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Or put upon you what restraint and grievance
The law (with all his might, to enforce it on,)
Will give him cable.

Let him do his spite:
My services, which I have done the signiory,
Shall out-tongue his complaints. 'Tis yet to know,
(Which, when I know that boasting is an honour,
I shall promulgate, 3) I fetch my life and being

“ The duke himself also, if he will, may use the authority of an advocator or president, and make report to the councell of any offence, and of any amercement or punishment that is thereupon to be inflicted ;--for so great is the prince's authoritie, that he may, in whatsoever court, ADJOINE himselfe to the magistrate therein, being president, as his colleague and companion, and have EQUAL POWER WITH THE OTHER PRESIDENTS, that lie might so by this means be able to look into all things." p. 41. Again, ibidem, p. 42: “Besides this, ibis prince [i e. the duke] hath in every councell equal authoritie with any of them, for one suffrage or loite." Thus we see, though he had not a double voice in any one assembly, yet as he had a vote in all the various assemblies, his voice, thus added to the voice of each of the presidents of those assemblies, might with strict propriety be called double, and potential. —Potential, Dr. Johnson thinks, means operative, having the effect, (by weight and influence,) without the external actual property. It is lised, he conceives, “in the sense of science; a caustick is called potential fire." I question whether Sbakspeare meant more by the word than operative, or powerful. Malone.

Double and single anciently signified strong and weak, when applied to liquors, and perhaps to other objects. In this sense the former epithet may be employed by Brabantio, and the latter, by the Chief Justice speaking to Falstatt: “ Is not your wit single 2" "When Macbeth also talks of his "single state of man,” he may mean no more than his weak and debile state of mind.

a voice potential “ As double as the cluke's,may therefore only signify, that Brabantio's voice, as a magnifico, was as forcible as that of the duke. See Vol. VII, p. 42, n. 8; and Vol. IX, p. 29, n. 8. Steevens.

The DOUBLE voice of Brabantio refers to the opinion, which (as being a magnifico, he was no less entitled to, than the luke bimself,) EITHER, of nullifving the marriage of his daughter, contracied without his consent; or, of subjecting 0:hello to fine and imprisonment, for having seduced an heiress. Henley.

'Tis yet to know,
(Which, avhen I know that boasting is an honour,

I shall promulgate,)] Thus the folio. The quarto, 1622; reads

'Tis yet to know VOL. XVI.



From men of royal siege ;* and my demerits
May speak, unbonneted, to as proud a fortune

“ That boasting is an honour.

“I shall promulgate, I fetch," &c. Some words certainly were omitted at the press; and perhaps they have been supplied in the wrong place. Shakspeare might have written

'Tis yet to know
“ That boasting is an honour; which when I know,

“I shall promulgate, I fetch my life,” &c. I am yet to learn that boasting is honourable, which when I have learned, I shall proclaim to the world that I fetch my life &c.

Malone. I am perfectly satisfied with the reading in the text, which appears not to have been suspected of disarrangement by any of our predecessors. Steevens.

4 men of royal siege;] Men who have sat upon royal thrones.

The quarto has-men of royal height. Siege is used for seat by other authors. So, in Stowe's Chronicle, p. 575: “there was set up a throne or siege royall for the king." Again, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, B. II, c. vii:

“ A stately siege of soveraigne majestye.” Steevens. So, in Grafton's Chronicle, p. 443: " Incontinent after that he was placed in the royal siege,&c. Malone.

5and my demerits — ] Demerits has the same meaning in our author, and many others of that age, as merits:

“Opinion, that so sticks on Martius, may

« Of his demerits rob Cominius." Coriolanus. Again, in Dugdale's Warwickshire, p. 850, edit. 1730: “Henry Conway, esq. for his singular demerits received the dignity of knighthood."

Mereo and demereo had the same meaning in the Roman language. Steevens.

6 May speak, unbonneted,] Thus all the copies read. It should be-unbonneting, i. e. without putting off the bonnet. Pope.

I do not see the propriety of Mr. Pope's emendation, though adopted by Dr. Warburton. Unboneting may as well be, not put. ting on, as not putting off, the bonnet. Hanmer reads e'en bonneted.

Fohnson. To speak unbonneted, is to speak with the capoff, which is direct. ly opposite to the poet's meaning. Othello means to say, that his birth and services set him upon such a rank, that he may speak 10 a senator of Venice with his bat on; i. e. without showing any marks of deference or inequality. I therefore am inclined to think Shakspeare wrote

May speak, an:1, bonnetted, &c. Theobald. Bonneter (says Cotgrave) is to put off one's cap. Sn, in Coriola. nus: Those who are supple and courteous to the people, bonneted

As this that I have reach'd: For know, Iago,
But that I love the gentle Desdemona,
I would not my unhoused? free condition
Put into circumscription and confine
For the sea's worth.8 But, look! what lights come yon-


without any further deed to heave them at all into their estimation. Unbonneted may therefore signify, without taking the cap off. We might, I think, venture to read imbonneted. It is common with Shakspeare to make or use words compounded in the same manner. Such are impawn, impaint, impale, and immask. Of all the readings hitherto proposed, that of Mr. Theobald is, I think, the best. Steevens.

