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thing well worth doing may be done, if philanthropists can be shown that they are in many cases insuring the future illbeing of men while eagerly pursuing their present wellbeing.

Chiefly, however, it is important to press on all the great truth, at present but little recognized, that a society's internal and external policies are so bound together, that there cannot be an essential improvement of the one without an essential improvement of the other. A higher standard of international justice must be habitually acted upon, before there can be conformity to a higher standard of justice in our national arrangements. The conviction that a dependence of this kind exists, could it be diffused among civilized peoples, would greatly check aggressive behaviour towards one another; and, by doing this, would diminish the coerciveness of their governmental systems while appropriately changing their political theories.

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[In some of the criticisms on this work, there has reappeared a mistaken inference several times before drawn, that the doctrine of evolution as applied to social affairs precludes philanthropic effort. How untrue this is, was shown by me in the FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW for February, 1875. IIere I reproduce the essential part of that which was there said.]

I am chiefly concerned, however, to repudiate the conclusion that the “private action of citizens” is needless or unimportant, because the course of social evolution is determined by the natures of citizens, as working under the conditions in which they are placed. To assert that each social change is thus determined, is to assert that all the egoistic and altruistic activities of citizens are factors of the change; and is tacitly to assert that in the absence of any of these

say political aspirations, or the promptings of philanthropythe change will not be the same. So far from implying that the efforts of each man to achieve that which he thinks best, are unimportant, the doctrine implies that such efforts, severally resulting from the natures of the individuals, are indispensable forces. The correlative duty is thus emphasized in $ 34 of First Principles :

“It is not for nothing that he has in him these sympathies with some principles and repugnance to others. He, with all his capacities, and aspirations, and beliefs, is not an accident, but a product of the time. He must remember that while he is a descendant of the past, he is a parent of the future; and that his thoughts are as children born to him, which he may not carelessly let die. He, like every other man, may properly consider himself as one of the myriad agencies through whom works the Unknown Cause; and when the Unknown Cause produces in him a certain belief, he is thereby authorized to profess and act out that belief. For, to render in their highest sense the words of the poet,

“... Nature is made better by no mean,
But nature makes that mean: over that art
Which you say adds to nature, is an art
That nature makes."

That there is no retreat from this view in the work Professor Cairnes criticizes, The Study of Sociology, is sufficiently shown by its closing paragraph :

“ Thus, admitting that for the fanatic some wild anticipation is needful as a stimulus, and recognizing the usefulness of this delusion as adapted to his particular nature and his particular function, the man of higher type must be content with greatly-moderated expectations, while he perseveres with undiminished efforts. He has to see how comparatively little can be done, and yet to find it worth while to do that little: so uniting philanthropic energy with philosophic calm."

I do not see how Professor Cairnes reconciles with such passages, his statement that “according to Mr. Spencer, the future of the human race may be safely trusted to the action of motives of a private and personal kind-to motives such

as operate in the production and distribution of wealth, or in the development of language.” This statement is to the effect that I ignore the “action of motives” of a higher kind; whereas these are not only necessarily included by me in the totality of motives, but repeatedly insisted upon as allessential. I am the more surprised at this misapprehension because, in the essay on “Specialized Administration,” to which Professor Cairnes refers (see Fortnightly Review, for December, 1871), I have dwelt at considerable length on the altruistic sentiments and the resulting social activities, as not having been duly taken into account by Professor Huxley.

As Professor Cairnes indicates at the close of his first paper, the difficulty lies in recognizing human actions as, under one aspect, voluntary, and under another pre-determined. I have said elsewhere all I have to say on this point. Here I wish only to point out that the conclusion he draws from my premises is utterly different from the conclusion I draw. Entering this caveat, I must leave all further elucidations to come in due course.

THE END.

SUBJECT-INDEX
TO SOCIAL STATICS AND MAN VERSUS STATE.

(For this Index the Author is indebted to F. Howard Collins, Esq., of

Edg baston, Birmingham.)

