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have mercy upon her, but upon her stained the garments of the Christian new brother, the new Lord Mayor. Church. Protestants had suffered May God increase the goods and much from Catholics, but the Jews prosperity of this Company, of your had suffered far more. The Hebrews Master, and of the gentleman who brought knowledge, and experience, brought us here this evening to see and wealth into Europe, and of the you.'

latter we robbed them. After all this

wicked treatment they had invited A SUGGESTIVE EPISODE IN MO. him, a Christian, into their sacred DERN JUDAISM FROM AMERICA.

place, to speak to them. He was The Syracuse Morning Standard, of glad to say that we, as Christians, the 12th of October, contains the fol. had learned something from them; lowing startling report, to which the we thank the Jews for the history Anglo-Judæo weekly the Jewish Chro- they had transmitted and for this nicle, of the 13th ult., but briefly opening of their temple. All religions alludes. The reporter was evidently had their uses; none were wholly a Gentile, unskilful in the technical good, and none were entirely bad; terms of the Synagogue:

these were suited to the habits of “A very

unusual fraternisation those who used them. But it had among religious bodies took place been the habit of some to claim that Saturday and Sunday, October 11th they only had the right way; this and 12th. As is well known, Satur- was true of Mohammedans, and Heday is the Jewish Sabbath, and it is brews, and Gentiles. Out of this so observed by the congregation of idea had come wars; had come ignoRabbi Cohen, or the Rev. Dr. Cohen, rance and barbarism. Now he hoped as he is usually known outside his that all had learned that we had one own church. In the forenoon of that God, the Father, and that we are all day, Rev. Mr. Mundy, of the Inde- brethren; that we were bound together pendent Church, responded to an by a oneness of interest. We may invitation most cordially given by call ourselves Jews and Christians, the Rabbi and church officers, to de- and pull apart as far as we may, and liver a discourse in the synagogue, in yet we are bound together. So it Mulberry Street. The services com- was in religion; we are indebted to menced at nine o'clock, and at that the Mohammedan, to the Egyptian, hour a goodly number of people, and to others, and are now eating the mostly from Dr. Cohen's congregation, fruits they planted. It was time for had assembled. Rev. Dr. Mundy sat us to recognise the brotherhood of inside the altar beside the church religions, to do justly and love mercy reader. The usual services, including and walk humbly with God, and thus the reading of the Scriptures from be His children. His belief and the manuscript roll, were conducted worship was indeed different from by the Rev. Dr. Cohen ; there were theirs, and yet why should this separesponsive services also by the priest rate them? They had the same God and the very fine choir.

and were seeking the same height of “Then came the discourse by Rev. goodness only by different means. Mr. Mundy; it was a plea for Chris- The true Church of God was not tian unity, on the great basis of a Jewish or Christian ; it contained all common brotherhood in the spirit of good men, belong they to what sect God. Brethren and friends,' were or church they will. All who have the first words of the preacher, “it is the good spirit of God belong to the with mingled feelings of pain and brotherhood of the spirit. It was a pleasure that I stand before you.' most ancient organisation ; it broke Mr. Mundy affirmed that he was down the barriers by which men were grateful for the invitation of the Rabbi separated; it was found in the breast and officers of the congregation ; this of the Buddhist and the Mohammedan, gave him much pleasure, but as he as well as in that of the Christian. stood there he could but recall the The great leaders, Confucius and long past; he could but think of how Mohammed, and Moses and Jesus, the blood of the children of Israel were but a cluster of brothers. Let


us come out upon the tower of the were still carrying on the work. But thought raised by the prophet: “We they would say Jesus was the Son have all one father, and God has of God? Well, in the name of God, created us all.'

who said he was not? [!!!] Not the [Dean Stanley, and Professor Max Jews certainly, for they did recognise Muller could not have improved this Jesus as the Son of God, as a Rabbi, specimen of broad Churchism! But as a man of high culture, as a rewhat said the TEACHER COME former. God had called all men His FROM GOD? and His Holy Apos- sons, and in this sense only was Christ stles ? Would to God that Drs.

His son.

