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well the people, as the laws of his kingdom; and exprefly, by his oath at his coronation; so as every just king, in a fettled kingdom, is bound to observe that paction made to his people, by bis laws, in framing his government agreeable thereunto, according to that paction which God made with Noah after the deluge. Hereafter, feed-time and harvest, and cold and beat, and summer and winter, and day and night, shall not cease while the earth remaineth. And therefore a king governing in a settled kingdom, leaves to be a king, and degenerates into a tyrant, as soon as he leaves of' to rule according to his laws. And a little after, Therefore all kings that are not tyrants, or perjured, will be glad to bound themselves within the limits of their laws; and they that persuade them the contrary, are vipers, and pests both agains them and the commonwealth. Thus that learned king, who well understood the notion of things, makes the difference betwixt a king and a tyrant to confift only in this, that one makes the laws the bounds of his power, and the good of the public, the

, end of his government; the other makes all give way to his own will and appetite.

. 201. It is a mistake, to think this fault is proper only to monarchies; other forms of government are liable to it, as well as that : for wherever the power, that is put in any hands for the government of the people, and the preservation of their pro

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perties, is applied to other ends, and made use of to impoverish, harass, or subdue them to the arbitrary and irregular commands of those that have it; there it presently becomes tyranny, whether those that thus use it are one or many. Thus we read of the thirty tyrants at Athens, as well as one at Syracuse ; and the intolerable dominion of the Decemviri at Rome was nothing better.

§. 202. Where-ever law ends, tyranny begins, if the law be transgressed to another's harm; and whosoever in authority exceeds the power given him by the law, and makes use of the force he has under his command, to com-. pafs that upon the subject, which the law allows not, ceases in that to be a magistrate ; and, acting without authority, may be opposed, as any other man, who by force invades the right of another. This is acknowledged in subordinate magistrates. He that hath authority to seize my person in the street, may be opposed as a thief and a robber, if he endeavours to break into my house to execute a writ, notwithstanding that I know he has such a warrant, and such a legal authority, as will impower him to arrest me abroad. And why this should not hold in the highest, as well as in the most inferior magistrate, I would gladly be informed. Is it reasonable, that the eldest brother, because he has the greatest part of his father's estate, should thereby

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have a right to take away any of his

younger brothers portions? or that a rich man, who possessed a whole country, should from thence have a right to seize, when he pleased, the cottage and garden of his poor neighbour ? The being rightfully possessed of great power and riches, exceedingly beyond the greatest part of the fons of Adam, is so far from being an excuse, much less a reason, for rapine and oppression, which the endamaging another without authority is, that it is a great aggravation of it: for the exceeding the bounds of authority is no more a right in a great, than in a petty officer ; no more ju. stifiable in a king than a constable; but is fo much the worse in him, in that he has more trust put

in him, has already a much greater share than the rest of his brethren, and is supposed, from the advantages of his education, employment, and counsellors, to be more knowing in the measures of right and wrong.

g. 203. May the commands then of a prince be opposed? may he be refifted as often as any one thall find himself aggrieved, and but imagine he has not right done him? This will unhinge and overturn all polities, and, instead of government and order, leave nothing but anarchy and confusion.

§. 204. To this I answer, that force is to be opposed to nothing, but to unjust and unlawful force ; whoever makes any opposition

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in any other case, draws on himself a juft condemnation both from God and man; and fo no such danger or confusion will follow, as is often suggested : for,

g. 205. First, As, in some countries, the person of the prince by the law is sacred; and so, whatever he commands or does, his person is still free from all question or violence, not liable to force, or any judicial censure or condemnation. But yet opposition may be made to the illegal acts of any inferior officer, or other commissioned by him; unless he will, by actually putting himself into a state of war with his people, dissolve the government, and leave them to that defence which belongs to every one in the state of nature : for of such things who can tell what the end will be ? and a neighbour kingdom has thewed the world an odd example. In all other cases the sacredness of the person exempts him from all inconveniencies, whereby he is secure, whilst the government stands, from all violence and harm whatsoever; than which there cannot be a wiser conftitution : for the harm he can do in his own person not being likely to happen often, nor to extend itself far; nor being able by his single strength to fubvert the laws, nor oppress the body of the people, should any prince have so much weakness, and ill nature as to be willing to do it, the inconveniency of some particular mischiefs, that may happen sometimes, when

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a heady prince comes to the throne, are well recompensed by the peace of the public, and security of the government, in the person of the chief magistrate, thus set out of the reach of danger : it being safer for the body, that some few private men should be sometimes in danger to suffer, than that the head of the republic should be easily, and upon Night occasions, exposed.

§. 206. Secondly, But this privilege, belonging only to the king's person, hinders not, but they may be questioned, opposed, and refifted, who use unjust force, though they pretend a commission from him, which the law authorizes not; as is plain in the case of him that has the king's writ to arrest a man, which is a full commission from the king; and yet he that has it cannot break open a man's house to do it, nor execute this command of the king upon certain days, nor in certain places, though this commission have no such exception in it; but they are the limitations of the law, which if any one transgress, the king's commission excuses him not: for the king's authority being given him only by the law, he cannot impower any one to act against the law, or justify him, by his commission, in so doing; the commiffion, or command of any magistrate, where he has no authority, being as void and insignificant, as that of any private man; the difference between the one and the other,

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