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THE

FORTNIGHTLY

REVIEW

EDITED BY

GEORGE HENRY LEWES.

VOL. VI.

AUGUST 15 to December 1, 1866.

LONDON:
CHAPMAN AND HALL, 193, PICCADILLY.

1866.

[The Right of Translation is reserved.]

LONDON PRINTED BY VIRTCK AND CO.,

CITY ROAD.

CONTENTS.

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PAGE
The War of the Banks. By R. H. PATTERSON .

1
New Facts in the Life of Geoffrey Chaucer. By E. A. BOND

28
The Oxford Reformers of 1498. Chapters V. to VII. By FREDERIC
SEEBOHY

36, 170, 474
Vittoria. Chapters XXXII. to XLVI. By G. MEREDITH 57, 229,

311, 455, 579, 688, 857
The Religion of Savages. By EDWARD B. TYLOR
The Danubian Principalities. By ADAM GIELGUD

87
A Hungarian Election. By ARTHUR J. PATTERSON

129
Holbein at the National Portrait Exhibition. By ALFRED WOLTMANN · 151
The Elements of Muscular Strength. By M. FOSTER, JUN.

189
The Inscription at Ancyra. By W. M. W. CALL

. 200
Was Sir William Hamilton a Berkeleian? By JAMES HUTCHISON
STIRLING

218
England and the Annexation of Mysore. By John MORLEY

257
A Russian Poet. By W. R. S. RALSTON

272
Immorality in Authorship. By R. BUCHANAN

289
The Forest of Dartmoor. By R. J. KING .

. 300
Reform of the Statute Book. By J. E. HOLLAND
The Valle Lands of Venetia. By HENRY ECROYD

341
Miracles no Proofs. By JOHN FISKE

358
Sonnet. By ALFRED AUSTIN

. 357
Comte and Mill. By the EDITOR

· 385
The Origin of the English. By the Rev. G. W. Cox

. 407
A New Theory of Supply and Demand. By W. T. THORNTON

· 420
The Army: by a (late) Common Soldier

. 435

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• 327

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Home Travel : Westmoreland and Cumberland. By JOHN DENNIS . 445
The English Constitution. Nos. VII. and VIII. By WALTER BAGEHOT 513, 807
Walt Whitman. By MONOURE D. CONWAY

538
Russian Society. By A. W. BENNI

549
The Progress of Medicine. By Dr. CHEADLE

567
European Turkey and its Subject Races. By ADAM GIELGUD

• 605
Elizabeth and her England. By the Rey. WILLIAM KIRKUS

641
Russia and America, By MONCURE D. CONWAY

659
Notes made at Perugia. By ALFRED AUSTIN

666
Cottage Property in London. By OCTAVIA HILL

. 681
Theory of Missionary Effort. By the Rev. G. R. WYNNE.

. 714
Russian Society. Part II: By A. W. BENNI

. 729
The Church of England as a Religious Body. By LORD AMBERLEY . 769
The Lost Tales of Miletus. By the Rev. DR. KENNEDY

790
Italy and the Pope. By AURELIO SAFFI

. 802
A Primitive Christian in Rome. By W. W. STORY

. 827
The Currency and its Reform. By R. H. PATTERSON

837
Public Affairs

104, 243, 358, 493, 620, 745, 878
Causeries. By the EDITOR

370, 757, 890
Critical Notices. By PETER BAYNE, JAMES GAIRDNER, M. D. CONWAY,

R. BELL, Rev. H. S. FAGAN, REV. G. D. HAUGHTON, W. WHITAKER,
SIR DAVID WEDDERBURN, Bart., JAMES HUTTON, ANTHONY TROLLOPE,
E. B. TYLOR, JOHN DENNIS, and the EDITOR 116, 255, 376, 505, 632, 763

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THE

FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW.

No. XXXI.-AUGUST 15, 1866.

THE WAR OF THE BANKS.

The epoch of wars in Europe—that long era of strife which has lasted for more than two thousand years—is gradually coming to an end. There will be wars yet—and possibly great wars; nevertheless the end of international strife is approaching, and Europe will ere long settle down into a peaceful community of nations,-into a commonwealth in which each State will respect the rights of its neighbours, and act harmoniously with them. The power of kings, the ambition of growing States, will ere long cease to plunge our Continent into the turmoil and dread evils of military conflicts. Each people begins to appreciate and respect the rights of its neighbours; and as the great work of national development and of self-government goes on, expediency, self-interest, will come more and more to the help of international morality. Let each people have its natural rights, and the cause of wars will be well-nigh at an end. In proportion as each nation becomes developed and matured, as each resolves to be itself, and can manage its own affairs, this growth of the Peoples, this principle of Nationality, will raise a barrier against the efforts of selfish ambition, whether on the part of peoples or of kings. We see the beginning of this process; and, though the happy end is not yet, still it is visible in the future—it is approaching:

But there are other conflicts than those waged by armies. Industry also has its wars. The plough and the loom and the forge can engage in international conflicts of their own, without the aid of either sword or spear; and the navies of commerce can struggle in hostile rivalry, although not a cannon is fired from their decks. A war of tariffs, commercial and industrial, has long prevailed over Europe. Each country has sought to restrict or to nullify the industry of its neighbours. For the sake of its own people, it has sought to exclude the products, and restrain the industrial enterprise, of other countries. This warfare likewise is coming to an end. Gradually

VOL. VI.

B

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