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longs to the English church. In Bengal alone there are eight Romish churches, four Armenian churches, and two Greek churches. In confirmation of this statement, we shall subjoin an authentic report of the Roman catholic establishments, which has been transmitted by the archbishop of Goa.

Establishment of the Roman Catholic church in

the east.

Archbishop of Goa, Metropolitan

and Primate of the Orient Archbishop of Cranganore in Mal

abar Bishop of Cochin, Malabar Bishop of St. Thomas, at Mad

ras.* His diocese includes Cal. Presented by

cutta, where he has a legate Sthe king of Pora Bishop of Mallacca

tugal.
Bishop of Macao
Bishop of Pekin
Two Bishops in the interior of

China
Bishop of Mozambique

Bishop of Siam
Bishop of Pegu

}

Presented by the Pope.

Bishop of Varipoli, Malabar
Bishop of Bombay
Bishop of Thibet
Prefect of the Romish Mission

at Nepaul |

Presented by the college De Propaganda Fide.

[The Danish missionaries, Bartholomew Ziegenbalgius and Joha Ernest Grundler, in a letter to the Society in England for promoting Christian knowledge, dated “Tranquebar, January 9, 1713," observes, "The Roman missionar ries themselves confessed to us at Madras, that their congregation in that place consisted of twelve thousand members."-Amer. Ed.) † See paper by bim in Asiatie Rescarches, Vol. II.

R

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One archbishop and three bishops

Presented by at Manilla, and the Pilippine the King of islands

Spain.

Presented by Bishop of Pondicherry-Vacant. the late king of

France. Churches in Bengal, and number of Priests attached

to each. Church at Calcutta

Three Priests.
Serampore

One Priest.
Chinsurah

One Priest.
Bandel

Three Priests.
Cossimbazar

One Priest. Three churches at Chittagong Three Priests. Church at Backergunge

One Priest.
Bowal

One Priest.
Armenian Churches.
Church at Calcutta

Three priests.
Chinsurah
Decca

Two priests.
Sydabad
Madras

Three priests.
Bombay

One bishop &

a priest. Surat

Two priests.

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One priest.

One priest.

Greek Churches. ·
Church at Calcutta
Chapel at Decca ..

Three priests.
One priest.

1. The above establishments are at present full with the exception of the Bishopric of Pondicherry, which was formerly presented by the king of France; and it is stated that the revenues are the same granted at the first endowment, with some exceptions of increase.

2. On a view of the ancient and respectable esablishment of the Romish church, we naturally dc

sire to know its present character, and whether it can boast of a religious or civilizing efficiency.

The Romish church in India is coeval with the Spanish and Portuguese empires in the east: and though both empires are now in ruins, the church remains. Sacred property has been respected in the different revolutions; for it is agreeable to Asiatic principle to reverence religious institutions. The revenues are in general small, as is the case in the Roman Catholic countries at home; but the priests live every where in respectable or decent circumstances. Divine service is regularly perforined, and the churches are generally well attended; ecclesiastical discipline is preserved; the canonical European ceremonies are retained; and the benefactions of the people are liberal. It has been observed that the Roman Catholics in India yield less to the luxury of the country and suffer less from the climate than the English: owing it may be supposed, to their youth being surrounded by the same religious establishments they had at home,and to their being still subject to the observation and counsel of religious characters, whom they are taught to reverence.

3. Besides the regular churches there are numerous Romish missions established throughout Asia. But the zeal of conversion has not been known during the last century. The missionaries are now generally stationary; respected by the natives for their learning and medical knowledge, and in general for their pure manners, they ensure to themselves a comfortable subsistence, and are enabled to show hospitality to strangers.

4. On a general view of the Roman catholic church we must certainly acknowledge that, besides its principal design in preserving the faith of its own members, it possesses a civilizing influence in Asia; and that notwithstanding its constitutional asperity, intolerant and repulsive, compared with the generous principles of the protestant religion, it has ? pelled much of the darkness of paganism.

CHAPTER III.

of the extent of the proposed Ecclesiastical Establish

ment for British India.

A regular ecclesiastical establishment for British India may be organized without difficulty. Two bishops-might suffice, if India were less remote from Britain: but the inconvenience resulting from sudden demise, and from the long interval of succession from England, renders it necessary that there should be three or more men of episcopal dignity; an arch. bishop and metropolitan of India, to preside at the seat of the supreme government in Bengal; and one bishop at each of the two subordinate presidencies, at Madras and Bombay. These three dioceses should embrace respectviely ait our continental possessions in the east. To these must be added a bishopric for Ceylon, to comprehend all the adjacent islažids, and also New Holland and the islands in the Pacific Ocean. The number of rectors and curates an ea'ch diocese must be regulated by the number of military stations, and of towns and islands containing European inhabitants: with an especial attention to chis circumstance, that provision may be made for keeping the establishment full

, without constant reference to England. The necessity of such provision will be illustrated by the following fact: In Bengal and the adjacent provinces there is at present an establishment of six military chaplains; but that number is sometimes reduced one half. When a chaplain dies or goes home, his successor does not arrive, in most cases, till two years afterwards.

CHAPTER IV.

Considerations deduced from the propriety or necessity

of an ecclesiastical establishment.

1. Has it ever been fully considered on what ground a religious establishment has been given to all the other dependencies of Great Britain, and denied to India? It might be deemed as sacred a duty of the mother country to support Christian institutions among us, as among the English in the West Indies; and particularly in Canada and Nova-Scotia, both of which provinces are honoured with episcopal institutions. Our peculiar situation seems to give to us a yet higher title to such advantages. Living in a remote and unhealthy country, amidst a superstitious and licentious people, where both mind and body are liable to suffer, we have, it will be allowed, as strong a claim on our country for Christian privileges as any other description of British subjects. Of the multitude of our countrymen who come out every year, there are but a few who ever return. When they leave England, they leave their religion forever.

2. It will not be an objection to a church establishment in India, that it has the semblance of a royal institution. Nor is it probable that it will be opposed on the ground of expense. By the late cessions and conquests, province's have been added to our sovereignty, whose annual revenues would pay the whole ecclesiastical establishment of England many times over.

3. This is the only country in the whole world, civilized or barbarous, where no tenth is paid; where no twentieth, no hundredth, no thousandth part of its revenue is given by government, for the support of the religion

of that government; and it is the only instance in the annals of our country where church and

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