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[as mūs in the Greek compounds) signi in it that rattles upon shaking. Guincy, fies all, or altogerber. So Ælwin is a AFA'R.adv.[from aforai,andfur.] SeeFAR, complete conqueror. Albert, all illustrious: 1. At a great distance. Aldred, altogetber reverend: Alfred, al So shaken as we are, so wan with care, togelber peaceful. To these Pammachius,

Find we a time for frighted peace to part,

And breathe short winded accents of new broils, Pancratius, Pampbilius, &c. do in some

To be commenc'd in strouds afar remote. Shaks.

Gibson's Camden, measure answer.

We hear better when we hold our breath than Ælf (which, according to various dia.

contrary; insomuch as in listening to attain a lects, is pronounced ulf, welph, bulph, sound afar off, men hold their breath. Bacon. bilp, belfe, and, at this day, belpe] im- 2. To or from a great distance. plies assistance. So Ælfwin is victorious;

Hector hastened to relieve his boy; and Ælfwold, an auxiliary governour ;

Dismiss'd his burrush'd helm that shone afar,

The pride of warriours, and the Ælfgifa, a lender of assistance: with


of war. Dry. which Boelius, Symnachus, Epicurus, &c. 3. From afar; from a distant place.

The rough Vulturnus, furious in its course, bear a plain analogy.

Gibson's Camden.

With rapid streams divides the fruitful grounds, ÆNIGMA. See ENIGMA,

And from afar in hollow murmur sounds. Add. AE'RIAL: adj. [aërius, Lat.)

4. Afur oft; remotely distant. 1. Belonging to the air, as consisting of it. Much suspecting his secret ends, he enter

The thunder, when to roll tained a treaty of peace with France, but seWith terrour through the dark aerial hall. cretly and afar off, and to be governed as occa

Paradise Lost.
sions should vary.

Sir John Hayward.
From all that can with fins or feathers fly, APE'Ard. part. adj. [from iv fear, for to
Thro' the aerial or the wat'ry sky. Prior. frigbt, with a redundant.]
I gathered the thickness of the air, or aerial

1. Frighted; terrified; afraid. interval of the glasses at that ring. Neat. Opt. He loudly bray'd, that like was never heard, Vegetables abound more with aerial particles

And from his wide devouring oven sent than animal substances. Arbuthnot on Aliments.

A fake of fire, that flashing in his beard, 2. Produced by the air.

Him all amaz'd, and almost made afeard. The gifts of heav'n my following song pursues,

Fairy Queen. Aerial honey, and ambrosial dew's. Dryden. But tell me, Hal, art thou not horribly afeard? 5. Inhabiting the air.

Thou being heir apparent, could the world pick Where those immortal shapes

thee out three such enemies again ? Sbakspeare. Of bright aerial spirits live inspherd,

Till he cherish too much beard, In regions mild of calmand setene air. Par. Reg.

And make Love or me afeard. Ben Jonson. Aerial animals may be subdivided into birds 2. It has the particle of before the object and flies.

Locke. of fear. 4. Placed in the air.

Fear is described by Spenser to ride in armour, Here subterranean works and cities see, at the clashing whereot he looks afeard of himThere towns aerial on the waving tree. Pope. self,

Peachar, 5. High; elevated in situation, and there.

It is now obsoletę; the last author fore in the air.

whom I have found using it, is Sellos. A spacious city stood, with firmest walls

AFER n. s. (Lat.] The southwest wind. Sure mounded, and with numerous turrets With adverse blast upturns them fromthe south, crown'd,

Notus and Afer, black with thund'rous clouds. Aerial spires, and citadels, the seat

Milton's Paradise Lost, Of kings and heroes resolute in war. Philips. AFFABILITY. 1. 5. [niffub.iné, Fr. otuA'ERIE, n. s. (airie, Fr.]

lita', Lat. See AFFABLE,] 'The quality word, in hawks and other birds of prey,

of being affable ; easiness of manners ; for that which we generally call a nest


çourteousness ; çivility; condescension. in other birds.

It is commonly used of superiours. AEROʻLOGY. n. s. [ane and ady@.] The

Hearing of her beauty and her wit, doctrine of the air.


