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But I will wear my heart upon my
sleeve For daws to peck at:o I am not what I am.
Rod. What a full fortune does the thick-lips owe,?
5 In compliment extern,] In that which I do only for an outward show of civility. Fohnson. So, in Sir W. D'Avenant's Albovine, 1629:
that in sight extern “ A patriarch seems.' Steevens. 6 For daws &c.] The first quarto reads,– For doves Steevens.
I have adhered to the original copy, because I suspect Shak. speare had in his thoughts a passage in Lyly's Euphues and his England, 1580:-“ As all coynes are not good that have the image of Cæsar, nor all gold, that is coyned with the kings stampe, so all is not truth that beareth the shew of godlinesse, nor all friends that beare a faire face. If thou pretend such love to Euphues, carry thy heart on the backe of thy hand, and thy tongue in thy palme, that I may see what is in thy minde, and thou with thy finger claspe thy mouth.-I can better take a blister of a nettle, than a pricke of a rose; more willing that a raven should peck out mine eyes, than a turtle peck at them.” Malone.
I read with the folio. Iago certainly means to say, he would expose his heart as a prey to the most worthless of birds, i. e. daws, which are treated with universal contempt. Our author would scarcely have degraded the amiable tribe of doves to such an of. fice; nor is the mention of them at all suitable to the harsh turn of lago's speech. Steevens.
7 What a full fortune does the thick-lips owe,] Full fortune is, I believe, a coinplete piece of good fortune, as in another scene of this play, a full soldier is put for a complete soldier. So, in Cymbeline :
"Our pleasure his full fortune doth confine." Again, in Chapman's version of the fourth Book of Homer's Odyssey, we have
“ Jove did not only his full fate adorn,
" When he was wedded.” To owe, is in ancient language, to own, to possess. Stecoins. So, in Antony and Cleopatra:
- not the imperious show “Of the full-fortun'd Cæsar," Full is used by Chaucer in the same sense in his Troilus, B. L:
“Sufficeth this, my full friend Pandare,
“ That I have said." See also, Antony and Cleopatra, Act III, sc. xi, Vol. XIII. Malone.
Plague him with flies: though that his joy be joy,
Rod. Here is her father's house; I'll call aloud.
Iago. Do; with like timorous accent, and dire yell,
Rod. What, ho! Brabantio ! signior Brabantio, ho!
thieves ! Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags! Thieves! thieves!
BRABANTIO above, at a Window.
Rod. Signior, is all your family within?
this? Iago. 'Zounds, sir, you are robb’d: for shame, put on
8 As when, by night and negligence, the fire
Is spied in populous cities.) The particle is used equivocally; the same liberty is taken by writers more correct:
- The wonderful creature! a woman of reason!
Fohnson. By night and negligence means, during the time of night and negligence. M. Mason.
The meaning, as Mr. Edwards has observed, is, “not that the fire was spied by negligence, but the fire, which came by night and negligence, was spied. And this double meaning to the same word is common to Shakspeare with all other writers, espe. cially where the word is so familiar a one, as this is in question. Ovid seems even to have thought it a beauty instead of a defect.”
Malone. 9 Are your doors lock’d?] The first quarto reads
Are all doors lock'd? Steevens.
is burst,] i.e. broken. Burst for broke is used in our au. thor's King Henry IV, P. II: “ — and then he burst his head for crouding among the marshal's men.” See Vol. IX, p. 110, n. 2
Steevens See also Vol. VI, p. 12, n. 5. Malone.
Awake the snorting citizens with the bell,
wits? Rod. Most reverend signior, do you
voice? Bra. Not I; What are you? Rod. My name is-Roderigo. Bra.
The worse welcome:
Rod. Sir, sir, sir, sir,
Rut thou must needs be sure,
Patience, good sir. Bra. What tell'st thou me of robbing? this is Venice; My house is not a grange.*
tupping your white ewe.] In the north of England a ram is called a tup.
Malone. I had made the same observation in the third Act of this play, scene iii.
your white ewe.] It appears from a passage in Decker's per se 0, 4to. 1612, that this was a term in the cant language used by vagabonds: " As the men haue nicke-names, so likewise haue the women: for some of them are called the white ewe, the lambe,” &c. Steevens.
distempering draughts,] To be distempered with liquor; was in Shakspeare's age, the phrase for intoxication. In Hamlet, the King is said to be “ marvellous distempered with wine.”