The Reformed Jews did Stanley, Muller, and Mundy, gave not believe a Messiah had come. greater heed to the inspired teaching They held and prayed and worked of the New Testament, than to their for the redemption of mankind through own puny uninspired vagaries.] the supreme power of love, and this

“REV. DR. COHEN AT REv. MR. was the Messiah, this was God. Our MUNDY'S CHURCH.—The announce- whole life, through good work, should ment in the papers on Saturday that be a preparation to meet God. We the Rev. Dr. Cohen would preach in can all enter that heaven of which the Independent church yesterday Abraham spoke, by heeding the inforenoon, caused that place of worship junction in the words, 'Behold how to be filled to overflowing. The pre- good and pleasant a thing, it is for liminary services were conducted by brethren to dwell together in unity.' Rev. Mr. Mundy, and were of the The grave will serve as the grandusual character. Rev. Dr. Cohen

parent of all reunion. True religion commenced his discourse with ex- caused no strife and separation; it pressions of adoration to God, of incited to brotherly love and to obedithankfulness for the opportunity to ence of the command, Love thy exemplify the command, 'Love thy neighbour as thyself,' for has not one neighbour as thyself.' He would take God created us all?". for his text the same words chosen

{What a terrible illustration of by Mr. Mundy, and found in Malachi, the unchangeable character of unbe• Have we not all one Father? hath lieving Judah and Israel! How not one God created us?'. The ills fearfully does Dr. Cohen's flippant to which human life is heir were harangue recall the inspired words noted, and they were cited as incen- of the Evangelical Prophet :-“For tives for love to our neighbours. The the people turneth not unto him that existence of God was shown from the

smiteth them, neither do they seek fact that we are created things, the Lord of hosts. Therefore the which implies the existence of a Lord will cut off from Israel head and Creator. This was my, your, and tail, branch and rush, in one day. our God. The speaker then said he The ancient and honourable, he is had been invited to give his views of the head; and the prophet that Jesus. They did recognise the exis- teacheth lies, he is the tail. For the tence of a historical personage, named leaders of this people cause them to Jesus of Nazareth, born in the year err; and they that are led of them 3761. He was a good, high, and ex- are destroyed."* Yet modern Israel, cellent scholar and philosopher; when and modern “broad Churchmen," he had grown to manhood he became would bave us believe that the Jews a great Rabbi and teacher, and was of the period are now safer under unfinally crucified. But this act was inspired teachers than they were in repeated in history; for example, days of yore under inspired ones!!!] John Huss was burned in 1415, July 6; and why? He had done no wrong; he was only a reformer, put to death

THE ISRAELITISH ORIGIN OF THE because the Pharisees and Sadducees

PATHANS. of his time saw he was destroying We have been favoured with the foltheir power. Martin Luther was

lowing extract from a letter by a another example. The Pharisees were not all dead yet either; they

* Isaiah ix, 13-16.

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distinguished officer to a friend in send their representatives to the Ireland. The letter is dated “ Bor- council of a clan, and these again neo, 19th July, 1874.” We venture send theirs to that of the tribe, whose to think that our readers will be in- appointed chiefs are styled "elders terested in the communication :- and “greybeards." These meetings

The following facts regarding the are often stormy, but when once a wild border tribes who inhabit the jeerga has determined on the course north-western frontier of India may to be pursued, implicit obedience is prove of interest to you. I have culled incumbent on all, and the mullicks them from an official memorandum are forced to see that it is paid. The lately issued by Brigadier-General decisions of the jeerga are mostly Sir Charles Brownlow, K.C.B., who guided by the usages of their unwritagain simply collected together notes ten code of honour, known by them and reports made by various civil and as the “ Puktoonwalee,” a code which, military officers.