Her affability and bashful modesty, AEROMANCY, 1. s. [ariş and peéytis.] The Her wond'rous qualities, and mild behaviour.

Dict. art of divining by the air.


He was of a most flowing courtesy and affuAERO'METRY. n. s. [eing and peripiw.] The


bility to all men, and so desirous tooblige them, art of measuring the air.

that he did not enough consider the value of the AERO'Scopy. n. 1. [ang and oxirlw.] The

obligation, or the merit of the person. Clarendon, observation of the air,

Dici. All instances of charity, sweetness of converÆ'THIOPS-MINERAL.», , A medicine so

sation, affability, admonition, all significations

of tenderness, care and watchfulness, must be called from its dark colour, prepared of

expressed towards children.

Taylor: quicksilver and sulphur, ground toge

It is impossible for a publick minister to be ther in a marble mortar to a black pow.

so open and easy to all his old friends, as he was der. Such as have used it most, think

in his private condition ; but this may be helped its virtues not very great.

Ruincy. out by an affability of address. L'Estrange, TITES. n. s. [ărie, an eagle.] Eagle. A'FFABLE.adj. [nifalide, Fr. affabilis; Lat.] stone.

It is about the bigness of a 1. Easy of manners; accostable; courteous chesnut, and hollow, with somewhat

complaisant. It is used of superiours.

The proper



He was affable, and both well and fair spoken,

Atrides broke and would use strange sweetness and blandish His silence next, but ponder'd ere he spoke: ment of words, where he desired to affect or Wise are thy words, and glad I would obey, persuade any thing that he took to heart. Bacon. But this proud man affects imperial sway. Dryd. Her father is

4. To tend to; to endeavour after : spok. An affable and courteous gentleman. Sbakspeare. en of things. Gen:le to me, and affable hath been

The drops of every fluid affect a round figure, Thy condescension, and shall be honour'd ever

by the mutual attraction of their parts; as the With grateful memory.

Paradise Lost,

globe of the earth and sea affects a round figure, 2. It is applied to the external appearance; by the mutual attraction of its parts by gravity, benign; mild ; favourable.

Nezutoa's Opticks. Augustus appeared, looking round him with s. To be fond of; to be pleased with ; to a serene and affiable countenance upon all the love ; to regard with fondness. writers of his age.


That little which some of the heathen did A'FFABLENESS.

11. s. [from otiabie.] chance to 'hear, concerning such matter as the Courtesy; affability.

sacred Scripture plentifully containeth, they did A'FFABLÝ. adv. (from affable.] In an

in wonderful sort affect.


There is your crown; affable manner; courteously ; civilly.

And he that wears the crown immortally A'FFAEROUS. adj. [attabre, Fr.] Skilfully

Long guard it yours! If I afect it more, made ; complete ; finished in a work Than as your honour, and as your renown, manlike manner,

Dict. Let me no more from this obedience rise. Sbab. AFFABULATION. ».4. [«ffabulatio, Lat.]

Think not that wars we love, and strife affect;

Dici. The moral of a fable.

Or that we hate sweet peace. Fairfax.

None but a woman could a man direct AFFA'IR. ». s. (uffure, Fr.] Business;

To tell us women what we most affect. Dryder. something to be managed or transacted.

6. To make a show of something; to study It is used for both private and public

the appearance of any thing : with some matters.

degree of hypocrisy. I was not born for courts or great affairs; Another nymph, amongst the many fair, I pay my debts, believe, and say my prayers. Before the rest effected stiil to stand,

And watch'd my eye, preventing my command. A good acquaintance with method will greatly

Prior, assist every one in ranging, disposing, and maa

These often carry the humour so far, till their naging all human affrirs.


affected coldness and indifference quire kills all What St. John's skill in state affairs,

the fondness of a lover. Addison's Spectator. What Ormond's valour, Oxford's cares, To aid their sinking country lent,

Coquet and coy at once her air,

Both studied, though both seem neglected ; Was all destroy'd by one event. Swift, Careless she is with artful care, To AFFE'AR, 0, 1, (trom fier, Fr.] To Affecting to seem unaffected. Congreve.

confirm; to give a sanction to; to esta *The conscious husband, whom like symptoms blish: an old term of law.

seize, Bleed, bleed, poor country!

