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TRADITIONS OF THE CREATION.

379

but always in a strange disguise and figurative style.

TRADITIONS OF THE CREATION. The Indian, German, and Pelasgic branch is much more extended, and was much

(John WILLIAM DAWBON, LL. D., an eminent geoloearlier divided, notwithstanding which, the most numerous affinities have been recog. numerous contributions to periodicals and to tho pro

gist, born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, October 1820. Besides nized between its four principal languages:-

ceedings of the Geological Society of London, he has The Sanscrit, the present sacred language published a Hand book of the Geography and Natural Hier of the Hindoos, and the parent of the greater tory of Nova Scotia; The Story of the Earth and Man, number of the dialects of Hindostan; the and other works. Since 1850 he has been Principal of ancient language of the Pelasgi, common Magill College, Montreal.] parent of the Greek, Latin, many tongues that are extinct, and of all those of the A strange and startling confirmation of South of Europe; the Gothic or Teutonic, the antiquity of the old Chaldæo-Turanian from which are derived the languages of legends, and of their wide distribution, comes the North and North-west of Europe, such from the traditions of the American tribes, as the German, Dutch, English, Danish, which everywhere include ideas of the creaSwedish, and their dialects; and finally, the tion of the world and of man, often most Sclavonian, from which are descended those crude and grotesque, but in almost every of the North-east, the Russian, Polish, Bo- case retaining some of the features of the hemian, and that of the Vandals.

Chaldæan Genesis. No one can believe It is by this great and venerable branch that the scribe who reduced to writing the of the Caucasian stock, that philosophy, Popul Vuh, the sacred book of the Ancient the arts and sciences, have been carried to Quichés of Central America, had access to their present state of advancement; and it the tablets recently deciphered by Mr. Smith, has continued to be the depository of them yet he has the same order and sequence of for thirty centuries.

creation, and the same ideas of cosmological gods, and of the introduction of man upon the earth. . . . It has been customary to throw doubt on the American traditions of the Creation and Deluge, as probably in part

borrowed from Christian sources; but their SAYINGS OF TERENCE.

relationship to the old Chaldæan theogony

and cosmogony is so striking, that it seems (TERENCE (PUBLIUS TERENTIUS AFER), the famous Latin poet, was born in Carthage about "B. c. 195; the necessary, to regard these traditions as a date of his death is uncertain. He was once a slave,

common inheritance of the great Turanian

race on both continents. and was freed on account of his talents, Six of his comedies have been preserved.)

What shall we say of these traditions in

their ultimate source? They are not hisObsequiousness begets friends, Truth, they relate to what preceded the advent of

tory in the ordinary sense of the terın, for hatred.

We can scarcely believe that they I take it to be a principal rule of life, not are the dim memories of past states of a beto be too much addicted to any one thing. ing, wbo, in the lapse of geological time has He who indulges in liberty of speech, Can they be the results of a prehistoric sci

been developed up from a protozoan to man. will hear things in return which he will not ence or philosophy ? Must they not, rather, like.

be regarded as the traces of an early revelaIt is a fault common to all, that in ad. tion, from the Creator himself, to the first vanced age we are too much devoted to our intelligent beings placed upon the earth? interest and property

The least that we can say is, that far back Human nature is so constituted, that all before the great flood of Noah or Sisit

,

in the beginning of human history, perhaps see and judge better in the affairs of other there lived some seer or sage, so gifted with inen, than in their own.

divine insight that he could say or sing the Wisdom consists, not in seeing what is story of Creation, in such terms that it fixed directly before us, but in discerning those itself, as a primary article of faith, in the things which may come to pass.

religion of every people; and, handed down

man.

380

THE LOVE OF COUNTRY.

to us through the oldest line of monotheistictions of their indulgent grandfathers, and reformers, still molds our beliefs, lies at the the like. foundation of our creeds, and in its few bold The love of country seems to strengthen outline touches of the plan of the Creation, in proportion as it is innocent and happy. challenges comparison with the revelations For this reason savages are fonder of their of modern geology

country than polished nations are; and those who inhabit regions rough and wild, such as mountaineers, than those who live in fertile countries and fine climates. Never

could the Court of Russia prevail upon a SHE IS NOT FAIR TO OUTWARD

single Samöiède to leave the shores of the VIEW.