The objection to Mr. Steevens's explanation of unbonneted, i. e. without taking the cap off, is, that Shakspeare has himself used the word in King Lear, Act II1, sc. i, with the very contrary signification, namely, for one whose cap is off:

Unbonneted he runs, “ And bids what will take all." He might, however, have employed the word here in a different sense.

Malone. Unbonneted, is uncovered, revealed, made known. In the se. cond Act and third scene of this play we meet with an expression similar to this: ". - you unlace your reputation ;” and ano. ther in As you Like it, Act IV, sc. i: “ Now unmuzzle your wisdom.” A. C.

Mr. Fuseli (and who is better acquainted with the sense and spirit of our author?) explains this contested passage as follows:

I am his equal or superior in rank; and were it not so, such are my demeri that, unborineted, without the addition of patrician or senatorial dignity, they may speak to as proud a fortune &c.

" At Venice, the bonnet, as well as the toge, is a badge of aristocratick honours to this day.” Steevens.

unhoused -] Free from domestick cares. A thought natural to an adventurer. Johnson.

Othello talking as a soldier, unhoused may signify the having no settled house or habitation. Whalley.

8 For the sea's worth.] I would not marry her, though she were as rich as the Adriatick, which the Doge annually marries.

Johnson. As the gold ring annually thrown by the Doge into the Adriatick, cannot be said to have much enriched it, I believe the common and obvious meaning of this passage is the true one.

The same words occur in Sir W. D'Avenant's Cruel Brother, 1630:

- he would not lose that privilege
« For the sea's worth.
Perhaps the phrase is proverbial.

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Enter Cassio, at a distance and certain Officers with

Iago. These are the raised father, and his friends:
You were best go in.

Not I: I must be found;
My parts, my title, and my perfect soul,
Shall manifest me rightly. Is it they?

Iugo. By Janus, I think no.

Oin. The servants of the duke, and my lieutenant. The goodness of the night upon you, friends! 9 What is the news? C'as.

The duke does greet you, general; And he requires your haste-post-haste appearance, Even on the instant. Oth.

What is the matter, think you? Cus. Something from Cyprus, as I may divine ; It is a business of some heat: the gallies Ilave sent a dozen sequent messengers? This very night at one another's heels; And many of the consuls,3 rais'd, and met, Are at the duke's already: You have been hotly callid


IVhen, being not at your lodging to be found,

Pliny the naturalist has a chapter on the riches of the sea.
Again, in The Winter's Tale:

for all the sun sees, or
“ The close earth wombs, or the profound sea hides

In unknown fathoms," &c. Again, in King Henry V, Act I:

As rich with praise,
“As is the ooze, and bottom of the sea,

“ With sunken wreck, and sumless treasuries.” Steevens. The goodness of the night upon youl, friends!] So, in Measure för Measure:

“The best and wholesomest spirits of the night

“Envellop you, good Prorost!” Steevens. 1- your haste-post haste appearance,] The comma, hitherto placed after haste, should be a hyphen. Your haste-post-haste appearance is your immediate appearance. The words “ Haste, post, haste," were in our author's time usually written on the cover of packets, or letters, sent express. Ritson.

sequent messengers —] The first quarto reads-frequent messengers. Steevens.

the consuls,] See p. 199, n. 1. Steevensi



The senate hath sent about three several quests,
To search you out.

'Tis well I am found by you.
I will but spend a word here in the house,
And go with you.

[Exit. Cas.

Ancient, what makes he here? Iago. 'Faith, he to-night hath boarded a land carack;5 If it prove lawful prize, he's made for ever. Cas. I do not understand.

He 's married.

To who?6



4 The senate hath sent about -] The early quartos, and all the modern editors, have

The senate sent above three several quests, – The folio

The senate hath sent about sc. That is, about the city. I have adopted the reading of the folio.

Fohnson. Quests are, on this occasion, searches. So, in Heywood's Brazen Age, 1613:

“ Now, if in all his quests, he'be witheld.” An ancient MS. entitled • The Boke of Huntyng that is cleped Mayster of Game,” has the following explanation of the word quest : “ This word quest is a terme of herte hunters of beyonde the see; and is thus moche to say as whan the hunter goth to fynde of the hert and to herborow him.” Steevens.

a land carack;] A carack is a ship of great bulk, and commonly of great value ; perhaps what we now call a galleon.

Fohnson. So, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Coxcomb:

they 'll be freighted; “ They're made like caracés, all for strength and stowage.”

Stecvens. The first ships that came richly laden from the West Indies to Europe were those from the Caraccas, part of the Spanish settlements: and some years ago a Caracca ship generally proved a very rich prize. M. Mason.

A carack, or carick, (for so it was more frequently written in Shakspeare's time) is of higher origin, and was denominated from the Spanish word, caraca, which signifies a vessel of great bulk, constructed to carry a heavy burthen. The Spanish caraca, Minsheu thinks, may have been formed from the Italian carico, a lading, or freight. Malone.

6 To who?] It is somewhat singular that Cassio should ask this question. In the 3d scene of the 3d Act, Iago says:

“ Did Michael Cassing when you woo'd my lady,
“ Know of your love?


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