9

ACCIDENTS: woman's sympathy, 50. Annelida, segmentation of, 269.
Acorn, growth, 87.

Appetite: importance of 15-17; pre-
Acquisitiveness, instinct of, 48.

sent, for food, 43 ; (see also Food).
Acts of Parliament: ineffectual, 12, 13, Arafura customs, 392.

313-14; selfishness, 96; restrictive, Araucanian customs, 391.
290; building, 210-12, 342-47 ; Palm- Arbitration, and national character,
erston's, 290-92; factory, 290-94, 115, 120.
309-10; Gladstone's, 292–93 ; belief | Arch, J., on land, 325.
in, 212, 377; artisans’dwellings, 346-47; Architect, on industrial dwellings,
public health, 350 ; (see also Artisans 3445.
Dwellings, Law).

Aristotle, on barbarians, 55.
Adaptation : relation to good, 28; a per- Arnold, Matthew: on copyright, 387;
manent tendency, 28–30; man not per- on property, 388.
fectly adapted, 31–32, 56 ; the aim of Artisans' Dwellings : Metropolitan As-
morai teaching, 35; pain from non-, sociation for, 209; Buildings Acts,
41; of conduct, 44 ; belief in equality, 210-11, 323-24; reinoral of, 263; and
47, and marriage, 78; and education, legislation, 294; at Liverpool, 306;
88, 176-78, 356; and social surround- and bad legislation, 342-47; in Glas-
ings, 100; and specialization, 122;, re- gow, 347-48; and happiness, 409.
tarded by poor laws, 148-49; and hu- Ashantee customs, 391–92.
man suffering, 232-34; its slowness, Assassination and tyranny, 261-62.
2:4–36; and race survival, 236–38; of Astronomer Royal, stipend, 58.
citizens and government, 251-53; and Austin, J., on sovereignty, 380.

heredity, 356; (see also Habit). Australia, and Colonial Oilice, 195.
Admiralty: mismanagement, 133, 213, Austria, education in, 159, 166-67.
350-5); and telegraph, 350.

Author: rights of, 387; self-criticism, 80.
Adulteration : effects, 264; appointment Authority: and love, 75–77; traits of
of analysts, 290.

belief, 241-45; and equity, 245-46.
Adultery, penalty, 399.

Axioms: importance of definiteness, 7;
Æsthetics, and greatest happiness, 9- geometric sense, 22-23.

10.
Affection, and intellect, 15–17.

BAGEHOT, W.: state and currency, 228.
Afghan war, cost, 192.

Bakehouses, and legislation, 291.
Africa: suppression of slave-trade in, Banking, (see Currency).

11-12; and Colonial Office, 194, 195. Barrister, and perfect law, 26.
Agriculture, and education, 163–64. Bath, the union at, and poor law, 304-5.
Alexander VI., colonization, 189.

Battles, (see War).
Allotments, rent of, 102.

Bavaria, marriage in, 11.
America : man's equality, 47; declara- Bechuana, conduct and custom, 391.

tion of independence, 194; slavery, Beerhouses, (see Licensing Acts).
250, 262; railways and morality, 266; Begging : effect of poor laws, 148; profit-
crime and poverty, 366.

ableness, 152.
Animals. adaptation of, 29-32; and Na- Beliefs: truth of, 81; and causation,

ture's warfare, 149; traits of society 355-56.
and, 267-73; continuance of species, Beneficence : negative, 34 ; positive, 35,
359-62; life of, 397-400.

justice, 40, 51.

Bentham, J.: on moral sense, 17-19, 21; | Civilization: natural, 32; and status of

on rights, 54, 92-93, 388-90, 393; im- women, 77, 81; and of children, 81;
postor terms, 389.

and democracy, 105–8; and impulsive-
Berlin, suppression of immorality, 132. ness, 151; course of, 233-36, 236-38;
Bibles, and slavery, 250.

and life of savage, 238; and individ-
Bisinarck, Prince, and state socialism, uality, 253–55, 259-61.
329.