Frozen Ocean, and settle at St. Petersburg

Some Greenlanders were brought, in the She is not fair to outward view,

course of the last century, to the Court of As many maidens be;

Copenhagen, where they were entertained Her loveliness I never knew

with a profusion of kindness, but soon fretUntil she smiled on me:

ted themselves to death. Several of them 0, then I saw her eye was bright,A well of love, a spring of light.

were drowned in attempting to return to

their country in an open boat. They beheld But now her looks are coy and cold;

all the magnificence of the Court of DenTo mine they ne'er reply;

mark with extreme indifference; but there And yet I cease not to behold

was one in particular, whom they observed The love-light in her eye:

to weep every time he saw a woman with a Her very frowns are better far

child in her arms; hence they conjectured Than smiles of other maidens are !

that this unfortunate man was a father. HABTLEY COLERIDGE, 1796–1849.

The gentleness of domestic education, undoubtedly, thus powerfully attaches those poor people to the place of their birth. It

was this which inspired the Greeks and THE LOVE OF COUNTRY.

Romans with so much courage in the de

fence of their country. The sentiment of (JACQUE HENRI BERNARDIN DE SAINT-PIERRE WAS

innocence strengthens the love of it, beborn at Havre, France, Jan. 19, 1737. He studied engi- cause it brings back all the affections of neering, and for a time practised that profession, with early life, pure, sacred, and incorruptible. intorvals of soldiering. In 1771 he devoted himself to But arnong nations with whom infancy literature. In 1773 he produced Voyage to the Isle of is rendered miserable, and is corrupted by France, and subsequently, Studies of Nature (1784), Paul irksome, ferocious and unnatural education, and Virginia (1788), etc. The work last named has been there is no more love of country than there translated into every European language and still ro is of innocence. This is one of the causes tains all its popularity. He died Jan. 21, 1814. We which sends so many Europeans a rambling quote from “Studies of Nature":]

over the world, and which accounts for our

having so few modern monuments in EuThey have in Switzerland, an ancient rope, because the next generation never musical air, and extremely simple, called the fails to destroy the monuments of that ranz des vaches. This air produces an which preceded it. This is the reason that effect so powerful, that it was found neces- our books, our fashions, our customs, our sary to prohibit the playing of it in Holland ceremonies, our languages, become obsolete and in France, before the Swiss soldiers, so soon, and are entirely different this age because it set them all deserting, one after from what they were in the last; whereas, another. I imagine that the ranz des vaches all these particulars continue the same must imitate the lowing and bleating of the among the sedentary nations of Asia, for cattle, the repercussion of the echoes, and a long series of ages together ; because other local associations, which made the children brought up in Asia with much blood boil in the veins of those poor soldiers, gentleness, remain attached to the estabby recalling to their memory the valleys, lishments of their ancestors, out of gratitude the lakes, the mountains of their country, to their memory and to the places of their and at the same time, the companions of birth, from the recollection of their happitheir early life, their first loves, the recollec- ness and innocence.

PAINTING AND SCULPTURE.

381

THE SHANDON BELLS.

From the tapering summite

of tall minarets.

Such empty phantom
I freely grant them;
But there is an anthem

More dear to me-
'Tis the bells of Shandon,
Tbat sound so grand on
The pleasant waters

Of the river Lee. Rev. FRANCIS MAHONY, (“TATHER PBOUT,") 1834 1866.

PAINTING AND SCULPTURE.

(FREDERIC WILLIAM JOSEPH VON SCHELLING, One of Germany's four greatest philosophers, was born at Leonberg, Würtemberg, January 27, 1775, and died August 20, 1864. His philosophy is creative, as that of Kant is destructive, and he differs notably from Fichte in the objective or realistic direction of his thought. F, H, Hedge observes that Schelling " is the poet of the transcendental movement, as Fichto is its preacher."]

Sculpture, representing its ideas by corporeal things, seems to reach its highest point in the complete equilibrium of Soul and Matter-if it give a preponderance to the latter, it sinks below its own idea—but it seems altogether impossible for it to ele. vate the soul at the expense of matter, since it must thereby transcend itself. The perfect sculptor indeed, as Winckelmand remarks on occasion of the Belvidere Apollo, will use no more material than is needful to accomplish his spiritual purpose ; but also on the other hand he will put into the soul no more energy than is at the same time expressed in the material: for precise. ly upon this, fully to embody the spiritual, depends his art.

The nature of Painting, however, seems to differ entirely from that of Sculpture. For the former represents objects not like the latter, by corporeal things, but by light and color; through a medium therefore itself incorporeal, and in a measure spiritual. And Painting, moreover, gives out its productions no wise as the things them. selves, but expressly as pictures. From its very nature therefore it does not lay as much stress on the material as Sculpture, and seems indeed from this reason, when it exalts the material above the spirit, to degrade itself more than Sculpture in a like

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With deep affection
And recollection,
I often think of

Those Shandon bells, Whose sounds so wild would, In the days of childhood, Fling round my cradle

Their magic spells.
On this I ponder,
Where'er I wander,
And thus grow fonder,

Sweet Cork, of thee;
With thy bells of Shandon
That sound so grand on
"The pleasant waters

Of the river Lee.

