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Const.

O, if thou grant my need,
Which only lives but by the death of faith,
That need must needs infer this principle,
That faith would live again by death of need. 214
O then, tread down my need, and faith mounts up;

Keep my need up, and faith is trodden down!
K. John. The king is moved, and answers not to this.
Const. O, be removed from him, and answer well!
Aust. Do so, King Philip; hang no more in doubt.
Bast. Hang nothing but a calf's-skin, most sweet lout. 220
K. Phi. I am perplex'd, and know not what to say.
Pand. What canst thou say but will perplex thee more,

If thou stand excommunicate and cursed ?
K. Phi. Good reverend father, make my person yours,

And tell me how you would bestow yourself. 225
This royal hand and mine are newly knit,
And the conjunction of our inward souls
Married in league, coupled and link'd together
With all religious strength of sacred vows;
The latest breath that gave the sound of words 230
Was deep-sworn faith, peace, amity, true love
Between our kingdoms and our royal selves,
And even before this truce, but new before,
No longer than we well could wash our hands
To clap this royal bargain up of peace,

235 233. but new before,] but new-before- Seymour conj. 227. And the conjunction, etc.] 233. but new before] only just beThere is a looseness of construction fore. in this sentence, for, although “con- 235. clap ... up] A bargain or a junction” is the subject of “(is) wager was sealed by a handshake. married,” “(is) coupled,” and “(is) There are numerous instances in plays linked,” these participles agree in of the period. Compare Gosson's meaning with “inward souls,” To the Gentlewomen of London (ed. Arber, p. 59): "and the match (is) give. Compare Richard II. I. iii. made, ere you strike hands "; and 142: “Shall not regreet our fair Middleton, A Trick, iii. I (Mermaid dominions." ed. p. 39) : “ Come, clap hands, a 242. Play fast and loose] originally match.'

Heaven knows, they were besmear'd and overstain'd
With slaughter's pencil, where revenge did paint
The fearful difference of incensed kings:
And shall these hands, so lately purged of blood,
So newly join'd in love, so strong in both, 240
Unyoke this seizure and this kind regreet ?
Play fast and loose with faith? so jest with heaven,
Make such inconstant children of ourselves,
As now again to snatch our palm from palm,
Unswear faith sworn, and on the marriage-bed 245
Of smiling peace to march a bloody host,
And make a riot on the gentle brow
Of true sincerity? O, holy sir,
My reverend father, let it not be so!
Out of your grace, devise, ordain, impose 250
Some gentle order; and then we shall be blest

To do your pleasure and continue friends.
Pand. All form is formless, order orderless,

Save what is opposite to England's love.
Therefore to arms! be champion of our church, 255
Or let the church, our mother, breathe her curse,
A mother's curse, on her revolting son.
France, thou mayst hold a serpent by the tongue,

to play at a cheating game in which 240. so strong in both] i.e. hands the gull had no chance (see Appendix); strong in fight and strong in friend. then to deal dishonourably."

253, 254. All form ... England's 241. regreet] greeting once again, love] Everything is null and void therefore re-agreement, not merely except what is directly opposed to greeting or salutation as most editors love towards England.

ship.

A chafed lion by the mortal paw,
A fasting tiger safer by the tooth,

260
Than keep in peace that hand which thou dost hold.
K. Phi. I may disjoin my hand, but not my faith.
Pand. So makest thou faith an enemy to faith;

And like a civil war set'st oath to oath,
Thy tongue against thy tongue. O, let thy vow 265
First made to heaven, first be to heaven perform'd,
That is, to be the champion of our church.
What since thou sworest is sworn against thyself
And may not be performed by thyself,
For that which thou hast sworn to do amiss 270
Is not amiss when it is truly done,
And being not done, where doing tends to ill,
The truth is then most done not doing it:
The better act of purposes mistook
Is to mistake again; though indirect,

275

259. chafed] So Theobald; cased Ff.

