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he know? But Dr. Hammond says there is no need of this,

and that the fence is more perspicuous without it. 15. Until righteousnes turn again unto judgment.] Usque dum

redeat juftitia ad Judicium. 20. As a law.] Pro statuto, Munster. For a law, Ainsw. XCV. 4. Corners, Penetralia, Munfter. Secret parts, Ham. XCVII. 11. There is sprung up ligbt.] Seventy, ávéletre. Munt.

Sparsa eft. All three do a little abate the Hebrew Catae

chresis of lights being rown. See Pfal. vi. 6. XCIX. 1. Let the people be never so impatient.] Ain worth's An

nocacions are to the same fence. 4. Thou hast prepared equity.) Parasti æquitatem, Munster. CI. 2. O let me have understanding.] . 'Tis in the Hebrew put in the

future Tense; but then it is to be remembred, that the Hebrews have no Potential, or Optative Mood, and therefore use their future Tense in stead of it. See Pfal.cxix. Jod, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Tau, 1, 2, &c. Our Translators thought it more agreeable to express it by way of wish, than in a positive manner, and more befitting the humble Temper of David, and all good Men. The Hebrew Verb here used, properly signifies, to understand, Deut. xxxii. 29. do paflim. But it may be observed, that Verbs fignifying Action, when the future Tense is chus put in a Potential or Optative fence, though they are express'd in Hebrew in the first Person future, yet cannot be fully rendred, as to their fence, but by the English words, may 1, or, let me : Therefore the Hebrew 177 ay literally, I will paß, is justly rendred in English, Let me paß, Deut. ii. 27. And for the same reafon our Translators, in stead of saying, [1 will have understanding in the way of godlines, express the fence in this manner,

O let me, &c. 4. I will take no wicked thing in hand.] This is the English

Phrase, signifying the same with that Hebrew one, I will set no wicked thing before mine eyes. So both our Learned Pa

raphrasts understand it,
CII. 3. A firebrand, 7 Torris, Caftellio.
5. My bones will scarce cleave to my flesh.] If it be granted,

that our Trandators did here 'supply, scarce, yet 'cis no
greater liberty than others have taken in other places. See
General Note 6. It seems to me, that our last Transators
have fupply'd this very Particle, Scarce, Gen. xxvii. 34. 18
there may be a meer expletive, as quidem in the Latin, ugy
in the Greek ; but it does not appear, that either that, or
any other Hebrew Adverb has the saine fignification with
our English, scarce. And yet, perhaps, 'is not necessary to
suppose, that is is supply'd here, for it may be imported in
the Verb pa?: 'Tis true; fometimes chis word lignifies to


fick close, as when ’çis used of the Leprosy, &c. 2 Kings v.27. but at other places it only fignifies, to follow close after, as 2 Sam. vi. 6. or, which is the same thing, scarce to cleave, or, be join'd to: And the Noun qp2l, 1 Kings xxii. 34. turn'd, joints; and which does visibly come from this Verb, evidently signifies that place in Ahab's Armour, where the several parts did not so perfectly meet, but that they lefe room for che facal Arrow to enter ; so that this Verb may sometimes signify to hang loosely together, or, be scarce joined; and therefore cannot, perhaps, more exactly be rendred here, than is done by our Translators, viz. Scarce cleave. And, I suppose, If the words will bear this rendition, the sence will require it. For 'cis evident, that the Psalmist's leanness, proceeded from the pining of his Flesh, by reason of Grief or Sickness, ver. 4, 6, 7, 23, 24. in which case, the Skin and remaining Flesh hangs loose about the Bones

, or will scarce cleave to the Bones: Which seems to be the true meaning of these words. For the observing Reader cannot but be sensible of the Hypallage. Further, let it be consider'd, that there is no inconsistence between our two Translations. Scarce, does not always deny in our Tongue, buć sometimes more faintly, affirms, as when St. Peter says, that the righteous are scarce Saved; he does not deny, but supposes that they are saved. Perhaps the words cannot better be curn'd, than by putting both Translations together, thus,