Malonc. See Vol. IX, p. 246, n. 3. Steevens.
this is Venice; My house is not a grange.] That is, " you are in a populous city, not in a lone house, where a robbery might easily be committed.” Grange is strictly and properly the farm of a monastery, where the religious deposited their corn. Grangia, Lat. from Granum. But in Lincolnshire, and in other northern counties, they. call every lone house, or farm which stands solitary, a grange.
T. Warton. So, in T. Heywood's English Traveller, 1633:
to absent himself from home,,
Most grave Brabantio, In simple and pure soul I come to you.
lago. 'Zounds, sir, you are one of those, that will not serve God, if the devil bid you. Because we come to do you service, you think we are ruffians: You 'll have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse; you ’ll have your nephews neigh to you:s you 'll have coursers for cousins, and gennets for germans.6
Bra. What profane wretch art thou??
Again, in Daniel's Complaint of Rosamond, 1599:
soon was I train'd from court “ To a solitary grange,” &c. Again, in Measure for Measure:“ at the moated grange resides this dejected Mariana.” Steevens.
your nephews neigh to you:) Nephew, in this instance, has the power of the Latin word nepos, and signifies a grandson, or any lneal descendant, however remote. So, A. of Wyntown, in his Cronykil, B. VIII, ch. iii, v. 119:
“ Hyr swne may be cald newu:
" This is of that word the wertu.” Thus, also, in Spenser:
“ And all the sons of these five brethren reign'd
" Even thrice eleven descents the crown obtain'd.” Again, in Chapman's version of the Odyssey, B. XXIV, Laertes says of Telemachus his grandson :
to behold my son “ And nephew close in such contention.” Sir W Digdale very often employs the word in this sense; and without it, it would not be very easy to show how Brabantio could have nephews by the marriage of his daughter. Ben Jonson like. wise uses it with the same meaning. The alliteration in this passage caused Shakspeare to bave recourse to it. Steevens. See Vol. XI, p 121, n. 8. Malone.
gennets for germans.) A jennet is a Spanish horse. So, in Heywood's Rape of Lucrece, 1630:
there stays within my tent “ A winged jennet." Steevens. ? What profane wretch art thou?] That is, what wretch of gross and licentious language? In that sense Shakspeare often uses the word profane. Johnson. It is so used by other writers of the same age: “ How far off dwells the house-surgeon ?
You are a profane fellow, i' faith.” Again, in Ben Jonson's Tale of a Tub:
“ By the sly justice, and his clerk profane.". James Howell, in a dialogue prefixed to his edition of Cot
lago, I am one, sir, that comes to tell you, your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs. 8
Bra. Thou art a villain.
You are-a senator.
Rod. Sir, I will answer any thing. But I beseech you, If't be your pleasure, and most wise consent, [As partly, I find, it is that your fair daughter, Āt this odd-even and dull watch o'the night,
grave's Dictionary, in 1673, has the following sentence: “ J'aime. rois mieux estre trop ceremonieux, que trop prophane:" which he thus also anglicises—" I bad rather be too ceremonious, than too prophane.” Steevens.
your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs.] This is an ancient proverbial expression in the French language, whence Sbakspeare probably borrowed it; for in the Dictionaire des Proverbes Francoises, par G. D. B. Brusselles, 1710, 12mo. I find the following article: “ Faire la bête a deux dos, pour dire, faire l'amour.” Percy.
In the Dictionaire Comique, par le Roux, 1750, this phrase is more particularly explained under the article Bete: “ Faire la bete a deux dos.-Maniere de parlet qui signifie etre couché avec une femme; faire le deduit.”-“ Et faisoient tous deux souvent ensemble la bete a deux dos joyeusement.” Rabelais, Liv. I. There was a translation of Rabelais published in the time of Shakspeare.
Malone. ' [If 't be your pleasure, &c.] The lines printed in crotchets are not in the first edition, but in the folio of 1623. Johnson.
1 At this odd-even and dull watch o’the night,] The even of night is midnight, the time when night is diviiled into even parts.
Fohnson. Oild is here ambiguously used, as it signifies strange, uncouth, or unwonted; and as it is opposed to even.
But this expression, however explained, is very harsh. Steevens.
This ODD Even is simply the interval between twelve at night and one in the morning. Henley.
By this singular expression,-“this odd-even of the night,” our poet appears to have meant, that it was just approaching to, or just past, midnight; that it was doubtful whether at that moment it stood at the point of midnight, or at some other less equal divi. sion of the twenty-four hours; which a few minutes either before or after midnight would be. So, in Macbeth:
What is the night? “ Lady M. Almost at odds with morning, which is which.” Shakspeare was probably thinking of his boyi... school-play, add or even. Malone.