259. chafed] None of the suggested the paw. If we retain " chafedwe meanings for the “cased ” of the must of course assume it to mean Folios seems satisfactory. Mr. Moore- “enraged.” Smith says "the point of the epithet 268. What since thou sworest, etc.] would seem to be that if the lion were “What you have sworn since then is shut in, the man would be shut in sworn against yourself and cannot be also, and so much more courage would performed by you, for what wrong be required.” I fail to see why the you have sworn to do is not wrong man should be supposed to be shut if truly performed, and if you do it in. Henry VIII. III. ii. 206, 207, not, because the doing of it would be supports Theobald :

wrong, then you are most truly per“so looks the chafed lion forming it by not doing it." An Upon the daring huntsman who excellent bit of sophistry, quite in the has gall'd him.”

early Shakespearian vein. There is something to be said for 275-278. though indirect ... newPope's reading, “chased,” which burn'd] though in not keeping your would hold also in the Henry VIII. vow you are turning from the straight, passage. A lion that had been hunted yet since you are already on the and, so to speak, driven to bay, would wrong path this very turning will not be a pleasant creature to take by bring you back to the right path, awkward, but can be taken to mean 281. But what thou swear'st, etc.] _“You have sworn against religion Mr. Wright says that the language is by calling in religion to witness an made intentionally obscure. Although oath which will do her harm.” The this passage is undoubtedly obscure, truth ... forsworn" is the phrase I cannot admit that Shakespeare ever that offers most difficulty. It yields deliberately made a serious character sense by supposing it to be a slight speak obscurely. Besides, the general digression from the main argument, argument here is plain enough-Of meaning—"and when you are asked two oaths the greater, that taken to to take an oath of which you are not God and the Church, absolves Philip sure of the consequences (such as, from the consequences of breaking à Pandulph would imply, the oath you lesser, that plighted to John, if the took with John), you only swear not lesser oath is contrary to the first to be forsworn, i.e, on condition that Most editors and critics have at- it is not contrary to some greater tempted to better the passage, but oath." the alterations seem so violent that, 289. Is] Explained as agreeing in as Mr. Wright says about Staunton number with rebellion and not with and Hudson's readings, they may vows,

Yet indirection thereby grows direct,'
And falsehood falsehood cures, as fire cools fire
Within the scorched veins of one new-burn'd.
It is religion that doth make vows kept;
But thou hast sworn against religion,

280 By what thou swear'st against the thing thou

swear'st,
And makest an oath the surety for thy truth
Against an oath : the truth thou art unsure
To swear, swears only not to be forsworn;
Else what a mockery should it be to swear! 285
But thou dost swear only to be forsworn;
And most forsworn, to keep what thou dost swear.
Therefore thy later vows against thy first
Is in thyself rebellion to thyself;

And better conquest never canst thou make 290 278. scorched] Ff 1, 2; scorching Ff 3, 4. 282, 283. truth, Against an oath the truth,j Ff 1, 2; truth: Against an oath the truth, Ff 3, 4. 288. later] Ff 1, 2; latter Ff 3, 4. Compare The Merchant of Venice, iv. give a meaning which Shakespeare i. 216: “To do a great right, do a never intended. Lines 280, 281 are little wrong."

295

Than arm thy constant and thy nobler parts .
Against these giddy loose suggestions:
Upon which better part our prayers come in,
If thou vouchsafe them. But if not, then know
The peril of our curses light on thee
So heavy as thou shalt not shake them off,

But in despair die under their black weight.
Aust. Rebellion, flat rebellion!
Bast.

Will’t not be ?
Will not a calf's-skin stop that mouth of thine ?
Lew. Father, to arms !
Blanch.

Upon thy wedding-day? 300
Against the blood that thou hast married ?
What, shall our feast be kept with slaughtered men ?
Shall braying trumpets and loud churlish drums,
Clamours of hell, be measures to our pomp?
O husband, hear me! ay, alack, how new
Is husband in my mouth! even for that name,
Which till this time my tongue did ne'er pronounce,
Upon my knee I beg, go not to arms

Against mine uncle.
Const.

O, upon my knee,
Made hard with kneeling, I do pray to thee, 310
Thou virtuous Dauphin, alter not the doom

Forethought by heaven! 305. ay,] Ff; ah! Theobald. 309-312. Against ... heaven 1] Pope's arrangement; Folios end the lines kneeling ... Dauphin ... heaven.

295. peril... light] Note con- thet was applied to the drum once fusion of number; peril grammati- before (see 11. i. 76 supra). cal subj. to light, but them showing 304. measures] The accompanying that curses was treated as subj. in music to our wedding festivities. meaning.

312. Forethought) foreseen, and 303. churlish] This expressive epi- therefore, since" foreseen by heaven,"

- 305

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