I've heard bells chiming,
Full many a climo in,
Tolling sublime in

Cathedral shrine;
While at a glib rate,
Brass tongues would vibrata
But all their music

Spoke nought like thine;
For memory dwelling
On each proud gwelling
Of the belfry knelling

Its bold notes free,
Made the bells of Shandon
Sound far more grand on
The pleasant waters

Of the river Lee.

I've heard bells tolling old • Adrian's Mole' in, Their thunder rolling

From the Vatican; And cymbals glorious Swinging uproarious In the gorgeous turrets

of Notre Dame.
But thy sounds were sweeter
Than the dome of Petor
Flings o'er the Tiber,

Pealing solemnly-
O the bells of Shandon
Sound far more grand on
The pleasant waters

Of the river Lee.

Thero 's a bell in Moscow,
While on tower and kiosk 0,
In Saint Sophia,

The Turkman gets;
And loud in air
Calls men to prayer,

case.

While Sculpture maintains an exact balance between the force whereby a thing

882

DISCOVERY OF A COLOSSAL SCULPTURE.

exists outwardly and acts in Nature, and standing near a heap of baskets and cloaks. that by virtue of which it lives inwardly Whilst Awad advanced and asked for a and as soul, and excludes mere passivity present to celebrate the occasion, the Arabseven from Matter ; Painting on the contrary withdrew the screen they had hastily conmay soften in favor of the soul the charac- structed, and disclosed an enormous human teristicness of the force and activity in Mat- head, sculptured in full out of the alabaster, and transform it into resignation and ter of the country. They bad uncovered endurance, by which Man seems to become the upper part of a figure, the remainder more generally susceptible to the inspira- of which was still buried in the earth. I tions of the soul, and to higher influences. saw at once that the head must belong to a

This diametrical difference explains of winged lion or bull, similar to those of itself not only the necessary predominance Khorsa bad and Persepolis. It was in adof Sculpture in the ancient, and of Painting mirable preservation. The expression was in the modern world (since in the former calm, yet majestic, and the outline of the the tone of mind was thoroughly plastic, features showed a freedom and knowledge whereas the latter makes even the soul the of art scarcely to be looked for in the works passive instrument of higher revelations): of so remote a period. but this also is evident; that it is not enough I was not surprised that the Arabs had to strive after the Plastic in form and man. been amazed and terrified at this appariner of representation, but that it is requisite tion. It required no stretch of imagination before all to think and feel plastically, that to conjure up the most strange fancies. is, antiquely.

This gigantic head, blanched with age, thus And as the deviation of Sculpture into rising from the bowels of the earth, might the picturesque is destructive to Art, so the well have belonged to one of those fearful narrowing down of Painting to the condi- beings which are pictured in the traditions tions and forms belonging to Sculpture, is of the country as appearing to mortals, slowan arbitrarily imposed limitation. For while ly ascending from the regions below. One Sculpture, like 'Gravitation, acts towards of the workmen, on catching the first glimpse one point, it is permitted to Painting, as to of the monster, had thrown down his basket Light, to fill all space with its creative ener- and run off towards Mosul as fast at his gy.

legs could carry him. I learned this with regret, as I anticipated the consequences.

Whilst I was superintending the removal DISCOVERY OF A COLOSSAL of the earth, which still clung to the sculpSCULPTURE.

ture, and giving directions for the continu

ation of the work, a noise of horsemen was (Austin Henry LATARD, the orientalist and traveller, heard, and presently. Abd-ur-rahman, folwas born of English parents, in Paris, March 5th, 1817. lowed' by half his tribe, appeared on the His work on “ Nineveh and its Remains" (1849), and later

edge of the trench. As soon as the two volumes on related subjocts, are justly celebrated for

Arabs had reached the tents, and published their high interest and value.]

