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how joyful it is for brethren to dwell together in unity, to behold such a schism so nearly healed; yet it was matter of great lamentation to the laity to see their Bishops and Pastors, who are not excelied by any Clergy in piety and learning, and exemplary behaviour, unable to support that decent rank in society to which they are so well entitled, and which is so necessary to give weight to their characters, and effect to their public ministrations, Inasmuch therefore as all income arising from the State was cut down at the Revolution, these reve. rend persons, Bishops as well as Priests, had nothing to rely upon but the emoluments arising from their congregations, which were often so limited in number, and in such narrow circumstances, that the stipends of many of these pious and exemplary men did not exceed the wages of a common day-labourer! It could not, therefore, but be matter of regret to every well disposed Christian, indeed to every feeling heart, to see those who had had a liberal education, and who filled the distinguished station (whatever the worldling may think) of Ambassadors of their blessed Master, with such pitiful incomes. It was also a circumstance worthy of remembrance, that not a complaint of the narrowness of their pecuniary means ever escaped from the lips of these excellent men; but they proceeded through evil report and good report, in hunger and thirst, faithfully and contentedly discharging all the duties of their sacred calling. It seemed, therefore, upon the removal of the penal laws, and upon this union being effected, that to make some improvement in their worldly circumstances, was an object well deserving of attention. It therefore occurred to some valuable members of the Episcopal persuasion at Edinburgh, in the foremost rank of whom stood the late great, because the good, Sir William Forbes, to form a fund for making a moderate, addition to the incomes of all the Bishops, and most necessitou's of the inferior Clergy *,
Accordingly the Duke and Duchess of Buccleugh and Sir William Forbes set the subscription on foot in Scotland by large contributions, and the latter being about to be removed for the reward of his yirtues to a better world, added to his original subşcription of 2001. a legacy of 2001. more. No sooner was this most laudable plan commenced in that country, to which it more particularly applied, than the friends of Episcopacy in England, desirous to do every thing in their power to forward the pious designs of those in Scotland, in favour of this long depressed, though pure portion of the Christian Church, immediately formed themselves into a Committee, in order to collect subscriptions, to suggest plans, and in short, to co-operate with the Scottish managers in every way in which their services for so good a cause might be required. This Committee originally consisted of James Allan Park, Esq. the Chairman; the very Rev. Gerrard Andrewes, Dean of Canterbury; the Rev. Dr. Gaskin; William Stevens, Esq.; the Rev. Robert Hodgson, Rector of St. George's, Hanover-square; John Bowdler, Esq.; and John Richardson, Esq.;
: * This subscription was to be entirely of a private nature. It included no idea of the slightest connection between the Episcopal Church of Scotland and the State. With regard to the established Presbyterian Church, its most conspicuous members are well known to be men of most enlightened minds, who know too well the merits of the Episcopal Clergy, and their obscurity also, without power or influence, to entertain any jealousy of them. Indeed, it is but justice to say, that upon occasion of this subscription being set on foot, as well as of the application to Parliament for the relief to those of the Episcopal persuasion, the most ready consent to, and approbation of, both measures were afforded by some of the most eminent members of the establishment in Scotland.
