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thereby a right to take it away again. Bút 2. They who say the father gives life to his children, are so dazzled with the thoughts of monarchy, that they do not, as they ought, remember God, who is the author and giver of life : it is in bim alone we live, move, and barve our being. How can he be thought to give life to another, that knows not wherein his own life
consists ? Philosophers are at la lors about it after their moft diligent enquiries; and anatomists, after their whole lives and studies spent in diffections, and diligent examining the bodies of men, confefs their ignorance in the structure and use of many parts of man's body, and in that operation wherein life consists in the whole. And doth the rude plough-man, or the more ignorant voluptuary, frame or fashion such an admirable engine as this is, and then put life and sense into it? Can any man fay, he formed the parts that are necessary to the life of his child? or can he suppoße himself to give the life, and yet not know what subject is fit to receive it, nor what actions or organs are neceffary for its reception or preservation?
$. 53. To give life to that which has yet no being
os to frame and make a living creature, falhion the parts, and mould and suit them to their uses, and having proportioned and fitted them together, to put into them a living foul. He that could do this,
might indeed have some pretence to destroy his
own workmanship. But is there any one fo bold, that dares thus far arrogate to himmighty? Who alone did at first, and conself the incomprehensible works of KP tinues still to make a living soul, he alone can breathe in the breath of life. If any one thinks himself an artist at this, let him num. ber up the
parts of his child's body which he hath made, tell me their uses and operations, and when the living and rational foul began to inhabit this curious structare, when sense began, and how this engine, which he has framed, thinks and reasons : if he made it, let him, when it is out of order, mend it, at least tell w
the defects lie. Şball be that made the eye not see? says the Pfalmist, Pfalm xxiv. 9. See these men's vanities! the structure of that one part is sufficient to convince us of an all-wise contriver, and he has lo visible a claim to us as his workmanthip, that one of the ordinary appellations of God in scripture is, God our Maker, and the Lord, our Maker. And therefore though our author, for the magnifying his fatherhood, be pleased to say, Observations, 159: That even the poroer which God himself exerciseth over. mankind is by right of fatherhood, yet this fatherhood is such an one as utterly excludes all pretence of title in earthly parents ; for he is king, because he is indeed maker of us
all, which no parents can pretend to be of their children.
§. 54. But had men skill and power to make their children, it is not so flight a piece of workmanship, that it can be imagined, they could make them without designing it. What father of a thousand, when he begets a child, thinks farther than the satisfying his present appetite? God in his infinite wisdom has put strong desires of copulation into the conftitution of men, thereby to continue the race of mankind, which he doth most commonly without the intention, and often against the consent and will of the begetter. And indeed those who desire and design children, are but the occasions of their being, and when they design and wish to beget them, do little more towards their making, than Deucalion and his wife in the fable did towards the making of mankind, by throwing pebbles over their heads.
S. 55. But grant that the parents made their children, gave them life and being, and that hence there followed an absolute power. This would give the father but a joint dominion with the mother over them : for no body can deny but that the woman hath an equal share, if not the greater, as nourishing the child a long time in her own body out of her own substance: there it is fashioned, and from her it receives the ma. terials and principles of its conititution : and
it is so hard to imagine the rational soul should presently inhabit the yet unformed embrio, as soon as the father has done his part in the act of generation, that if it must be supposed to derive any thing from the parents, it must certainly owe most to the mother. But be that as it will, the mother
, cannot be denied an equal share in begetting of the child, and so the abfolute authority of the father will not arise from hence. Our author indeed is of another mind; for he says, We know that God at the creation gave the sovereignty to the man over the woman, as being the nobler and principal agent in generation, Observations, 172., I remember not this in my Bible;, and when the place is brought where God at the creation gave the sovereignty to man over the woman, and that for this reason, because he is the nobler and principal agent in generation, it will be time enough to consider, and answer it. But it is no new thing for our author to tell us his own fancies for certain and divine truths, tho' there be often a great deal of difference between his and divine revelations; for God in the scripture says, bis father and his mother that begot him,
$. 56. They who alledge the practice of mankind, for exposing or feliing their children, as a proof of their power over them, are with Sir Robert, happy arguers ; and cannot but recommend their opinion, aby founding it on the most shameful action, and most unnatural murder, human nature is capable of. The dens of lions and nurseries of wolves know no such cruelty as this: thefe favage inhabitants of the desert obey God and nature in being tender and careful of their off-spring: they will hunt, wateh, fight, and almost starve for the preservation of their young; never part with them ; never forsake them, till they are able to shift for them. selves. And is it the privilege of man alone to act more contrary to nature than the wild and most untamed part of the creation ? doth God forbid us under the feverest
penalty, that of death, to take away the life of any man, a stranger, and upon provocation? and does he permit us to destroy those, he has given us the charge and care of; and by the dictates of nature and reafon, as well as his revealed command, requires us to preserve? He has in all the
parts of the creation taken a peculiar care to propagate and continue the several species of creatures, and makes the individuals, act so -strongly to this end, that they sometimes neglect their own private good for it, and seem to forget that general rule, which nature teaches all things, of self-preservation ; and the preservation of their young, as the strongest principle in them, over-rules the constitution of their particular natures. Thus we see, when their young stand in need of it, the timorous become valiant,