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times, when the Mosaic dispensation subdued, and they will gradually yield was in force, one day in each year to His power till all, even the last was set apart for an atonement. It enemy death, is crushed, and then was in compassion to the high priest He will reign triumphant over His that this institution was limited to redeemed people throughout the one day, for had he constantly entered endless ages of eternity. the Holy of holies, he would have It was gratifying to notice how continually exposed himself to the large a number of Hebrew Christians Divine wrath, and consequently he had assembled on this occasion, and, would have been in perpetual terror as they afterwards came down from for his life, owing to the danger con- the galleries and took their seats in nected with his office. After having the body of the church, many faces offered the sacrifices and sprinkled were to be recognised of old pupils their blood, as God had specified, he from the Hebrew schools, as well as took a censer of burning incense and of former inmates of the Wanderer's placed it on the ark of the covenant. Home and Operative Jewish ConThe smoke ascending on high, con- verts' Institution. The proceedings cealed from the gaze of the priest, commenced with the hymn the 'shekhinah, or visible presence of “ The living fountain, once revealed, God descending from heaven; a sure To cleanse from guilty stain, token that the sacrifice had been ac- To Israel's eyes has long been sealed, cepted and atonement made. The

Its stream has flowed

in vain. crowning ceremony of the day, and "For ages they have wandered o'er

The desert waste and wide; one of peculiar significance, was the

Nor ancient Horeb, as of yore, laying on of the high priest's hands

Welled forth its silver tide. on the head of the scape-goat, and "In each, unbroken gloom has sped confessing the sins of the people over Their long and cheerless night; it, after which it was sent away into Nor fiery pillar on them shed the wilderness. This remarkable act Its guiding, cheering light, was intended to prove to the arch- “Pleading Thy promise, Lord, we pray, enemy of mnnkind that, as he had The long-closed fount unseal; been the means of introducing sin

And now at length in this our day

Thy saving health reveal. into the world, so his work of ruin and destruction would be mercifully

“Oh, let Thy Spirit's cheering beam

Bring light, and joy, and peace; defeated by Divine interposition.* Thine ancient people, Lord, redeem,

The preacher then went on to say Let Israel's troubles cease.” that these and many other rites and It was followed by a prayer offered institutions would have been unmean- up by Mr. Ehrlich, himself a coning acts, had they not all pointed to verted Israelite, on behalf of his the great Antitype, Jesus Christ a

Jewish brethren still in darkness and High Priest after the order of Mel.

ignorant of the saving power of the chizedek. But there was this differ

Gospel. The Rev. H. A. Stern then ence between Messiah's atonement read a portion of the sixteenth chapand that made by the high priest. ter of Leviticus ; and Mr. Simon, an He made an atonement once for all, old pupil of the Hebrew schools, and after that ascended to heaven,

since then grown gray in his Master's expecting till His enemies be made

service, earnestly pleaded for those, His footstool." His enemies are to be who, at that very moment, were found everywhere; not only in the gathered together, but from very dark places of idolatry and heathenism, different motives, in the various Jewor in the haunts of superstition and ish synagogues throughout the world. vice, but also in Christian Congrega- When he had concluded, Mr. Rosentions, amongst professing Christians, zweig, another Christian Israelite, and even in the heart of each indi

read from the first to the fifteenth vidual. These, however, are all to be verse of the ninth chapter of the * See our view of the typical character of

Epistle to the Hebrews, and once more this “crowning ceremony" as propounded the congregation bent their knees as in our October No. of last year.-Edit. II. the Rev. H. A. Stern offered up the 0. W. & P. I.

closing prayer. Another hymn was

sung and the meeting was concluded by the Rev. W. Warren pronouncing the benediction.



Dr. Ginsburg are Hebrew Christians The former a missionary of the “ British Society for the propagation of the Gospel among the Jews,” to our Jewish brethren at Pressburg Hun. gary; and the latter an acting member of the Committee of the same society. Both those gentlemen, are fair Hebrew scholars. They are not ashamed to own that they had been inmates of the Jewish Converts' Operative Institution, Palestine Place, when that establishment was in its palmy days.

We are glad of this symptom of toleration on the part of English Jews, for their own sake. Hitherto, when we pleaded for toleration in behalf of our unbelieving brethren, we met by English Christians with the stubborn rejoinder, “ Tolerance to the most intolerant people on earth is anything but fair play. Look how the Jewish press in this country vilifies you Hebrew Christians, simply because conviction and conscience constrained you to return to the Faith taught you by Moses and the Prophets!" We shall now be able to back our plea by an appeal to the above glimpse of Jewish tolerance as an omen of brighter feelings, just as the silver lining on a thick dark cloud inspires hope that the sun is not far off.