My bones cleave, and scarce cleave to my flesh. CIV. 34. Sonhall my words please him.] Et gratum erit ei elo

quium meum, Munster. CV. 18. The iron entred into his soul.). Ferrum intravit usque in

animam ejus, Münster. And To boch Dr. Hammond and

Mr. Ainsworth 19. Until the time came that his cause, was known.]. Usque dum

venit tempus quo innotefcebat causa ejus, Munster. 22. To inform.] Mr. Ainsworth translates, to bind, which he

thus explains, viz. to inform, and govern as subjekts. So chat; according to him, to inform, in the Language of that Age, vix, the beginning of the last Century, signify'd ćo direct with Authority. 25. Whose heart turned so.] Our Translators take the Verb 1914

to signifie as an absolute, when ic is comnionly active and
transiçive; (as turn is likewise in the English) than which no-
thing is more common in all Languages. A pious Translaci-
on chis, in which I think it pity that none have follow'd
chem, to my knowledge.
28. And they nere not obedient unto his word.) No Passage in this

Old Plalter is thought so liable to Objection as this, therefore
I shall more particularly consider it.

1. I think ir very evident, that the words ought to be COM

ftrued as a Question ask'd, Did they not rebel against his word? There is no certain way to know when any Sentence in the Hebrew is co be understood thus, or otherwise, but by what goes before, and what follows: And if we may judge by the coherence, I doubt noc but this will appear to be the most probable meaning of the words. To say, that the Egyptians did not rebel, is false, and therefore cannot be the meaning of the words. To say, that Moses and Aaron did not rebel seems to be foreign to the purpose of the Pfalmift : For the darkness was not sent to reduce Moses and Aaron to obedience, but Pharaoh and the Egyptians ; and therefore it is more reasonable to suppose, that these words were designed to express the obftinacy and rebellion of them, notwithstanding this Miracle, than the obedience or compliance of Moses and Aaron. "It follows in the next Verse, he turned their waters into blood; which surely was not done to convert Moses and Aaron, but Pharaoh and his Subjects : So that if we do not read the words interrogatively, they will have no apparent connexion with what goes before, and what follows: For what occasion had

the Psalmist to say, that Mofes and Aaron rebelled not ? All which consider'd, I cannot but think, that if we bave any-where just reason to take a Sentence by way of a Question ask'd, 'tis here. Some would have it thought, that a Question by cannot be ask'd, without the prefix 11, or, with the prefix 1; bar this Fancy is effectually confused by that Text, Exod.vii.26. where there is a Question ask'd, Will they not stone us?

by 1, and x without it. 2. Questions ask'd do not always imply doubt, but either

more strongly affirm or deny. The Text last mention'd is an evident proof of this, vir: Will they not stone ws? that is, they will most certainly stone us. Thus, 2 Kings xx. 20. Are they not written? fignifies, that they were most assuredly written. So again, Gen. iv. 7. If shou dost well, shalt thou not be accepted that is, you shall most infallibly be accepted. This Text is, i suppose, another Instance of what I am now shewing: For when the Psalmist asks the Question, Did they not rebel against his word? his meaning is, They did rebel, or,

were not obedient unto his word.
3. Questions thus ask'd in the Hebrew, may fitly be turn'd,

either affirmatively or negatively, as the fence and oca
casion require. Our last Translators have done this,
Ecclefiafticm vi. 34. for the Greek Text there his goods;
#gorxonahone :1, who is wife? ory is any one wile?