Charges on her the guilt of their disease; Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure;

Aficting fury, acts a madman's part, For goodness dares not check thee!

He'll ripthe titalsecret from her heart. Grancille. His title is affear'd.

Sbakspeare's Macbeth. 7. To imitate in an unnatural and conTo AFFE'CŤ. v. a. [utfalicr, Fr. officio, strained manner. uffecium, Lat.]

Spenser, in afecting the ancients, writ no lan

guage; yet I would have him read for his mata 1. To act upon; to produce effects in

ter, but as Virgil read Ennius.

Ben Jonsor. any other thing. The sun

8. To convict of some crime; to attaint Had first his precept so to move, so shine,

with guilt: a phrase merely juridical.

By the civil law, if a dowry with a wife be As might affect the earth with cold and heat, Scarce tolerable. Milton's Paradise Lost, proinised and not paid, the husband is not The generality of men are wholly governed

obliged to allow her alimony. But if her pow by names, in matters of good and evil; so far as

rents shall become insolvent by some misfortunt', these qualities relate to, and offeet, the actions

she shall have alimony, unless you can ::1]ct thein of men:

Sontb's Sermons.

with fraud, in promising what they knew they Yet even those two particles do reciprocally

were not able to perform. Ayliffe's Parergok, efect each other with the same force and vigour, AFFE'CT. 1.5. (from the vero.] as they would do at the same distance in any I. Affection ; passion ; sensation. other situation imaginable. Bentley's Sermons. It scemeth that as the feet have a sympathy 2. To move the passions.

with the head, so the wrists have a sympathy As a thinking man cannot but be very much with the heart; "esee the affacts and passions of affected with the idea of his appearing in the pre

the heart and spirits are notably disclosed by the seace of that Being, whom none can see and live;


Bacon's Vutural Historg. he must be much more affected, when he consi 2. Quality ; circumstance. ders, that this Being, whom he appears before,

I find it difficult to make out one single ulcer, will examine the actions of his life, and reward as authors describe it, without other symptoms D: pirish tim cecordingly. Addison's Spectator, or affects joined to it.

Wiseman. 3. To aim at ; to aspire to : spoken of per This is only the antiquated worri for sons.



APTECTA’TION. n. s. [affectatio, Lat.] and forms of appetite, can neither rise at the 1. Fondness; high degree of liking : com

conceit of a thing indifferent, nor yet choose but

rise at the sight of some things. Hooker. monly with some degree of culpability: In things of their own nature indifferent, 'if

To speak truth of Cæsar,

I have not known when his affections sway'd either councils or particular men have at any More than his reason. time, with sound judgment, misliked conformity


Zeal ought to be composed of the highest debetween the church of God and infidels, the

grees of pious affections : of which some are cause thereof hath been somewhat else than only affectation of dissimilitude.


milder and gentler, some sharper and more ve• hement.

Spret. 2. An artificial show; an elaborate ap

I can present nothing beyond this to your pearance; a false pretence.

affections, to excite your love and desire. It has been, from age to age, an affectation to

Tillatsex. love the pleasure of solitude, among those who cannot possibly be supposed qualified for passing 3. Love; kindness ; good-will to some life in that manner.


person : often with 10 or loward before AFFECTED. part. adj. [from offrc.]

the person. J. Moved ; touched with affection ; inter

I have acquainted you nally disposed or inclined.

With the dear love I bear to fair Anne Page, No marvel then if he were ill affected. Shak.

Who mutually hath answer'd my affection. The model they seemed affected to in their

Sbakspeare. directory, was not like to any of the foreign re My king is tangled in affection to

formed churches now in the world. Clarendon, A creature of the queen's, lady Anne Bullen. 2. Studied with overmuch care, or with


What warmth is there in your affections too · hypocritical appearance. These antick, lisping, affected phantasies, these

ward any of these princely suitors ? Sbak. new tuners of accents.


Make his interest depend upon mutual affai.

tion and good correspondence with others. • 3. In a personal sense, full of affectation ;

Collier. as, an affected lady.

Nor at first sight, like most, admires the fair ; AFFECTEDLY. axiv. [from afected.] For you he lives, and you alone shall share 1. In an affected manner; hypocritically ; His last affection as his early care. with more appearance than reality.

