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Oth. With mine officer!
Iago. That 's fouler.

Oth. Get me some poison, lago; this night:- I 'll not expostulate with her, lest her body and beauty unprovide my mind again :—this night, lago.

Iago. Do it not with poison; strangle her in her bed, even the bed she hath contaminated.

Oth. Good, good : the justice of it pleases; very good.

Iago. And, for Cassio,let me be his undertaker: You shall hear more by midnight. [.A Trumpet within.

Oth. Excellent good. What trumpet is that same?

Iugo. Something from Venice, sure. 'Tis Lodovico, Come from the duke: and, see, your wife is with him.

Enter LODOVICO, DESDEMONA, and Attendants.
Lod. 'Save you, worthy general !

With all my heart, sir.' Lod. The duke and senators of Venice greet you.

[Gives him a Packet. Oth. I kiss the instrument of their pleasures.

[opens the Packet, and reads. Des. And what 's the rews, good cousin Lodovico?

Iago. I am very glad to see you, signior; Welcome to Cyprus.

With all my heart, sir.] This does not relate to what Lodovico has just said, but is spoken by Othello while he salutes him.

Malone. I know not how the meaning of this speech can be ascertained, unless by reference to the salutation of Lodovico.

The distracted Othello, considering his own happiness at an end in this world, readily catches at the idea of future felicity suggested by the words“'Save you, general!"

In his present reply, therefore, he must be supposed to wel. come the pious wish expressed on his behalf.

In Measure for Measure, two replies of Angelo, equally equivocal, are derived from similar premises :

Isab. Heave keep your honour safe!

Ang. Amen!"
Again, at the conclusion of the samé scene:

Isab. 'Save your honour!

Ang. From thee: even from thy virtue !" If it be urged, that “ save you” only means preserve you in this world, my sense of the passage will not be much weakened ; as our protection

“Even here, upon this bank and shoal of time,” depends on the Almighty. Steevens.

Lod. I thank you: How does lieutenant Cassio ?
Iago. Lives, sir.

Des. Cousin, there 's fallen between him and my lord An unkind breach: but you shall make all well.

Oth. Are you sure of that?
Des. My lord ?
Oth. This fail you not to do, as you will — [Rcads.

Lod. He did not call; he's busy in the paper.
Is there division 'twixt thy lord and Cassio ?

Des. A most unhappy one ; I would do much
To atone thein, for the love I bear to Cassio.

Oth. Fire and brimstone!

My lord?

Are you wise? Des. What, is he angry? Lod.

'May be, the letter mov'd him; For, as I think, they do command him home, Deputing Cassio in his

government. Des. By my troth, I am glad on ’t. Oth.

Indeed? Des.

My lord? Oth. I am glad to see you mad. Des.

How, sweet Othello? Oth. Devil !

[Striking her. Des.

I have not deserv'd this.
Lod. My lord, this would not be believ'd in Venice,
Though I should swear I saw it: 'Tis very much ;
Make her amends, she weeps.

O devil, devil !
If that the earth could teem with woman's tears,

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atone them,] Make them one ; reconcile them. Johnson. The expression is forned by the coalescence of the words at one, the verb to set, or some equivalent being omitted. Thus, in the Acts: “- he showed himself to them as they strove, and would have set them AT ONE again.” And in The Beehive of the Romish Church :“ – through which God is made AT ONE with us, and hath forgiven us our sins.” Henley.

See Coriolanus, Act IV, sc. vi, Vol. XIII. Malone.

2 If that the earth could teem &c.] If women's tears could impregnate the earth. By the doctrine of equivocal generation, new animals were supposed producible by new combinations of inatter. See Bacon. Johnson.

Shakspeare here alludes to the fabulous accounts of crocodiles. Each tear, says Othello, which falls from the false Des. VOL. XVI.


Each drop she falls? would prove a crocodile :-
Out of my sight!

I will not stay to offend you. [Going.
Lod. Truly, an obedient lady:-
I do beseech your lordship, call her back.

Oth. Mistress,

My lord ?

What would you with her, sir? Lod. Who, I, my lord ?

Oth. Ay; you did wish, that I would make her turn : Sir, she can turn, and turn, and yet go on, And turn again ;4 and she can weep, sir, weep; And she's obedient, as you say,-obedient,Very obedient ;-Proceed you in your tears.5Concerning this, sir,— well-painted passion! I am commanded home:_Get you away;


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demona, would generate a crocodile, the most deceitful of all animals, and whose own tears are proverbially fallacious. “ It is written,” says Bullokar, " that he will weep over a man's head when he hath devoured the body, and then he will eat up the head too. Wherefore in Latin there is a proverbe, crocodili lachrymæ, crocodile's tears, to signifie such tears as are fained, and spent only with intent to deceive, or doe harme.” Engiish Expositor, 8vo. 1616. It appears from this writer, that a dead crocodile, “ but in perfect forme,” of about nine feet long, had been exhibited in London, in our poet's time. Malone.

