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far as mere literature is concerned, of the brothel scenes to anything in the first two Acts; the impossibility of Shakespeare's marrying Marina to a man like Lysimachus; the alterations of, and additions to, the Shakespeare work by which Wilkins in his novel fancied he could improve the narrative. The difference of style and metre in the blank verse Fleay illustrates by a comparison between Act III. i. 1-6, Act IV. vi. 167-175, Act II. i. I-II, and of the rhyming verse in various places; his contention as to Wilkins's share he supports by a metrical analysis of that dramatist's Miseries of Enforced Marriage; and his belief in the presence of Rowley by a reference to his style, and to the fact that about the time when Pericles may be supposed to have been written he was associated with Wilkins and Day in The Travels of the Three English Brothers.

Closely allied with the question of Wilkins's share in the play is that of the authorship of the brothel scenes. With these, in the opinion of most modern commentators, Shakespeare had no concern; while some hold with Fleay that they are due to Rowley. Nevertheless there are sound scholars who refuse assent to either doctrine. Thus Boas, Shakspere and his Predecessors, p. 554, while admitting the possibility of a third hand, remarks that "their Shaksperean authorship is not to be so decisively rejected as some critics assume. The most repellent features in the scenes mentioned may be paralleled from Measure for Measure, and here as there, they are not introduced from sheer love of foulness. They throw the virginal figure of Marina into brilliant relief by exhibiting her untainted purity amidst the most contaminating surroundings. And in the dialogue there are touches

worthy of the great dramatist, e.g. the sudden rise from prose to verse in Act IV. vi., when Marina appeals to Lysimachus in lines that have a true Shakesperean ring:

If you were born to honour, show it now;
If put upon you, make the judgement good
That thought you worthy of it.

O! that the gods


Would set me free from this unhallow'd place,

Though they did change me to the meanest bird

That flies i' the purer air.

So too the opening lines of Act v., describing her occupations after her escape from captivity, contain distinctively Shaksperean expressions and ideas: e.g.:—

Deep clerks she dumbs; and with her neeld composes
Nature's own shape, of bud, bird, branch, or berry,

That even her art sisters the natural roses;

Her inkle, silk, twin with the rubied cherry.

Here the word 'inkle' which occurs in The Winter's Tale and the description of Marina's needlework as counterfeiting nature to the life, both suggest the hand of Shakspere, who always adopts this realistic criterion of art."

I go much farther than Boas, and believe that throughout the three scenes, IV. ii. v. vi., Shakespeare's presence is distinctly visible in characteristic expressions and turns of thought. These, indeed, are to my mind so striking and abound so largely that while space does not admit of my instancing them, I am astonished at their being supposed to come from any mint but one. What, however, impresses

1 With the five-measure Gower parts in Iv. iv., and in this Chorus (though the rhymes here are alternate and not consecutive) we should, I think, compare The Winter's Tale, Iv. i., Enter Time, the only other Chorus in which Shakespeare uses rhymed lines.


me even more forcibly is a consideration of structure. Wilkins's novel Lysimachus is a profligate roué. The Bawd describes him as "a fauorer of our calling, one that will as soone haue his hand in his pocket, as such a pretty dilling as thou shalt come in his eye, and not as most of our Gentlemen doe, draw it out empty, but filling it full of golde, will most Joue-like rayne it downe into his Danaes lap". This portrait, originally outlined by Twine, Lysimachus subsequently acknowledges for his own. Yet Pericles is shown us as cheerfully giving his daughter in marriage to a man of notoriously evil life. To Shakespeare such a dénouement was impossible. While therefore he was bound to the brothel episode, he has, I maintain, taken upon himself to give us his own reading of Lysimachus's character. It has been pointed out that in their general scope these scenes have much in common with certain others in Measure for Measure. This likeness may, I think, be extended to a particular fact. The Duke there uses his disguise, assumed for a special purpose, as a means of informing himself upon the manner of life of his subjects, who owing to the laxity of his rule had fallen into dissolute ways. Similarly, it seems to me, Shakespeare may have conceived Lysimachus as wishing to probe the plague-sores of the city of which he was governor. Wilkins in his novel, following Twine's lead, preferred the baser presentation of Lysimachus's character, and his version in the play of the interview with Marina would no doubt have been on the same lines. For the reason mentioned above, Shakespeare was debarred from accepting such a situation. At any rate, whatever the object that led Lysimachus to visit the brothel, his conduct there

is quite in keeping with motives other than those by which he is actuated in the prose narratives of the story. With the Bawd and Pander he naturally assumes the role of an ordinary trafficker in the wares they had to utter and talks to them in their own language. Towards Marina his attitude is wholly different. While making trial of her virtue, he gives vent to none of the threats, displays none of the coarseness and violence, which Wilkins plentifully imputes to him. Instead of compelling her to protracted entreaties, he quickly recognises her genuine purity, and at the close of the interview, so far from confessing his vile intentions, emphatically protests that he never had the design of violating her honour. The language of his self-exculpation could hardly be more vigorous. "Had I," he says:—

Had I brought hither a corrupted mind,

Thy speech had alter'd it. Hold, here's gold for thee;
Persever in that clear way thou goest,

And the gods strengthen thee! . . .

For me, be you thoughten


That I came with no ill intent, for to me

The very doors and windows savour vilely.

Farewell. Thou art a piece of virtue, and

I doubt not that thy training hath been noble.

Hold, here's more gold for thee.

A curse upon him, die he like a thief,

That robs thee of thy goodness! If thou dost

Hear from me, it shall be for thy good.

So too with fierce indignation he turns upon Boult in these

words :

Avaunt! thou damned door-keeper. Your house,

But for this virgin that doth prop it, would

Sink and overwhelm you. Away!

Surely these speeches have the full ring of truth, in every line bear the impress of Shakespeare, and, no less surely, I submit, exhibit him as rewriting a scene which in its first shape had followed the course of the Paineful Aduentures. There with maudlin emotion, wiping the tears from Marina's eyes, and longing to reward her virtue with a chaste kiss, Lysimachus whimpers out, "I hither came with thoughtes intemperate, foule and deformed, the which your paines so well have laued, that they are now white, continue still to all so, and for my parte, who hither came but to have payd the price, a péece of golde for your virginitie, now giue you twenty to reléeve your honesty". Equally in Twine's novel, though the details vary, we are left in no doubt as to the character and intentions of Athenagoras, the counterpart of Lysimachus. Being outbidden at the public auction when seeking to purchase Marina, he consoles himself with the reflection, "if I should contend with the bawd to buy her at so hie a price, I must needes sell other slaves to pay for her, which were both losse and shame unto me. Wherefore

I will suffer him to buy her; and when he setteth her to hire, I will be the first man that shall come unto her, and I will gather the floure of her virginitie, which shall stand mee in as great steade as if I had bought her." Like Lysimachus, too, in Wilkins's account, moved by Marina's sad plight, Athenagoras abandons his avowed design. From the Confessio Amantis the incident of the governor's visit to the brothel is altogether absent.

Of course it is not necessary to my view that Shakespeare should have written the whole of these scenes. Indeed, if he had originally taken the plot into his hands, I

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