4. Good-will to any object ; zeal ; pasPerhaps they are affectedly ignorant; they are sionate regard. so willing it should be true, that they have not I have reason to distrust mine own judgment, aitempted to examine it.

Gov. of the Tongue. as that which may be overborn by my zeal and Some indeed have been so affectedly vain, as affection to this cause.

Bacon. to counterfeit immortality ; and have stolen Set your affection upon my words; desire them, their death, in hopes to be esteemed immortal. and ye shall be instructed.

Wisdor. Brown. His integrity to the king was without blemish, By talking so familiarly of one hundred and and his affection to the church so notorious, that ten thousand pounds, by a tax upon a few coin he never deserted it.

Clarendon. modities, it is plain, you are either naturally or All the precepts of christianity command us

fectedly ignorant of our condition. Swift. to moderate our passions, to temper our affections 2. Studiously; with laboured intention. towards all things below.

Temple. Some mispersuasions, concerning the divine

Let not the mind of a student be under the attributes, tend to the corrupting men's manners,

influence of warm affection to things of sense, as if they were designed and affectedly chosen for

when he comes to the search of truth. Watts.

Decay of Pity: 5. State of the mind in general. AFFE'CTEDNESS. n. s. [from affected.]

The quality of being affected, or of In my most ill-compos'd affection, such making false appearances.

A stanchless avarice, that, were I king,

I should cut off the nobles for their lands. Sbats. AFFE'CTION. n. s. [ujection, Fr. effectio,

The man that hath no musick in himself, Lat.)

Nor is not mov'd with concord of sweet sounds, 1. The state of being affected by any Is tit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils; cause, or agent. This general sense is

The motions of his spirit are dull as night, little in usc.

And his affections dark as Erebus : Some men there are love not a gaping pig;

Let no such man be trusted. Sbakspeare. Some that are inad if they behold a cat; 6. Quality ; property. And others, when the bagpipe sings i' th' nose, The certainty and accurateness which is at.

Cannot contain their urine, for afection. Shaksp. tributed to what mathematicians deliver, must 2. Passion of any kind.

be restrained to what they teach concerning Then gan the palmer thus : most wretched those purely mathematical disciplines, arithme

tick and geometry, where the affections of quanThat to offctions does the bridle lend;

tity are abstractedly considered

Beyk. In their beginning they are weak and wan, The mouth being necessary to conduct the But soon through sufferance grow to fearful end. voice to the shape of its cavity, necessarily gives

Fairy Queen. the vcice some particular affection of sound in its Impute it to my late solitary life, which is passage, before it come to the lips. Holder prone to affections.

Sidney. God may have joined immaterial souls to Afretions, as joy, grief, fear, and anger, with other kinds of bodies, and in other lat's of such likc, being, as it were, thc sundry fashions union; and, from those different laws of unior,

that purpose.

There grow's,


there will arise quite different affections and na AVFECTUO'SITY. no s. [from affectuons.) tures, and species of the compound beings.


Dict. 7. State of the body, as acted upon by any

Bentley. AFFE'CTUOUS. adj. [from affect.) Full of

passion; as, an affectuous speech: a word cause.

little used. It seemed to me a venereal gonorrhea, and others thought it arose from some scorbutical

TO APPE'R E. v. a. (affier, Fr.] A law affection. Wiseman's Surgery.

term, signifying to confirm. See To 8. Lively representation in painting.

AFFEAR. Afection is the lively representment of any AFFE'RORS. n. s. [from affere.] passion whatsoever, as if the figures stood not Such as are appointed in court-leets, c. upor upon a cloth or board, but as if they were acting oath, to mulct such as have committed faults upon a stage.

Wotton's Architecture. arbitrarily punishable, and have no express pes g. It is used by Shakspeare sometimes for nalty set down by statute.

Cowell. affectation.

AFFI'ANCE. n. s. (afhance, from affer, There was nothing in it that could indict the French.) author of affection.

Shakspeare. 1. A marriage contract. AFFE'CTIONATE, adj. [effectionné, Fr. At last such grace I found, and means I frem ofiction.]

wrought, 1. Full of affection ; strongly moved ;

That I that lady to my spouse had won, warm ; zealous.

