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zation is; for the term seems to have been often used of late without a precise meaning. If to colonize in India, be to pass the whole of ones life in it, then, do ninety out of the hundred colonize; for of the whole number of Europeans who come out to India,

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do not return. , 10. At what future period will a better opportunity offer for meliorating the circumstances of life in this country? Shall our Christian nation wait till centuries elapse, before she consider India otherwise that a fountain of luxury for the mother country; while her sons, in successive multitudes, sink under the inhospitable climate, or perish in defence of the empire, denied the means of religious instruction and consolation, common to every other Christian people?

11. The slightest investigation, before a competent tribunal, of the state of our church, and circumstances of our countrymen in India, will confirm fully the statement in the preceding pages; and will amplify the necessity of the measure proposed in the mind of every man who is a friend to his country's honour or prosperity.

12. It will be remembered that nothing which has been observed is intended to imply that any peculiar provision should be made immediately for the instruction of the natives. Any extensive establishment of this kind, however becoming our national character, or obligatory on our principles, cannot possibly be organized to efficient purpose, without the aid of a local church.

13. Let us first establish our own religion among ourselves, and our Asiatic subjects will soon benefit I by it. When once our national church shall have

been confirmed in India, the members of that church will be the best qualified to advise the state as to the means by which, from time to time, the civilization of the natives may be promoted.

PART II.

CIVILIZATION OF THE NATIVES.

CHAPTER I.

On the practicability of Civilizing the Natives. 1. Supposing an ecclesiastical establishment to have been given to India, we shall now consider the result, in regard to the civilization of the natives. * No immediate benefit is to be expected from it in the way of revolution; but it may be demonstrated by a deduction from facts, that the most beneficial consequences will follow, in the way of ordinary effect, from an adequate cause.

2. The expediency of increasing our church es. tablishment in India, and of communicating Christian instruction to our Asiatic subjects, was debated in parliament in the year 1793. The resulutions which recognize the general principle of “civilizing the natives of India,' were carried, and now stand on record in the journals of the house of commons. It was considered, however, as an inauspicious moment (at the commencement of a perilous war) to organize the necessary establishment for India, and the bill was referred to future consideration.

3. Since that period the situation and circumstances of both countries are materially changed. The French revolution has imposed upon us the duty of using new means for extending and establishing Christian principles. Our territorial possessions in the east have been nearly doubled in extent; and thence arises the duty of cherishing the religion and

See Appendix @.

morats of the increased number of our countrymen, who occupy these possessions; as well as of promoting the civilization of our native subjects by every rational means.

4. To civilize the Hindoos will be considered by most men, our duty: but is it practicable? and if practicable, would it be consistent with a wise policy? It has been alledged by some, that no direct means ought to be used for the moral improvement of the natives; and it is not considered liberal or politic to disturb their superstitions. Whether we use direct means or not, their

superstitions will be disturbed under the influence of British civilization. But we ought first to observe that there are multitudes who have no faith at all. Neither Hindoos nor Mussulmans, out-casts from every faith; they are of themselves fit objects for the beneficence of the British parliament. Subjects of the British empire, they seek a cast and a religion, and claim from a just government the franchise of a human creature.

5. And as to those who have a faith, that faith, never will be disturbed, whether we wish it or not under the influence of British principles: this is a truth confirmed by experience. Their prejudices weaken daily in every European settlement. Their sanguinary rites cannot now bear the noonday of English observation: and the intelligent among them are ashamed to confess the absurd principles of their own casts. As for extreme delicacy toward the superstitions of the Hindoos, they understand it not. Their ignorance and apathy are so extreme, that no means of instruction will give them serious offence, except positive violence.*

* The Christian missionary is always followed by crowås of the common people who listen with great pleasure to the disputation between him and the Bramins; and are not a little amused when the Brahmins depart, and appoini another day for the discussion. The people sometimes bring back the Brahmins hy coastraint, and urge them to the contest again

S

6. It is necessary to be explicit on this point; for it seems that, independently of its supposed policy, it has been accounted a virtue at home, not to remove the prejudices of the ignorant natives; not to reprove their idolatry; not to touch their bloody superstition; and that this sentiment has been emblazoned by much eloquence and rendered very popular; just as if we were performing an act of charity by so doing; just as if it were so considered by the natives. It is not an act of charity on our parts, nor is it so considered by them. They themselves tell us plainly why we do not mind their religion; “not because we fear to disturb their "tranquility, but because we have no religion of our own."

7. A Hindoo may live with his English master for twenty years, and never once hear him mention his religion. He gives then his master no credit for his delicacy in not proselyting him.

But he gives him credit for this, that he is a humane man, just in his conduct, of good faith in his promises, and inindifferent about his(the Hindoo's) prejudices. They very reverse of all which, was his predecessor the Mahometan.

8. Not to harass the natives unnecessarily on any subject is doubtless good policy: but in this case it is a cheap policy, for it is perfectly natural to us, and therefore has ever been maintained. Did we consider their moral improvement equal in importance to tribute or revenue, we should long ago have attempted it. We can claim no merit then for this for. bearance, for it arises from our own unconcern about the Christian religion.

9. But so great is the truth and divine excellence of our religion, that even the principles' which flow from it remotely, lead the heathens to inquire into its doctrine, the fountain. 'Natives of all ranks in Hindostan, at their courts and in their bazars, behold an awful contrast between their base and illiberal max. ims, and our just and generous principles. Of this

they discourse to each other, and inquire about the cause but we will not tell them. We are ashamed to confess that these principles flow from our religion. We would indeed rather acknowledge any other

source.

10. The action of our principles upon them is nevertheless constant; and some aid of religious consideration, on our part, would make it effective. They are a divided people. They have no common interest. There is no such thing as a hierarchy of Brahminical faith in Hindostan, fixed by certain tenets, and guided by an infallible head. They have no ecclesiastical polity, church government, synods, or assemblies. Some Brahmins are supported by hereditary lands granted to a family or attached to a temple, and pass their time in passive ignorance with out concern about public affairs. Brahmins having no endowment, engage in lay offices, as shopkeepers money-lenders, clerks and writers; or in other inferior and servile occupations. Others seek a religious character, and prosecute study at some of the Hindoo schools, of which there are a great number in Hindostan. These are, in general, supported by the contributions of their students, or by public alms. The chief of these schools are Benares, Nuddeea, aud Ougein. Benares, has acquired a higher celebrity for general learning than the other schools.-But a Brahmin of Nuddeea or of Calcutta, acknowledges no jurisdiction of a Brahmin at Benares; or of

any other Brahmin in Hindostan. The Brahminical system, from Cape Comorin to Tibet, is purely republican, or rather anarchical* The Brahmins of one province often differ in their creed and customs from those in another. Of the chief Bramins in the college of Fort William, there are few (not being of the same district) who will give the same account of their faith, or refer to the same sacred books. So much do the opinions of some of those now in the

See Appendix H.

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