding of the conditions under which the ancient inhabitants of Pueblo Bonito carried on their numerous activities; i.e., the geophysical conditions which obtained in their day, the source and extent of their water supply, their methods of agriculture, the character and variety of their foodstuffs, as well as an index as to their cultural attainments, through careful examination of the archeological data recovered. This is the first instance, it is believed, in which American men of widely differing fields of science have joined in solution of a common problem.


AT the dedication of the Steele Chemical Laboratory, according to the account in the Boston Transcript, the assembly included Governor Albert A. Brown of New Hampshire, former Governor Pingree of Vermont, Dean

Henry P. Talbot of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. William H. Nichols of New York City, members of the board of trustees of Dartmouth College, and a number of prominent chemists of New England. Addresses were made by Dr. Nichols, who spoke of the late Sanford H. Steele, a former associate in the General Chemical Company, and an alumnus of Dartmouth, whose bequest of $250,000 made the new building possible, and by Dean Talbot, who reviewed the outstanding achievements of the last fifty years in the study of chemistry.

The Steele chemistry building, which has just been completed at a cost of half a million dollars, embodies the best features of over a score of laboratories inspected by the architects and members of the Dartmouth chemistry department. Much of the apparatus of its equipment has been specially constructed according to designs of Dartmouth chemists.

Nine laboratory rooms are contained in the building, varying from the large laboratory for beginners which will accommodate 144 men working at one time to the laboratory for advanced organic chemistry which will accommodate about fifteen men. Laboratories for qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, physiological chemistry, physical chemistry, organic chemistry and advanced courses in each of these studies are included. The new building also contains offices and laboratory suites for instructors and professors as well as a large library, lecture room, and conductivity rooms. Specially designed and constructed systems for ventilation, and distribution of gas, electricity, compressed air and distilled water have been installed. The building is Georgian in type, to harmonize with other Dartmouth buildings. It was designed by Larson & Wells of Hanover, and erected by the Cummings Construction of Ware, Mass.

Members of the Ouroborus Club, a society of chemists, holding its fall meeting at Hanover, were guests at the dedication exercises and included Professors Talbot, Norris, Moore, Williams, Smith and Lewis of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kohler and Lamb, of Harvard; Jennings and Zinn, of Worcester;

Hopkins, Doughty and Scatchard, of Amherst; Chamberlain and Morse of Massachusetts Agricultural College; Mears of Williams; Johnson of Yale; Hoover of Wesleyan; and Bartlett, Bolser and Richardson of Dartmouth.


A second series of ten lectures on "Public Hygiene" to be given under the auspices of the school of Hygiene and Public Health at the University of Pennsylvania is announced as follows: October 15. "The factors that determine disease and death." Professor D. H. Bergey, School of Hygiene and Public Health, University of Pennsylvania.

October 22. "The organization of community anti-tuberculosis work." G. T. Drolet, Statistician, N. Y. Tuberculosis Commission.

October 29. "The sanitary control of food and drink in Philadelphia." Professor Seneca Egbert, School of Hygiene and Public Health, University of Pennsylvania.

[blocks in formation]

health officials and the opportunities for using such training." Dr. John A. Ferrell, International Health Board, Rockefeller Foundation.



DR. L. EMMETT HOLT, emeritus professor of pediatrics of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, will deliver the Lane Medical Lectures in the Stanford University Medical School, San Francisco, from December 5 to 10. The lectures will take place daily at 8 P. M. The topics will be as follows:

I. The general subject of nutrition-its importance in relation to health and growth, to progress in school, to resistance to infection and in the management of acute and chronic disease. II. The food requirements of the healthy child after infancy.

III. The function in diet of fat, protein, carbohydrate and mineral salts, and the conditions which determine the amounts needed.

IV. Vitamines-Their function in nutrition and the new point of view which they have given regarding food values.

V. The practical problem of improving the nutrition of children including the prevention and treatment of malnutrition.

Dr. Holt will also give a clinic on children's diseases on Wednesday, December 7, at 11:30 A.M., at the Medical School.


THE thirty-ninth annual meeting of the American Society of Naturalists will be held in Toronto, Canada, on Thursday, December 29, 1921, under the auspices of the University of Toronto.

Headquarters of the society will be the King Edward Hotel, 37-55 East King Street, where the American Society of Zoologists and the Botanical Society of America will also have headquarters. Members desiring accommodations at headquarters should make reservations early. Accommodations may also be obtained at other hotels and probably also at the dormitories of the university and near-by

fraternity houses. Information concerning these accommodations will be given later in SCIENCE or in the final announcement in December.

On Thursday forenoon a limited number of short papers by members and invited guests will be given. Members desiring to present papers should send the titles to the secretary not later than November 24, giving estimated time of delivery, and requirements of lantern, charts, blackboard space, etc. It should be remembered that the primary interest of the society, as expressed in resolutions, is in evolution in its broadest sense.

Thursday afternoon is to be devoted to the annual symposium. The general subject in 1921 is "The Origin of Variations," and the following speakers have been secured:

H. S. Jennings-Variation in Uniparental Reproduction.

A. F. Blakeslee-Variations in Datura due to Changes in Chromosome Number.

H. J. Muller-Variation due to Change in Individual Genes.

C. B. Bridges-The Origin of Variations in Sexual and Sex-Limited Characters.

R. A. Emerson-The Nature of Bud Variations as Indicated by the Mode of their Inheritance. M. F. Guyer-Serological Reactions as a Probable Cause of Variations.

The naturalists' dinner will be given on Thursday evening. The annual address of the president will follow.

The American Association and most of the affiliated societies will meet in Toronto. Attention is called to cooperation of the naturalists with the Botanical Society of America and the American Society of Zoologists, whereby the latter two societies list their papers on subjects of greatest interest to the naturalists on the day preceding the naturalists' program.

Section G (Botany) of the American Association will present on Wednesday afternoon a symposium on the "Utility of the Species Concept," in which the speakers are Charles F. Millspaugh, George H. Shull, R. A. Harper, Guilford B. Reed, and E. C. Stakman.

The American Society of Zoologists has ar

« PreviousContinue »