Each drop she falls -] To fall is here a verb active. So, in The Tempest:

when I rear my hand, do you the like, “ To fall it on Gonzalo.” Steevens. Sir, she can turn, &c.] So, in King Henry VI, P. I: “Done like a Frenchman; turn and turn again.Steevens.

Proceed you in your tears.] I cannot think that the poet meant to make Othello bid Desdemona to continue weeping, which proceed you in your tears, (as the passage is at present pointed) must mean. He rather would have said:

- Proceed you in your tears? What! will you still continue to be a hypocrite by a display of this well-painted passion? Warner. I think the old punctuation the true one. Malone.

I am commanded home:] Thus the folio. The quarto, 1622, reads, perhaps better:

I am commanded here-Get you away, &c. The alteration, I suspect, was made, from the editor of the folio not perceiving that an abrupt sentence was intended. Malone.

I um commanded here, (without the least idea of an abrupt


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I'll send for you anon.—Sir, I obey the mandate,
And will return to Venice ;-Hence, avaunt! [Exit Des.
Cassio shall have my place.? And,--sir, to-night,
I do entreat that we may sup together.
You are welcome, sir, to Cyprus.--Goats and monkies !8

Lod. Is this the noble Moor, whom our full senate
Call-all-in-all sufficient? This the noble nature
Whom passion could not shake? whose solid virtue
The shot of accident, nor dart of chance,
Could neither graze, nor pierce ?!



sentence) may be an indignant sentiment of Othello :-“ I have an officer here placed over my head; I am now under the command of another:" i. e. of Cassio, to whom the government of Cyprus was just transferred. Steevens.

Cassio shall have my place.] Perhaps this is addressed to Des. demona, who had just expressed her joy on hearing Cassio was deputed in the room of her husband. Her innocent satisfaction in the hope of returning to her native place, is construed by Othello into the pleasure she received from the advancement of his rival. Steevens.

Goats and monkies!] In this exclamation Shakspeare has shown great art. Iago, in the first scene in which he endeavours to awaken his suspicion, being urged to give some evident proof of the guilt of Cassio and Desdemona, tells him it were impossible to have ocular demonstration of it, though they should be “as prime as goats, as hot as monkies.”—These words we may suppose, still ring in the ears of Othello, who being now fully convinced of his wife's infidelity, rushes out with this emphatick exclamation :-Iago's words were but too true; now indeed I am convinced that they are as hot as goats and monkies." Malone.

Though the words of Othello, cited by Mr. Malone, could not have escaped the deliberate reader's memory, a reference to a distant scene, but ill agrees with the infuriation of Othello's mind. His fancy, haunted by still growing images of lewdness, would scarce have expressed its feelings in recollected phraseology. Steevens.

whose solid virtue
The shot of accident, nor dart of chance,

Could neither graze, nor pierce?] I cannot see, for my heart, the difference betwixt the shot of accident and dart of chance. The words and things they imply are purely synonymous; but that the poet intended two different things scems plain from the discretive adverb. Chance may afflict a man in some circumstances; but other distresses are to be accounted for from a different cause, I am persuaded our author wrote:

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He is much chang'd. Lod. Are his wits safe? is he not light of brain ?

Iago. He is that he is ; I may not breathe my censure. What he might be,mif, what he might, he is not,-I would to heaven, he were. Lod.

What, strike his wife !
Iugo. 'Faith, that was not so well ; Yet 'would I knew,
That stroke would prove the worst.

Is it his use?
Or did the letters work upon his blood,
And new-create this fault?

Alas, alas!
It is not honesty in me, to speak
What I have seen and known. You shall observe him;
And his own courses will denote him so,
That I may save my speech: Do but go after,
And mark how he continues.

Lod. I am sorry, that I am deceivd in him. [Exeunt.


A Room in the Castle, 1

Enter OTHELLO and EMILIA. Oth. You have seen nothing then?

The shot of accident, nor dart of change, &c. And, in a number of other places, our poet industriously puts these two words in opposition to each other. Theobald.

To graze is not merely to touch superficially, [as Dr. Warhurton has stated) but to strike not directly, not so as to bury the body of the thing striking in the matter struck.

Theobald trifles, as is usual. Accident and chance may admit a subtle distinction; accident may be considered as the act, and chance as the power or agency of fortune; as, it was by chance that this accident befel me. At least, if we suppose all corrupt that is inaccurate, there will be no end of emendation. Johnson.

I do not see the least ground for supposing any corruption in this passage. As pierce relates to the dart of chance, so graze is referred to the shot of accident. The expression is still used; we still say he was grazed by a brillet. For graze, Dr. Warburton arbitrarily substituted-raze.

Malone. ? A Room in the Castle.] There are great difficulties in ascertaining the place of this scene. Near the close of it, Iago says to Desdemona, “Go in, and weep not,” which would lead us to place it in the court before Othello's castle. These words may

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