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thefis and discourse about Adam's royal authority, as the fountain from which all princes were to derive theirs : and he might have spared the trouble of speaking so much as he does, up and down, of heirs and inheritance, if to make any one properly a king, needs no more but governing by supreme power, and it matters not by 'what means be came

by it.

8. 79. By this notable way, our author may

make Oliver as properly king, as any one else he could think of: and had he had the happiness to live under Massanello's government, he could not by this his own rule have forborn to have done homage to him, with O king live for ever, fince the manner of his government by supreme power, made him properly king, who was but the day before properly a fisherman. And if Don Quixote had taught his squire to govern with supreme authority, oựr author no doubt could have made a most loyal subject in Sancho Pancha's ijland; and he must needs have deserved some preferment in such governments, since I think he is the first politician, who, pretending to settle government upon its true basis, and to establish the thrones of lawful princes, ever told the world, That he was properly a king, whose manner of government was by Supreme power, by what means foever be obtained it; which in plain English is to say, that regal and fupreme power is properly and truly his, ,




who can by any means seize upon it; and if this be to be properly a king, I wonder how he came to think of, or where he will find, an ufurper.

g. 80. This is so strange a doctrine, that the surprise of it hath made me pafs by, without their due reflection, the contradictions he runs into, by making sometimes inberitance alone, sometimes only grant or inheritance, sometimes only inheritance or usurpation, sometimes all these three, and at last election, or any other means, added to them, the

ways whereby Adam's royal authority, that is, his right to supreme rule, could be conveyed down to future kings and governors, so as to give them a title to the obedience and subjection of the people. But these contradictions lie so open, that the very reading of our author's own words will discover them to any ordinary understanding; and though what I have quoted out of him (with abundance more of the fame strain and coherence, which might be found in him) might well excuse me from


farther trouble in this argument, yet having proposed to myself, to examine the main parts of his doctrine, I shall a little more particularly consider how inheritance, grant, ufurpation or ele&tion, can any way make out government in the world upon his principles; or derive to any one a right of empire, from this regal authority of Adam, had it been


never fo well proved, that he had been abfolute monarch, and lord of the whole world.


CH A P. IX.. Of Monarchy, by Inheritance from Adam $. 81. Hough it be never fo plain, that

there ought to be government in the world, nay, should all men be of our author's mind, that divine appointment had ordained it to be monarchical; yet, since men cannot obey any thing, that cannot command ; and ideas of government in the fancy, though never so perfect, though never so right, cannot give laws, nor prescribe rules to the actions of men ; it would be of no behoof for the settling of order, and establishment of government in its exercise and use amongst men, unless there were a way also taught how to know the person, to whom it belonged to have this power, and exercise this dominion over others. It is in vain then to talk of subjection and obedience without telling us whom we are to obey : for were I never so fully persuaded that there ought to be magistracy and rule in the world ; yet I am never the less at liberty still, till it appears who is the person that hath right to my obedience ; fince, if there be no marks to know him by, and distinguish him that bath right to rule from H


other men,


may be myself, as well as any other. And therefore, though submission to government be every one's duty, yet since that signifies nothing but submitting to the direction and laws of such men as have authority to command, it is not enough to make a man a subject, to convince him that there is regal power in the world; but there must be ways of designing, and knowing the person to whom this regal power of right belongs': and a man can never be obliged in conscience to submit to any power, unless he can be satisfied who is the person who has a right to exercise that power over him. If this were not so, there would be no distinction between pirates and lawful princes ; he that has force is without any more ado to be obeyed, and crowns and scepters would become the inheritance only of violence and rapine. Men too might as often and as innocently change their governors, as they do their physicians, if the person cannot be known who has a right to direct

direct me, and whose prescriptions I am bound to follow. To settle therefore men's consciences, under an obligation to obedience, it is necessary that they know not only, that there is a power somewhere in the world, but the person who by right is vested with this


over them.

§. 82. How successful our author has been in his attempts, to set up a monarchical absolute power in Adam, the reader inay judge

by by what has been already faid; but were that absolute monarchy as clear as our author would desire it, as I presume it is the contrary, yet it could be of no use to the government of mankind now in the world, unless he also make out these two things.

First, That this power of Adam was not to end with him, but was upon his decease conveyed intire to some other person, and fo on to posterity.

Secondly, That the princes and rulers now on earth are possessed of this power of Adam, by a right way of conveyance derived to them.

§. 83. If the first of these fail, the power of Adam, 'were it never so great, never so certain, will fignify nothing to the present government and societies in the world ; but we must seek out some other original of power for the government of politys than this of Adam, or else there will be none at all in the world. If the latter fail, it will destroy the authority of the present governors, and absolve the people from subjection to them, since they, having no better a claim than others to that power, which is alone the fountain of all authority, can have no title to rule over them,

§. 84. Our author, having fancied an absolute sovereignty in Adam, mentions several ways of its conveyance to princes, that were to be his successors; but that which he chiefly

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