Accord of friends, consent of parents sought, In their love of God, and desire to please him,

Affiance made, my happiness begun. Fairy Queen. men can never be too affectionate; and it is as

2. Trust in general; confidence ; secure true, that in their hatred of sin men may be

reliance. sometimes too passionate.

Sprat's Sermons. The duke is virtuous, mild, and too well given 2. Strongly inclined to; disposed to: with

To drcam on evil, or to work my downfall.the particle 1o.

-Ah! what's more dangerous than this fond As for the parliament, it presently took fire,


Seems he a dove? his feathers are but borrow'd. being affectionate, of old, to the war of France. Bacon's Henry vii.

Sbakspeare's Henry vi. 3. Fond ; tender.

3. Trust in the divine promises and proHe found me sitting, beholding this picture :

tection. To this sense it is now almost I know not with how affectionate countenance,

confined. but, I am sure, with a most affectionate mind.

Religion receives man into a covenant of Sidney.

grace, where there is pardon reached out to all Away they fly

truly penitent sinners, and assistance promised, Affectionate, and undesiring bear

and engaged, and bestowed, upon very easy corn The most delicious morsel to their young.

ditions, viz. humility, prayer, and affiance in Thomson. him.

Hammond's Fundamentals. 4. Benevolent ; tender.

There can be no surer way to success, than When we reflect on all this affecticnate care of

by disclaiming all contidence in ourselves, and Providence for our happiness, with what wonder

referring the events of things to God with an must we observe the little effect it has on men!

implicit affrance. Atterbury's Sermons. Rogers' Sermons.

TO AFFIANCE. v. a. (from the noun.] AFFE'CTIONATELY. arlv. (from affection.

1. To betroth; to bind any one by proate.) In an affectionate manner; fondly;

mise to marriage. tenderly ; benevolently.

To me, sad maid, or rather widow sad, AFFE'CTION ATENESS. n. s. [from affic

He was affianced long time before,

And sacred pledges he both gave and had; tronale.] The quality or state of being False, errant knight, infamous and foreswore! affectionate ; fondness; tenderness;

Fairy Q:een. good-will; benevolence.

Her should Angelo have married, was of AFFE'CTIONED, adj. (from affectionate.]

fianced to her by oath, and the nuptial appoint1. Affected; conceited. This sense is

ed; between which time of the contract, and obsolete.

limit of the solemnity, his brother was wrecked,

having in that vessel the dowry of his sister. An effectioned ass, that cons state without

Shakspeare's Measure for Measure. book, and utters it by great swaths. Shakspeare.

2. To give confidence. 2. Inclined ; mentally disposed.

Stranger! whoe'er thou art, securely rest Be kindly affectioned one to another. Romans.

Afionc'd in my faith, a friendly guest. AFFE'CTIOUSLY, ndv. [from affect.] In Affi'ancer. n. s. [from Herce.] He an affecting manner.


that makes a contract of marriage beAFTX'CTIVE, adj. (from afect.] That tween two parties.

Dici. does affect; that strongly touches. It AFFIDA’TION.) n. s. [from affido, Lat, is generally used for painful.

AFFIDA'TURE.) See AFFIED.) Mutual Pain is so uneasy a sentiment, that very little of it is enough to corrupt every enjoyment; and

contract ; mutual oath of fidelity, Diri. the effect God intends tais variety oi ungrateful AFFIDA'VIT, 11. s. (affidave signifies, in and effective sentiments should have on us, is to the language of the common law, Icelang our affections froin this valley of tears be macie oulb.) A declaration upou

Rogers, oath.



You said, if I return'd next 'size in Lent, TO AFFIRM. v. a. I should be in remitter of your grace;

1. To declare positively; as, to afirm a In th' interim my letters should take place Of affidavits.


Donne. Count Rechteren should have made affidavit

2. To ratify or approve a former law, or that his servants had been affronted, and then judgment : opposed to reverse or repeal. monsieur Mesnager would have done him justice. The house of peers hath a power of judicature

Spectator. in some cases, properly to examine, and then AFFI'ED. particip. adj. [from the verb affy to affirm; or, if there be cause, to reverse the derived from affido, Latin ; Bracton

judgments which have been given in the court of

king's bench. Bacon's Advice to Sir G. Villiers. using the phrase affidare mulieres.] Joined

In this sense we say, to offirm tbe irub. by contract ; affianced. Be we affird, and such assurance ta’en,

AFFIRMABLE. adj. [from affirm.] That As shall with either part's agreement stand.

may be affirmed. Sbaksp.