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cleave to him : But our Translators drop the Question and turn it, Cleave to him that is wise; and yet I think that no impartial Man will accuse them of translating these words unfaithfully. But we need not insist on this, we have a moft unquestionable Authority for doing this, even that of the Holy Scripture itself, which expresses the very fame thing, and upon the very fame occasion, at one place by a question ask'd, ac another, affirmatively or negatively : So the words said before to be in i Kings XX. 20. Are they not written? are varied 2 Chron. xxxii. 32. they are written. And whac is put as a Question by St. Mark, chap. xi. ver. 17. Is it not written and chap. xii. ver. 24. Do ye not err? is represented affirmatively by St. Matthew, chap. xxi. 13. It is written; and xxii. 29. te do err · And, on the other side, what God said to the Prophet Isaiah, by way of affirmation, All those things hath mine hand made, chap. Ixvi. 2. St. Stephen quotes interrogatively, Hath not mine hands made all these things ? Atts vii. 5o. And since these two ways of Expression are perfectly the same, as to sence, and that the Holy Penmen use them indifferently, there can, I think, no good reason be given, why Translators should not be left to their liberty in this particular. And it is especially fit, that such Questions as are sudden and short, and placed be: tween Sentences that are negative or affirmative, should thus be varied by English Translators; for tó People not used to such short Apoftrophes, such Quee

stions may seem abrupt. 4. And that it may appear, that our Translators did not do

this by chance, lec ic be confi ler'd, that they do this at other places, as well as here, viz. Psal. lvi. 130 Ixiv. 5. xxi. I. fo char they seem to have settled it as a fixt Rule of Translating.' And I submit if to better

Judgments, whether it be not a very reasonable one. Psal. cvi. Title, Hallelu-jah, or, Praise ye the Lord.) Which, as

Dr. Hammond intimares, was intended to signify, that the
following Pfalm is a form of Praise. He gives two very
good Reasons, why it ought not to be accounted part of
the Pfalm, vit.
1. " That none of the Ancierit Interpreters, Greek, Sýriae,

" Chaldees Arabick, &c. do own these words, as bem
" longing to the Pfalm, otherwise than by way of
* Tielea

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2. “ Because the beginning of this Psalm is rehearsed;

i Chron. xvi. 34. without any mention of these “ words, for whereas our last Translation, in the 7th • Verse of this Chapter, supplies, this Psalm; Dr. Ham. “ obferves, They Thould rather have fupply'd, these three Psalms; for there follows a good part of the "cv, then the xcvi, and after that the beginning and « ending of this cvi, in lieu of the whole. And this, " says he, is in reason applicable to all those Psalms,

o which have Hallelu-jah in the front of them. Pfal. CVI. 27. To cast out their feed.] Ut abjiceret femen eorum,

Munster. 30. And prayed,] Oravit, Munster. And so likewise Caftellio

and Gejerus, and all the Ancients, do either turn, prayed, or which is much the same thing, made an atonement. There can be no reason to doubt, but that the Hebrew word may fignify, praying : It is very often fo render'd in the Form Hithpael, and the word í ephilla, Prayers, is allow'd co come from the Verb Pillel here used. If therefore there were no other evidence for Phineas's Praying, but this Text, yet I should think that sufficient. But there is other proof enough; for he was one among them who wept at the door of the Tabernacle, Numb. xxv.

6, 7. and 'tis not reasonable to suppose, that they came to the place of Publick Worfhip meerly to weep. And we may be sure, that Phined, being a Priest, had Tome share, if not the principal, in their Publick Devotion. Further, "ris exprelly said, that Phineas made an atonement, Numb. xxv. 13. Now, we know what was meant by Moses's making an atonement in the like case, namely, his praying, that God would forgive the people's fin, Exod. xxxii. 30, 31, 32. The very same word is used in the Hebrew in both places, viz. 2; and therefore, no doubt, Phineas's Atonement chiefly consisted in the zealous Intercellion he made, as we are sure that of Moses did. I will not deny, but the execution which Phineas did on Zimri and Cosbi, may be included in the atonement which he made: Dut I think it may fafely be afferred, that Prayer

at least one principal part of his Atonement; and that therefore our Translators, and these Great Men, who go along with them, are not to be blamed on this account. 'Tis evident that Bishop Coverdale thus translated the Hebrew word with mature deliberation : For in his first Edition he turn'd it; executed justice, wherein he is followed by Niatthews's Bible : Bur upon his second and better Thoughts, he changed it for prayed, as it still remains,

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Pfal, CVIL

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