TOLERANCE. HEBREW Christians - no matter what their status as scholars or gentlemen may have been-have hitherto been treated with such virulent and relentless intolerance by the AngloJewish press, that a glimpse of commendation, the earnest of toleration, makes us fasten on the phenomenon with the same absorbing wonder which a slender silver lining on a thick cloud attracts our wondering gaze. We therefore mark the first Friday in last month, the fourth of September, as a red letter day, in the history of Jewish Tolerance in this country.

On that day the Jewish Chronicle, the oldest and most respectable AngloHebrew weekly periodical, makes honourable mention of the literary productions of two Hebrew Christian Literati. On page 362, of that weekly, we have the following paragraph :-"MR, J. E. SALKINSON, an English subject residing in Hungary, has just published at Vienna his translation of Shakespeare's 'Othello' into Hebrew, with a critical introduction by Mr. Peter Smolensky, the Editor of the Hebrew periodical Haschachar (Aurora), at Vienna, and author of various Hebrew works. Mr. Salkinson is already favourably known by his translation of Milton's * Paradise Lost' into Hebrew, and his present version of "Othello' is very highly praised by Mr. Smolensky, who contends that it is the best translation of the play into any foreign langnage."

On page 368, we have a notice of a lecture by M. N. Adler, M.A., [son of the Chief Rabbi of England), entitled The Light thrown on the Bible by recent discoveries ; in the course of which we are informed, “Dr. Ginsburg's translation, or rather interpretation, of the celebrated Moabite Stone is also given at length.” We need not inform our readers that both Mr, Salkinson and


THE GORSEDD (WELSH).PRAYER. At the Corwen Eisteddfod, some weeks ago, the Rev. T. R. Lloyd (Estyn), who officiated as arch druid or high priest of the Gorsedd, read the following Gorsedd prayer in Welsh :

“Grant, O God, Thy protection, And in Thy protection strength, And in strength learning, And in learning knowledge, And in knowledge to know the truth, And in knowing the truth to love it, And in loving it to love all truth,

And in loving all truth to love God." This prayer is held in much veneration by Welshmen, in consequence of its great antiquity-having been composed, it is aserted long before the advent of Christ by a famous Welsh patriot-and the beauty and simplicity of its language.

The well-read Hebrew in Jewish liturgical lore, will have no difficulty to recognise the Jewish prayer, of which the above is an adaptation,







“As He sat at meat with them, He took bread, and blessed it, and gave to them. And their eyes were opened, and they know Him.... He was known to them in breaking of bread.”-ACTs xxiv. 30, 31, 35.

“Known in the breaking of bread ;"The “bread," and the “cup” filled

with wine ; To be “till He come for the glad

“marriage feast” The simple memorial “ sign.” (a) “Known in the breaking of bread :"

Can any who love turn away? "That I may know Him!" the one wish

of the heart That believes HIM to Heaven “ the

Way." (0) “Known in the breaking of bread :" Then oft would we meet to “break

bread," That we, now but babes, may grow up

unto HIM Who is our adorable “ Head." (c) “Known in the breaking of bread :"

And thus to be known in the hour Of His ultimate triumph and glad

ness of heart," The day of His kingdom and power. “Known in the breaking of bread :"

For, has He not said, in His grace, 'Twill be His delight still to minister

where We shall see HIM” with unveiled

face ? (d) “Known in the breaking of bread :"

How simple ! yet oh ! how sublime ! The "peace" breathed of old in a small

upper room Sheds a holy calm over all Time. (c) “Known in the breaking of bread :"

Then gratefully let us unite
Thus to seek fuller manifestations of

Till faith is supplanted by sight.

J. E. J.

IN RE CALVINISM. To the Editor of the Hebrew Christian Witness and Prophetic Investigator.