the wonders they had seen, every one mountOn the morning I rode to the encamp- ed his mare and rode to the mound, to satment of Sheikh Abd-ur-rahman, and was isfy himself of the truth of these inconceive returning to the mound, when I saw two able reports. When they beheld the head, Arabs of his tribe urging their mares to they all cried together : " There is no god the top of their speed. On approaching but God, and Mohammed is his prophet!" me, they stopped. “Hasten, O Bey,” ex. It was some time before the sheikh could be claimed one of them—“hasten to the dig. prevailed upon to descend into the pit, and gers, for they have found Nimrod himself. convince himself that the image he saw was Wallah, it is wonderful, but it is true! we of stone. “ This is not the work of men's have seen him with our eyes. There is no hands," exclaimed he, “but of those infidel god but God ;” and both joining in this giants of whom the prophet-peace be with pious exclamation, they galloped off, with him !—has said that they were higher than out further words, in the direction of their the tallest date-tree; this is one of the idols tents.

which Noah-peace be with him !-cursed On reaching the ruins, I descended into before the flood.” In this opinion, the rethe new trench, and found the workmen, sult of a careful examination, all the bywho had already seen me as I approached, I standers concurred.

FIRST VIEW OF THE SUPPOSED SOURCE OF THE NILE.

383

Democratic nations are at all times fond WHY EQUALITY IS COMMONLY of equality, but there are certain epochs at PREFERRED TO LIBERTY.

which the passion they entertain for it swells to the height of fury. This occurs at the

long(ALEXIS CHABLES HENRI CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE, a moment when the old social system, distinguished statesman and political economist, was

menaced, is overthrown after a severe intesborn in Paris, July 29th, 1805. He studied law, and tine struggle, and the barriers of rank are after several years' practice was , in 1832) commissioned at length thrown down. At such times men to investigate the penitentiary systems of the United pounce upon equality as their booty, and Stuter. The outgrowth of his visit to this country was they cling to it as to some precious treasure the famous work On Democracy in America, which which they fear to lose. The passion for appeared in 1836. He became a member of tho French equality penetrates on every side into men's Academy in 1843. In 1839 he was elected a member of hearts, expands there, and fills them enthe Chamber of Deputies, and in 1848 a member of the tirely. Tell them not that, by this blind Constituent Assembly. In 1849 he was minister of For surrender of themselves to an exclusive eign Affairs. After the coup-d'état he retired from passion, they risk their dearest interests ; public life. His Old Régime and the Revolution was they are deaf. Show them not freedom published in 1856. He died April 15th, 1859. Our ex.

escaping from their grasp, whilst they are tract is from “ Democracy in America.")

looking another way: they are blind, or, That political freedom may compromise, be desired in the universe.

rather, they can discern but one object to in its excesses, the tranquillity, the property, I think that democratic communities have the lives of individuals, is obvious even to a natural taste for freedom: left to themnarrow and unthinking minds. On the con. selves, they will seek it

, cherish it, and view trary, none but attentive and clear-sighted men perceive the perils with which equality equality, their passion is ardent, insatiable,

any privation of it with regret. But for threatens us, and they commonly avoid incessant, invincible: they call for equality pointing them out. They know that the in freedom ; and if they cannot obtain thai, calamities they apprehend are remote, and flatter themselves that they will only fall will endure poverty, servitude, barbarism ;

they still call for equality in slavery. They upon future generations, for which the pres- but they will not endure aristocracy. ent generation takes hut little thought. The evils which freedom sometimes brings with it are immediate ; they are apparent to all, and all are more or less affected by them. The evils which extreme equality may produce are slowly disclosed ; they creep grad

FIRST VIEW OF THE SUPPOSED ually into the social frame; they are seen SOURCE OF THE NILE. only at intervals ; and at the moment at which they become most violent, habit

(JAMES BRUCE, of Kinnaird, county of Storling, causes them to be no longer felt.

Scotland. Born December 14, 1730. He devoted much Political liberty bestows exalted plea- time to the study of Eastern antiquities, and travelled sures, from time to time, upon a certain extensively in oriental lands, his graphic descriptions number of citizens. Equality every day of which give him an honorable place in literatura confers a certain number of small enjoy. He died April 27, 1794.] ments on every man.

The charms of equality are every instant felt, and are with. Half-undressed as I was (says Bruce), in the reach of all; the noblest hearts are by the loss of my sash, and throwing off my not insensible to them, and the most vulgar shoes, I ran down the hill towards the souls exult in them. The passion which hillock of green sod, which was about two equality creates must therefore be strong hundred yards distant; the whole side of and general. Men cannot enjoy political the hill was thick grown with flowers, the liberty unpurchased by some sacrifices, and large bulbous roots of which appearing they never obtain it without great exertions. above the surface of the ground, and their But the pleasures of equality are self-prof- skins coming off on my treading upon them, fered ; each of the peity incidents of life occasioned me two very severe falls before seem to occasion them ; and in order to I reached the brink of the marsh. I after taste them nothing is required but to live. this came to the altar of green turf, which

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