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Upon reaching the fortified British post of Braich y Dinas, on the summit of Penmaen Mawr, we found the circuits of stone walls still perfect in some parts, but greatly dilapidated in others. They are about 12 to 15 feet high, and about 12 feet thick; of loose stones, not fitting into each other with any attempt at masonry, but merely the shattered debris of that rough mountain piled together by human art. There is no appearance of mortar, nor of vitrification. Between the walls, and inside the central inclosure, but especially on the north eastern side of the summit, are a vast number of small circular cells, or cyttiau, which no doubt served for the habitations of the persons occupying this fortified post, and similar to those so common on the Caernarvonshire hills. Some of them were singularly perfect, and one, near the present north western entrance to the fortress, is still covered with its roof, but we could not penetrate within, and we did not feel ourselves justified in attempting to remove the stones. A tradition prevails that one of the Welsh armies took refuge here while Edward I. was invading this part of Wales. The likelihood of the account may be doubted, inasmuch as an army might be immediately starved out in so barren a position; but, that it must have been a strong place of refuge in earlier times, there can be no doubt. There appear to be hardly any means of making a safe conjecture as to the date of these rude fortifications; but from what we have subse}. learnt, through Mr. Petrie's valuable work on the Round Towers of reland, we should infer that the system of making hill-dwellings like these came down nearer to our own times than is commonly suspected—perhaps till towards the tenth century. This post, like the similar great work on the eastern summit of Yr Eifl, must have been perfectly impregnable in early British times. On descending from the summit of Penmaen Mawr towards the north east, we came upon a swampy valley, on the south eastern side of which is an eminence, called Moelfre; and on this is a carnedd, covered with turf, about 17 feet in diameter. It had been opened in former days by a passage made from the east. Near this one of the spurs of Penmaen Mawr runs up into a barren conical hill, covered with stones, and called y Dinas. We then kept a look out for Pennant's Druidic circles, and for some Meiniau Hirion mentioned in the ordnance map; but notwithstanding all our search, we missed one of the circles which Pennant undoubtedly saw, and also the great Maen y Campiau, or stone of the games; if, indeed, they have not been destroyed. The term Meiniau Hirion, of the ordnance map, is incorrect; there are no isolated upright stones, or stone pillars, at the spots indicated in the map, but there are carneddau and circles. Of the so, kind of British monuments there are three at this spot; two rather perfect, but the third only to be traced by small stones and an embankment. This latter circle is 20 feet in diameter. The second of the circles is a double one; the inner consisting of eleven large stones, some 8 feet high and 3 feet square, much weathered, with smaller stones placed between them. The outer circle is much broken in, but the inner one is nearly complete; and within this, again, there is a trace of a still smaller circle, not concentric, but touching the inner circumference, as if it had been the foundation of a circular dwelling house. Pennant's dimensions we found, as nearly as possible, correct; but of the other circles and carneddau mentioned by him we saw none. It is possible that they may have been destroyed by the farmers since his time. Close to this large circle is to be traced an old road-way, like a trench, coming from the direction of Conwy towards Llanvair Wechan, at the south western foot of Penmaen Mawr. It passes by the northern side of the circle, and may have been a British road-way, used perhaps in later times; it leads in a direction close under the fortified part of Penmaen Mawr. A view of this great circle, which is one of the most remarkable British remains in Caernarvonshire, is appended. We then proceeded to trace this road, which we had no reason to suppose a Roman one, in the direction of Sychnant, and found it declining gradually towards the north west, quite away from Conovium, until it led us into the vale of Dwygyfylchi. At this sequestered and highly beautiful place we came upon the entrance of Sychnant, “the dry hollow,” a term most aptly applied to a spot well worthy of being visited by whoever goes near Conwy, but now seldom approached by strangers. On the summit of the hill above Sychnant, to seaward, is a small British post; but we did not clamber up to it. After reaching the top of this pass, and now being satisfied from the bearings of Caer Rhun (Conovium) that the Roman road could not have come in this direction, for it could not have crossed the hills except by Sychnant, we began to descend towards Conwy; and while two of the party continued to look out for any traces of road-ways on the right, the third ascended the strongly fortified hill on the left (not visited by Pennant) called Castell Caer Lleion. This proved to be a most extensive British town, with a citadel, strongly fortified, at the south western summit of the hill, the whole sloping away to the north east. Of this citadel we have given a plan, with the proper dimensions. In construction it resembled the works of Penmaen Mawr, the walls being of loose stones, of about the same height and thickness, but much shattered and degraded by the weather. Several outposts adjoined the citadel, and a deep trench was drawn across the hill on the part towards the town. There were some circular houses or cyttiau, exceedingly perfect, inside. This was a most commanding post, perfectly isolated, and having a view over Penmaen Bach to Holyhead; the strong British post of Bwrdd Arthur, near Beaumarais; that on Penmaen Mawr; that on Llandudno ; and the great Pen Caer Helen, above Conovium. The town was all made up of round habitations, much broken down, which crowned the hill for a considerable distance down its descent—as far indeed as a stone quarry which has been lately worked. On the side towards the sea we fancied that we could trace out a Gorsedd, or place of assembly. The precipitous face of the rocks seemed there to have been aided by art; and there were traces of a circle of upright stones. No place for public meetings, or for public games, could have been better chosen. This hill is in full sight of Conwy, and is easily approached at about a mile and a half's distance, by a gently rising road from the town. Having thus visited the only possible line of ground along the north western or sea side of the mountains, and having satisfied ourselves that an old road. perhaps a British one, actually did exist along a small part of that line, but not having obtained the slightest trace of anything Roman; our next care was to go to Conovium, and from thence examine the line on the land, or eastern side, of the mountains. A great valley opens behind Caer Rhun, and ascends among the hills towards the spurs of Carnedd Llewelyn, where the mountains gradually close in upon it, and leave it an exit at the pass of Bwlch y Ddwyfaen. After having, therefore, carefully inspected the Roman remains of Conovium, we separated into two parties, one taking the eastern side of the valley, passing under the great British post of Pen Caer Helen (so accurately described by Pennant,) and the other taking the western. The parties, reinforced by a second guide, met upon the hill side

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