MY DEAR MR. EDITOR,– On the first page of my article in your number for this month, “ Idolatry among the Ancient Israelites," I have the following words in this order :-" And to Calvinistic texts we can oppose enough of anti-Calvinistic ones ; but note, in particular, Amos iii. 2." Upon this there is the following editorial note :-" But what are we to do with the Pauline hypothesis, Rom. ix. ?” &c. Now it is quite true that the juxta-position of the reference to Amos with Calvinistic and anti-Calvinistic might tempt some readers to fancy that I saw in Amos iii. 2 some bearing upon the Calvinistic controversy. You happen to know from my private letters that I must have written my paper in a very great hurry, and I wrote only to show you good will. I have long felt the want of a good religious periodical in England, with original articles upon Bible questions, and I should be glad to contribute my share towards such a periodical ; and so I made an extra effort against time, which, indeed, I am doing again this very minute, or that juxtaposition would have been cleared away. This mere juxta-position, however, is surely not decisive, and I certainly had not the remotest idea that Amos iii. 2 could be forced either into Calvinism or anti-Calvinism ; I referred to it only as showing that God did not pass over the sins of His people merely because they were His people. (Luke xii 47, 48.) But Calvinism must be excluded from every question, as a disturbing element. Some years ago a little volume of sermons appeared by a strong Calvinist, under the title of “ Mount of Olives," and in every sermon the preacher tried to prove that Calvinism is not opposed to prayer, but evidently felt to the end that he had not succeeded, as he certainly had not. The doctrine of election must be true, or God would not be the moral Governor of the world. If an Alexander the Great, a Napoleon, or a Pope of Rome could do all they please, then the moral government of the world by a supreme Sovereign will would be at an end. But this election is a mystery, because it must be consistent with man's free will, as that of a

(a) Matt. xxvi. 26-31; Mark xiv. 25; 1 Cor. xi. 25, 26.

(6) Phil. iv. 10; Jno. xiv. 6. (c) Eph. iv. 13, 14, 15. d) Luke xii. 37, with Exod. xxi. 5, 6. le) Jno. xx. 19-23 and 26-30; Acts ii. 42,


justly responsible being, -and we see the Gospel, and compendium of saving that man does his own will,-while the doctrine; it is framed somewhat like the boundary between the Divine Sovereign Decalogue : the three former petitions will and the free-will of the mortal it respecting GOD, the three latter, ouris impossible for man to fix or to form selves and others. Every word is any conception of. It stands with this weighty: OUR, there is charity; FAas with a certain argument showing THER, in that word is faith ; IN HEAman's limited capacity, which unbe. VEN, there is our hope. lievers constantly try to deprive be- 1st petition : " Hallowed be thy lievers of, but never will, -that is, name." Deus S. B. vult ut nomen the argument derived from time and suum glorificetur in terra quemadmospace : we can neither affirm that they dum gloriosum est in cælo."-Sohar. are bounded,-for then, what is, or Exodus, fol. 28, col. 110, 111.-Schoettwhat was, or will be on the other side

gen. of that boundary -- nor can we say 2nd petition ; " Thy kingdom come." that they are without bounds, for that “ R. Jehuda et R. Seira'ambo dixerunt: is for man language to which he can Quæcunque preces nihil habent de attach no meaning ; it is like speaking regno, nomen precum non merentur." of a chamber that has neither walls nor Sanhedrin, fol. 28.- Schoettgen. ceiling. Man must be content to re- 3rd petition : “Thy will,” &c. “What main ignorant in this world of every- is the short prayer ? R. Eliezer saiththing in which infinity is concerned. Do thy will in Heaven, and give And this applies just as much to the quietness of spirit to them that fear sovereign will of God in dealing with Thee beneath,' i.e. in earth.”Lightfoot. man as it does in reference to time and 4th petition : “Give us," &c. "Quispace. And as in reference to these cunque creavit Diem, creavit etiam ci. we are quite safe in all speculation to bum ejus. Propterea dixit R. Eliezer : assume the infinity of time and space, Quicunque habet quod hodie comedat, though we do not know what this et dicit quidnam crastino die comedam ? means, so we are equally safe in as- ille est ÓLYON LOTOS."-Schoettgen. suming the absolute justice of God, 5th petition : And forgive us," &c. without being able to show how this “Eodem modo res procedit circa pecaccords with an eternal purpose and cata quæ homo committit contra Deum, counsel. It is something like an ele- et circa ea quæ committit contra proximent in the air : it affects the air

mum suum.” -Schoettgen. chemically, but does not make it at all 6th petition : “And lead us not," &c. the less passible. If this is not Cal- “ Phrasis occurrit in Jalkut Rubepi, vinism, neither is it Arminianism. fol. 139, 2. Venit tempus ad inducenI am, my dear Editor, yours truly, dum illum in manus tentationis."'