Classification : of nature, 256; man, 270;
Black Act of George I., 96.

and intelligence, 286–87.
Boards of Health : inefficiency, 212–14; Climate, adaptation to, 29.

and cholera, 213–14; (see also Sanitary Cloth, restrictions to making, 129.
Supervision).

Clothing: and education, 157; and sani-
Bolingbroke, Viscount, on parties, 283. tary supervision, 201-2.
Book, property in ideas, 69-70.

Coal, effects of price, 359.
Book-club, analogy, 381-82.

Cobbett, W., maintenance from soil,
Botany, (see Plants).

144.
Boundaries, and census, 349.

Cobden Club and free trade, 362-63.
Brewing, (see Licensing Acts).

Coercion, and love, 75–77; (see also Mili-
Brewster, Sir D., teaching of science, tancy).
130.

Coinage, fixing value of, 139; (see also
Bricks, cffect of duty, 211.

Currency).
Builder, The, on the brick duty, 211. Coleridge, S. T.: on knaves, 174; theory
Building: educational analogy, 180; of life, 255–56.

(see also Acts of Parliament, Artisans' Cologne: castle of Archbishop of, 244.
Dwellings).

Colonies : cost of English, 188; Colo-
Burial, and state duty, 130.

nial Office, 196.
Burke, on sympathy, 50.

Colonization, Government: 188–99; and

first principle, 188–89; and acquisi-
Cab: hailing, 302.

tiveness, 189-90; and commerce, 190-
Cairnes, J. E., and social future, 419-20. 92, 192-93; and colonial interests, 194-
Canada: cost of, 192; and Colonial 96; and aborigines, 196-98; and by
Office, 194, 195.

private individuals, 198–99.
Cancer, cause of, 268.

Coming Slavery, The, 302–33.
Capital, and dwellings, 209.

Commerce, (see Industrialism, Trade).
Carlyle, T., creed of, 377.

Communism: and property, 65-67 ; (sce
Cartouche, and Henry IV., 241.

also Socialism):
Causation: and trespasses, 261 - 64; Competition: in drainage, paving, and

knowledge of, needful to legislators, lighting, 218-19; letter carrying, 229–
355-59.

31.
Census: delay of returns, 349; bound-Comte, A., social statics and dynamics,
aries, 349.

233.
Ceylon : cost of colony, 192; and Colo-Conduct: moral-sense doctrine, 15-23,
nial Office, 195.

56–57: adaptation of, 44; and intellect,
Chalmers, T., political economy, 104. 174; and emotion, 175–76; dependence
Chamberlain, J., on rates, 368.

on law, 245-46; and instincts, 332-33;
Character, and company, 81.

and custom, 391-92; and militancy,
Charity, (see Poor laws).

394–95; sentiments and ideas, 412;
Charles II., colonization, 189-90.

(see also Ethics, Morals).
Cheltenham, drainage, 218.

Conscription, and toryism, 281–86.
Chemists, prescribing by, 204,

Conservatism, and education, 165–68.
Children: rights, 80-90; and civiliza- Considerations, General, 233-73.

tion, 81-84; aim of education, 83-84; | Constitutions, growth of, 114.
anti-coercive treatment, 85–86, 86–87; Contagious Diseases Act, 291-92.
need for education, 87-89; parental Contract: and majority, 382–83; and co-
obstacle to education, 89-90; love of, operation. 401-5; individual and social
160; restrictive legislation, 290, 292, lite, 406-7 ; 407-11.
293; and poor relief, 309; treatinent Convicts: and education, 170-76; (see
of, 372; (see also Education).

also Crime).
China : connubial and tilial relationship Co-operation : compulsory and volun-
in, 82 ; education in, 159, 166.

tary, 281–86; and organization, 328-
Chippewayan customs, 392.

30; majorities and minorities, 384–87,
Cholera, and board of health, 213-14. 406-7 ; and social life, 401; militancy
Cholesbury, poor law at, 326.

and industrialism, 415.
Church, and State, 141-43; (see also Copyright: property in ideas, 68-72;
Religion).

Arnold on, 387.

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