though framed on principles of equity, The Patháns (accent on last syl- yet teaches that an unavenged injury lable) are a nation divided into nu- is the deepest shame, and a blade well merous tribes, sections, and clans, steeped in the blood of retaliation the who themselves trace their descent to proudest of badges. But the multhe Israelites through Afghàna, son sicks who sit in jeerga do not appear of Yaremiah, Son of Saul, king of to have larger hereditary possessions Israel, and state that they wandered than their brethren, but simply to be to the mountains they now inhabit leaders in war, and in times of peace after the Captivity, and that at the agents for the clan or tribe in their summons of some of their brethren transactions with their neighbours. who had settled in Arabia they em- The real power rests in the body of braced the Mohammedan faith, large the adult male population, and yet numbers of them joining in the war3 this leadership is generally found to of the prophet, under the leadership be hereditary in certain families of of the proselyte of their branch, each clan or tribe. Such appears to named Kees, who received the title have been the exact condition of the of Pathán from Mohammed, and, re- Canaanitish states in Abraham's turning to his native mountains, con- time, though we are apt to attach verted the remainder of his nation. more importance to them from the The prophet is said to have foretold circumstance of their mullicks being to those early supporters of his creed known to us as “ kings.” Instances that their nation would always be are numerous of their affairs being scattered, turbulent, and impatient of determined by the community at monarchical institutions. The Pa- large, and not by the will of indi. tháns attach the greatest importance viduals. Thus the sons of Jacob to the preservation of their genealogi- proposing the conditions of an alliance cal traditions, which are handed down with Hamor, the mullick of Shechem, from father to son with the greatest were well received by him, but he care, as the basis of all their rights would give no final answer till he had and possessions; and this fact should communed with the men of the city receive due weight in estimating the in the gate. Similarly Abraham, in value of their traditional descent purchasing land, dealt not with the from Saul, king of Israel.

king of the Hittites, but “ bowed The general government of all himself to the children of Heth." Pathans is democratic; the chiefs, or Throughout the sacred narrative the "mullicks," are indeed representatives dealings of the patriarchs with the of the tribe, clan, or section to which Canaanites are but as the simple they belong, but they possess no in- occurrences of every-day life among dependent power of action, and before many Pathán communities, espethey can be privileged to speak in cially the Eusuf-zaies (sons of Jo" Jeerga," or council, they must have seph), who are perhaps the most collected the wishes on the subject civilised of their race. under consideration of the bodies Other customs too are prevalent they represent. The men of a village amongst them, which may be con


nected with the national tradition of Hills, the sun of the plains has al. their Israelitish descent. One, which most as great an effect as on Euroresembles the "Passover " is observed peans. for the purpose of averting impending death. A healthy animal of the In Memoriam. herds or flocks is sacrificed, and distributed to the priests, who sprinkle the blood on the lintel and door-posts

MR. EDWARD LEVIEN, M.A., F.S.A. of the house where the patient lies. It is our melancholy duty to chroAnother is similar to the law of the nicle the death of an eminent scape-goat. In times of severe Hebrew Christian brother, who was pestilence, when the visitation is a frequent contributor to our magalooked npon

Divine judg- zine. Edward Levien was born in ment for the sins of the people, a 1818, of highly respectable Jewish goat or calf is brought before a parents, nearly related to the dissolemn assembly, and after being tinguished Goldsmids. His parents conducted round the village, the chief returned to the TRUE FAITH, and Moollahs (priests) lay their hands on were baptized and admitted into the its head, and turn it loose beyond the Church of England, with their chilvillage limits. Among the Affreedees dren, when the latter were yet of (a Pathán tribe, numbering 20,000

tender age.

He was educated at fighting men, who reside beyond the Shrewsbury Grammar School, British territory), the punishment of under Drs. Butler and Kennedy, and death by stoning, is another custom at Balliol College, Oxford, where he which points to an Israelitish origin. took honours in classics. In that The stone is also employed as a department he filled a professor's pledge of faith at the ratification of chair at Glasgow. His great skill in treaties : if two tribes determine to ancient manuscripts, and intimate close a feud, or form an alliance, or acquaintance with historical lore if families or individuals become re- commended him, in 1850, to an imconciled, and blot out the remem- portant post in the MSS. departbrance of former wrongs, vows ment of the British Museum. This exchanged over a stone placed be- post he held for nearly a quarter of a tween the parties, and it is looked on century, with advantage to the public as a witness to the contract. The and credit to himself. He was also Book of Genesis and Joshua contain Honorary Secretary of the British instances of precisely similar practices. Archæological Association, to which

I think I have now given you as he rendered essential service in promuch of Sir Charles Brownlow's me- moting its prosperity, in various morandum as relates to the tradition ways, literary and otherwise. His among the Pathans of their descent loss to that Association is as keenly from the lost tribes of Israel. You felt by their Committee as by his are at liberty to publish what por- most intimate friends. The catalogue tion of it you like. But please do not of the British Museum has several append my name to it, as I have pages devoted to his literary producquoted the words of others, chiefly tions. Our personal acquaintance those of Dr. Bellew and the late with the deceased dates only from Major James.