Those atttributes and conceptions that were AFFILIA'TION, , s. (from ad and filius,

applicable and affirmable of him when present,

are now affirmable and applicable to him though Lat.] Adoption; the act of taking a


Hale's Origin of Mankind.

Cbumoris. AFFI'RMANCE. ». s. (from him.] Con- , A'FFINAGE. n. s. [offinagi, Fr.] The act tirmation; opposed to rrpeal.

of refining metals by the coppel. Dit. This statute did but restore an ancient statute, AFFI'NED. adj. (from affinis, Lat.) Joined which was itself also made but in offirmance of by affinity to another ; related to an the common law.

Bacon. other.

AFFIRMANT. n. s. [from affirm.] The If partially affin'd, or leagued in office,

person that affirm3; a declarer.

Dict. Thou dost deliver more or less than truth, AFFIRMATION, ». 5. Infirmatio, Lat.] Thou art no soldier. Shakspeare's Othello.

1. The act of affirming or declaring : opAFFI'NITY. n. s. [affinité, Fr. from affinis,

posed to negation or denial. Lat.)

This gentleman vouches, upon warrant of 1. Relation by marriage ; relation con bloody affirmation, he is to be more virtuous,

tracted by the husband to the kindred and less attemptable, than any of our ladies. of the wife, and by the wife to those of

Sbakspeare's Cymbeline. the husband. It is opposed to consari

2. The position affirmed.

That he shall receive no benefit from Christ, guinity, or relation by birth. In this sense it has sometimes the particle with,

is the afirmation whereon his despair is founded;

and one way of removing this dismal apprehenand sometimes !0, before the person to sion, is, to convince him that Christ's death, if whom the relation is contracted.

he perform the condition required, shall cer- ' They had left none alive, by the blindness of tainly belong to him. Hammond's Fundamentals. rage killing many guiltless persons, either for 3. Confirmation : opposed to repeal. affinity to the tyrant, or enmity to the tyrant The learned in the laws of our land observe, killers.

Šidney. that our statutes sometimes are only the offirAnd Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh mation, or ratification, of that which, by comking of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter. mon law, was held before.

Hooker. 1 Kings. AFFI'RMATIVE. adj. [from affirm.] A breach was made with France itself, not 1. That does affirm, opposed to negative; withstanding so strait an afinity, so lately accomplished; as if indeed (according to that plea

in which sense we use the affirmative absant maxim of state) kingdoms were never mar

solutely, that is, the ati mai ive position. ried.


For the affirmative, we are now to answer 2. Relation to; connexion with ; resem

such proofs of theirs as have been before alleged.

Hoeder. blance to: spoken of things.

Whether there are such beings or not, 'uis The British tongue, or Welsh, was in use only

sufficient for my purpose, that many have bee in this island, having great affinity with the old

lieved the affirmative. Gallick. Camden.

Dryden. All things that have affinity with the heavens,

2. That can or may be affirmed : a sense move upon the center of another, which they used chiefly in science. benefit.

Bacon's Essay.

As in algebra, where affirmative quantities The art of painting hath_wonderful affinity

vanish or cease, there negative ones begin; so with that of poetry: Dryden's Dufresnoz.

in mechanicks, where attraction ceases, there a Man is more distinguished by devotion than repulsive virtue ought to succeed. Newton. : by reason, as several brute creatures discover 3. That has the habit of affirming with

something like reason, though they betray not vehemence ; positive ; dogmatical : apany thing that bears the least affinity to devotion. Åldison's Spectator.

plied to persons.

Be not contident and affirmative in an uncer TO AFFI'RM. v. n. [«firna, Lat.) To de tain matter, but report things modestly, and

clare ; to tell confidently : opposed to temperately, according to the degree of that the word dens.

persuasion, which is, or ought to be, begntten Yet their own authors faithfully affirm,

by the efficacy of the authority, or the reason, That the land Salike lies in Germany,

inducing thee.

Turler. Between the funds of Sala and of Elve. Sbaksp. · AFFIRMATIVELY. adv. [from firiad.

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