G. WILDON PIERITZ. Schoettgen. Oxford, Sept. 5, 1874.

“ But deliver us," &c. Rabbi Judah was wont thus to pray: Let it be

Thy good pleasure to deliver us from WHAT GENTILE DIVINES THINK

impudent men and impudence; and

from an evil man, and from an evil OF THE COMPOSITION OF THE

chance, from an evil affection, from an LORD'S PRAYER.

evil companion, from an evil neighREV. SIR,—The adoption by our

bour; from Satan, the destroyer, from Lord of some of the aphoristic sayings

a hard judgment, and from a hard from older Jewish schools, affords a


N.B. presumption that a similar course might

“ Hæc oratio ex formulis Hebe followed in the form of prayer

bræorum concinnata est."- Wetstein, which He taught His disciples. It is

I am, Rev. Sir, found accordingly that the petitions

Yours respectfully, therein for the most part as

A LOVER OF SACRED LITERATURE. similated to more ancient devotional formulæ. It is observable that this P.S.- Whether shall we think less divine condition of forgiveness, “For- excusable, those who omit this petigive us our debts, as we forgive our tion (v. 12), “ Forgive us,” &c. (as condebtors" (Matt. vi. 12), is solely and ceiving themselves to be pure, and to exclusively the dictate of the great have no more need of remission of sins Author of our redemption. I like your -having received forgiveness in justi. remarks on this prayer-a breviary of fication), or those atheists who, being



not willing to forgive their enemies, will not say their Pater Noster at all ?

[We know our learned correspondent well; we esteem him cordially. No one is more legitimately entitled to the name—"A Lover of Sacred Literature -than is this our correspondent. But we would venture to qualify the name by prefixing the word indiscriminate. He sometimes falls in love too readily with the ipse dixit of a certain class of ancient writers. We had occasion to express, elsewhere, our surprise" at the trifling originality, in modern works, on Holy Scriptures. .. And when one is curious enough to look up the respective referees, in order to find out on what authority the latter founded their conclusions, then the curiosity is gratified by strings of references to former authors, and so on and on."

We have often smiled at the “short cut” conclusions at which Schoettgen, Wetstein, Lightfoot, and some other learned writers have arrived. As regards their assertion respecting the composition of the Lord's PRAYER, we think that we shall make it perfectly clear to “A Lover of Sacred Literature” that it was made in defi. ance of defined chronology. The author of the Sohar, R. Jehuda et R. Seira, R. Eliezer, the author of Jalkut Rubeni, have all taught and written long after the LORD'S PRAYER had been promulgated. As we proceed with our articles we shall dispose of our correspondent's referees, though we do not think it necessary to mention their names. In the meantime, as we weigh very carefully every statement which we make on the subject, we would respectfully request the same treatment for our expositions from our readers and correspondents. The supposed analogy-though trite and hackneyed-between the LORD'S PRAYER and the Decalogue is untenable, as we shall demonstrate in a subsequent paper on the subject.— Editor H. C. W. and P. 1.]

but is rather a justification of the delinquent, and is consequently no re. moval of the offence incurred, but the very increase and confirmation of it. Nor is this insult to the requirements of truth greatly removed, by causing the pardon to proceed through another's mediation, or from a regard to natural and social obligations, for in all these cases some injury is done to that moral sense which renders every tie sacred and effectual. But even where forgiveness springs from change of mind on the part of the offender, it is still in many respects un. friendly to the interests of truth, being something of a compromise between mercy and justice-a substitution of penitence for righteousness—of promise for performance. “Who indeed can rightly forgive sins but God alone ?" Who remove the burden of guilt from the transgressor's shoulder without violating what gives security to a promise and stability to the gracious movements of the heart ?

The pardon offered to lost sinners in the Gospel of the grace of God, unique in its character, will be found like its sovereign Bestower, replete with unfathomable wisdrm, as with unutterable love. Not only a remission of past sins, but containing within itself the fruitful germ of all true obedience in the recipients of this mercy, it may well be deemed the brightest manifes. tation of unwavering justice, and perfect holiness. The Law was indeed “honoured and magnified” when the great Lawgiver Himself stooped to its fulfilment. The heavy penalties thereby entailed; the obedience learned in depths of suffering by God's righteous servant, though His beloved Son, when He wore the likeness of sinful flesh, and appeared as the representative of the fallen, may well convince the astonished universe that rebellion against its holy Governor can only be cancelled by such a display of omnipotent wisdom as finite beings can never adequately fathom. The angels we are told by St. Peter desire to penetrate the wondrous depths of a love that entailed such blessed contradictionsthat made the sovereign a serf, the Creator a creature—that numbered with transgressors the Holy and Just One, making Him in fact the only sinner. It became the Saviour's duty, be it reverently spoken, as born under the law, to love His neighbour as Himself with a love therefore commensurate with the workings of His mighty


THE GOSPEL PARDON. DEAR SIR,—To granta pardon without some indication of a change of mind on the part of the offender is contrary, it will readily be admitted, to every principle of natural justice-for by so doing, the offended party does in effect declare that what he once condemned, he now authorises and approves; the pardon ceases, therefore, in re.lity to be one,

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