and, it will be observed, that of them, three were of the old Committee for procuring the repeal of the Penal Statutes. This Committee, jointly and individually, were most anxiously sedulous in the discharge of this voluntary trust; Mr. Stevens was indefatigable in endeavouring to procure subscriptions : his own purse was ready and open, as usual, upon this occasion; and he was himself the first English subscriber of 1001.; and he had before his death (which happened in two or three months after that of Sir William Forbes, of whom, and Mr. Stea vens, it may be said, they were lovely in their lives, and in their deaths were not long divided) the satisfaction of seeing that this work of faith, this labour of Christian benevolence, was meeting with a degree of encouragement, worthy of its importance in the scale of humanity and charity*,
001.he was opene subsc was
•* Notwithstanding all the exertions of the Committees in both countries, and notwithstanding the liberal donations of many of the dignified Clergy in England, and a vast body of the laity, yet the funds have only enabled the Managers to allot 1001. per annum to the Bishop residing in Edinburgh, 601. to the Primus, and 501. to each of the other Bishops, 15l. to a very few, and 101. to also a very few of the inferior Clergy. But the Committees, both in London and Edinburgh, do not remit their zeal and ardour : they attribute much of the backwardness to subscribe, which they discover, to the situation of the Scottish Epis copal Clergy not being known, and if known, not understood; and to the very quiet and unobtrusive manner in which the subscription has been, and must be, carried on, They still trust, and earnestly hope, that the great, the rich, and the virtuous part of the community will enable them to do much more for those who stand in so near a relation to the Founder of our Holy Faith ; and they rely confidently at least, that all those who stand in the same relation to him in the Church of England, and who have the means, will recollect that though the outward splendour and territorial possessions of Scottish Episcopacy are no
· The horrors: which the French Revolution had, produced, and even to this day is producing*, in every country in Europe, and the total overthrow of all sound principles in politics, morals, and religion, could not fail to affect the mind of this excellent, man with the deepest concern, and which concern, soon after the total overthrow of the ancient monarchy of France, by the murder of their Sovereign, he thus expresses in letters to Bishop Skinner, and to a young friend, and explains, though shortlys the cause of such a miserable dereliction of all sound: principles; and still looks forward with the eye of faith and hope of a Christian, beyond the present. cloud, to Him who ruleth in the kingdoms of men, and who will shew that he is King; be the people never so impatient'; that he sitteth upon the cherubim be the earth never so unquiet. . . . . .
“ The times are awful, and appearances, so unusual, that the Almighty, one should suppose, had some great work in hand. Extraordinary events may be expected from the extraordinary operations now carrying on. The more than diabolical fury of the French Atheists is utterly astonishing; they compass sea and land to make proselytes, and have been too successful; but one thing they cannot do, they cannot make them more the children of hell more, yet in soundness of doctrine, in solidity of learning, and in innocency of life, her Clergy are still a burning and shining light amidst a crooked and perverse generation ; and although by the sure word of prophecy, the gates of kell shall not prevail against the Church of God, yet in the ipscrutable dispensations of Providence it may hereafter be asked, where is the Church of England ? As we now say, where is the Episcopal Church of Scotland ? Let them consider these things and act accordingly.
See as Sermon of Bishop Horsley: .** It need scarcely be added that this was written originally, before the peace of 1814..
than themselves. Whether for their own punishment, or the punishment of others, all this is permitted, God only knows, and time will discover. Mischief was meant against us, but seen soon enough, I trust, to be prevented: and as God can bring good out of evil, I am inclined' to hope, from the effect it seems already to have had on us, that the fatal tendency of this levelling spirit, and dereliction of principle, will be so manifest as to lead us to ask for the old ways, that we may walk therein.”
“As oratory has been prostituted so much of late to the vilest of purposes, I hope you will employ yours to counteract the mischief that this speechifying seems to be bringing on all Europe. We are come to such a pass, that with the new philoso phers, there is no such thing as malum in se, or malum prohibitum. We have left our Bibles, and no man thinks of obedience for conscience sake. There fore does: all: this evil come upon us: and in our punishment we may see our sin. Do not you, my young friend, suffer yourself to be carried away with the abominable principles of the present times, respecting Government: but read the old black-letter: have recourse to the law of God, and to the testimony thereof: if they speak not according to them, there is no truth in them."
It was about this time that Mr. Stevens and several of his friends were deeply impressed with the dread that such principles, as those which were openly avowed in France, and too much encouraged by the licentious and profligate in England, would gain daily strength, especially among the young and inexperienced, if not strongly counteracted by a recurrence to some fixed and steady rules which had governed our forefathers, in establishing our
gain daily sious and pronind too much er