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of government, political government, he ought to have proved it by some better arguments than by barely saying, that thy desire shall be unto thy busband, was a law whereby Eve, and all that should come of her, were subjected to the abfolute monarchical power of Adam and his heirs. Thy desire shall be to thy husband, is too doubtful an expression, of whose signification interpreters are not agreed, to build so confidently on, and in a matter of such moment, and so great and general concernment: but our author, according to his way of writing, having once named the text, concludes presently without any more ado, that the meaning is as he would have it. Let the words rule and subject be but found in the text or margent, and it immediately fignifies the duty of a subject to his prince ; the relation is changed, and though God says husband, Sir Robert will have it king ; Adam has presently absolute monarchical power over Eve, and not only over Eve, but all that should come of ber, though the scripture says not a word of it, nor our author a word to prove it. But Adam must for all that be an absolute monarch, and so down to the end of the chapter.'And here I leave my reader to consider, whether my bare saying, without offering any reasons to evince it, that this text gave not Adam that absolute monarchical power, our author fupposes, be not as sufficient to destroy that power, as his bare af


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fertion is to establish it, since the text mentions neither prince nor people, speaks nothing of abfolute or monarchical powder, but the subjection of Ève to Aikami a wife to her husband. And he that would trace our aus thor fo all through, would make a short and fufficient answer to the greatest part of the grounds he proceeds on, and abundantly confute them by barely denying; it being a sufficient answer to affertions without proof, to deny them without giving a reason. And therefore should I have said nothing but barely denied, that by this text the fupreme power was settled and founded by God bimself, in the fatherhood, limited to moncrcby, and that to Adam's person and heirs, all which our author notably concludes from these words, as may be feen in the same page, Observations, 244. it had been a sufficient answer a fhould I have defred any fober man only to thave read the text, and considered to whom; and on what occafion it was spoken, he would no doubt have wondered how our author found out monarchical absolute power in it; had he not had an exceeding good faculty to find it himself, where he could not thew it others. And thus we have examined the two places of scripture, all that I remember our author brings to prove Adam's fovereignty, that fupremacy, which he fays, it was God's ordinance should be unlimited in Adam, and as large as all the afts of his will

, Obfervations,


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254. viz. i. Gen. 28. and' iü. Gena 16. ont whereof fignifies only the subjection of the inferior ranks of creatures: to mankind, and the other the fubje&ion that is due from a wife to her husband, both far enough from that which subjects owe, the governors of political focieties of any site to run Sono inciso 9001


$. 50.


75 SIC HA P. VI. Istri. Of Adain's Title to Sovereignty by Father beod.

HERE is one thiog more, and

then I think I have given you all that our author brings for proof of Adam's fovereignty, and that is a fupposition of a natural right of dominien over his children, by being their father and this title of fatherbood he is so pleased with, that you will find it brought in almost in every page; particularly he says, not only - Adam, but the fucceeding patriarchs bad by right of father bood royal authority over their children, p. 12. And in the fame page, this fubjection of children being the fountain of all regal autbority, &c. This being, as one would think by his so frequent mentioning it, the main báfis of all his frame, we may well expect clear and evident reason for it, since he lays it down ab a position neceffary to his purpofe, that every man that is born is fo far from being free, that by bis very birth be becomes a fabjeet of bim that


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begets him, Observations, 156. so that Adam being the only man created, and all ever fince being begotten, no body has been born free. If we ask how Adam comes -by this power over his children, he tells us here it is by begetting them and fo again, Obfervations, 223. this natural dominion of Adam, fays he, may be proved out of Grotius himself, who teachers, that generatione jus acquiritur parentibus in liberos. And indeed the act of begetting being that which makes a man a father, his right of a father over his children can naturally arise from nothing else.

$. 51. Grotius tells us not here how far this jus in liberos, this power of parents over their children extends ; but our author, always very clear in the point, aflures us, it is supreme power, and like that of absolute monarchs over their slaves, absolute power of life and death. He that should demand of him, how, or for what reason it is, that begetting a child gives the father fuch an absolute power over him, will find him anTwer nothing: we are to take his word for this, as well as several other things; and by that the laws of nature and the constitutions of government must stand or fall. Had he been an absolute monarch, this way of talking might have suited well enough; pro ratione voluntas might have been of force in his mouth; but in the way of proof or argument

very unbecoming, and will little


advantage his plea for absolute monarchy. Sir Robert has too much lessened a subject's authority to leave himself the hopes of establishing any thing by his bare saying it; one slave's opinion without proof is not of weight enough to dispose of the liberty and fortunes of all mankind. If all men are not, as I think they are, naturally equal, I am sure all slaves are; and then I may without presumption oppose my single opinion to his; and be confident that my saying, that begetting of children makes them not haves to their fathers, as certainly sets all mankind free, as his

s affirming the contrary makes them all Alaves. But that this position, which is the foundation of all their doctrine, who would have monarchy to be jure divino, may have all fair play, let us hear what reasons others give for it, fince our author offers none.

g. 152. The argument, I have heard others make use of, to prove that fathers, by begetting them, come by an absolute power over their children, is this ; ; that fathers have a power over the lives of their children, because they give them life and being, which is the only proof it is capable of : since there can be no reason, why naturally one man should have any claim or pretence of right over that in another, which was never his, which he bę, stowed not, but was received from the bounty of another. 1. I answer, that every one who gives another any thing, has not always


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