the middle of 1871; since then we It is estimated that the Pathans have often exchanged letters and number above 200,000 fighting men. ideas. We found his contributions about 80,000 of whom reside within to this our magazine-especially litBritish territory. Great numbers of erary notices-acute, able, and corthem, both from within and beyond rect. We shall miss his friendly our border, take military service intercourse very much. We found under the British. They are, gene- him a true, disinterested, and unosrally speaking, plucky soldiers, tem- tentatious lover of our nation, as perate, and capable of great physical every genuine Hebrew Christian is. exertion, but on those of the finest He loved the Jews without money tribes who are born and bred in the and without price. Had there been


no societies " for promoting Christianity amongst the Jews," he would gladly have endeavoured to do the work of an Evangelist amongst our brethren of the house of Israel. He had a dread of his name being mouthed on missionary platforms, by the stipendiary friends of Israel; and so has his brother, who is a Clergyman of the Church of England. Edward Levien departed this life, for a better and a happier one, on the sixth ultimo, after three months' severe illness, much regretted and lamented by a large circle of friends. By no one more so than by ourselves.



Broseley, 12th Nov. 1874. Dear Sir,- Although not a correspon. dent, a few of your words in this month's notices to those who are induce me to address you respecting the “ New Solution" of the Apocalypse in the HEBREW CHRISTIAN WITNESS. I am desirous of prefacing what I have to say, by expressing my admiration of the mani. festly great knowledge and wisdom especially evinced in your dealing with questions between Jews as such and believers in the crucified and risen Saviour.

I hope you will be able to bear with me whilst quoting in extenso your observations respecting the remarkable fact of the omission of the tribe of Dan from amongst those sealed for salvation of all the other tribes, as recorded in Rev. vii. 5-8. Your words which I would respectfully remark upon, are these, “We have no written authority to explain the circumstance. All the reasons which were proposed, were merely conjectures.- We are from guesswork in that which is not revealed in Holy Scriptures. If we

words imply? Excuse me, dear sir, for asking you not to put my impressions of the remarkable utterances of Scripture about Dan and his tribe too suddenly amongst what you designate “far-fetched guesses." Doubtless what you say about written authority is, as a general principle, wise and true; but does not much of what we all (at least Christians generally), as a matter of course, deal with as written authority, necessarily consist in a great measure of our own inferences from Scripture? Many of those inferences, doubtless, include spirit-taught truths of precious practical value; but in the case of our most generally received uninspired interpretations of the types and shadows of the Law, and of the Parabolic utterances in the Psalms and Prophets there is a certain amount of vagueness, and of necessity, a coming far short, and often a going wildly beyond the mind of the Spirit, who, in some cases, helps our infirmity by explanations in the new covenant Scriptures which leave no. thing to be desired. The great body of inferential truth which has commended itself to the children of God generally, has proved itself sufficient to enable true-hearted Bible-searching servants of the Lord to know whether they are learning of Him and following in His track or not. Even in such questions as the present, and a variety of others which the Apocalypse raises in our minds, our Father does not discourage the inquisitiveness of His faithful children. Our God was graciously showing us how a friend should show himself friendly, when he said, "Shall I hide from Abraham the thing which I do ?"

But, that I may be no longer tedious, I will at once say that the way in which the Scriptures relating to the Tribe of Dan have impressed my mind, is that God in dictating them,

has been pleased (may I say necessarily? yes) necessarily for the fulfilment of His own word in Daniel so to word them that “none of the wicked shall understand(till their judgment shall come upon them like a flash of lightning in their judicial state of unpreparedness), “but the wise shall understand." Those left out of the number of those sealed for salvation would surely be these" wicked ones."

Such Scriptures as Gen. xxx. 6 ; Gen. xlix. 16, 17; Isa. xiv. with its resurrected King of Babylon (is he identical with the demoniacal King who is over the occupants of the Abyss in Rev. ix. 11 ? another guess it may be said), and the whole of Judges xviii, wherein Dan is

were disposed to hazard an opinion, we should suggest the probability that the tribe of Dan was absorbed in one of his neighbouring tribes, Ephraim, Judah, or Benjamin. We have no more confidence in this our conjecture than we have in the farfetched guesses of others.” Dear Sir, I venture to ask you, with no carping or disrespectful intention, but as an aged brother in the Lord, who has been many years “a man of one Book," whether Ephraim, Judah, or Benjamin were so situated in the land as your


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