Page images

commanded him to forbear, and he went off presently; the said Mary Conway came with a hatchett under her apron & fell to hew the Hollyn. Mr. P. came to her with a stick or cane that he had in his hand, & gave her a blow on the B -k, till she fell down ; angry words passed between them, & Mr. P. reminded her that some relation of hers of the Conways, was bound to him for as high as £100, that she should not offer to cut the wood, &c. The Hollyn was an old stump, nothing worth in his judgment, but to be burnt.

Notice being brought that John Salusbury, then of Bathegraig, Esq., was come with workmen to cut thorns & oak, made haste to take his sword & gun, & one Rice Anwyll, then with him went toward Mr. S. and his workmen ; & Mr. P's. wife run after them, fearing a mischiefe. Mr. S. rid to her, & would have spoken her faire that he came for some thorns to fence his tenement near the common called Lleweny Greene, & some oak trees to make gates, calling her Cozin. She slighted him, & told him he should have neither. Mr. S. was obliged to return with his workmen without any of the thorns, they had no time to cut anything else. In that time he saw Goats of Sir Thomas Salusbury, Bart., which did gnaw the trees, for which there was great anger between the families, & the Goats suddenly removed from the common; he could never see them after; often chased them from unenclosed ground.

Charles Jeffreys, 70: Deponent's father and grandfather were shepherds to the family of Lleweny, (i.e. the Salisburys); at ten years of age he was put to heed the sheep, and his greatest charge was, not to let them stray into said unenclosed ground, &c.

Thomas Roberts, 45, yeoman: Remembereth that Mrs. Clough, grandmother of John Clough, gent., sent for leave to cut two hundred of gorse faggots, and that she paid twelve pence per hundred,—and deponent went with horses to fetch them.

A branch of this family of Peake, not identified in the pedigree, was settled at Conway, of whom were Hugh Peake, sheriff of Caernarvonshire, 1546, 1552, and Richard Peake, sheriff in 1576, who was the last, (History of Conway, by the Rev. R. Williams, 1835, Denbigh ; and Harl. MSS., No. 1143). Of this MSS. Ordinary of Welsh arms, several more modern copies exist in the same collection, and one in the Welsh School, Gray's Inn Lane; and from a copy of it was published the list in British Remains, by the Rev. N. Owen, 1777. The arms of Peake are of the oldest kind, and are there colored checky ar. and gules, a Saltier ermine;

but, in the Harl. MSS., No. 1933, of about the same date (say about 1570), they are described checky or and gules, a Saltier counter compony, and so appear on stained glass at Perthewig of about 1593, on monument to H. Lloyd, 1568, and to Peake, of 1601. On stained glass of about 1610—20, they are as in Harl. MSS. 1143; but Vincent, about the same date, designates them or and gules, a Saltier ermine in his pedigree of Peake; and this Saltier appears on all later sculptures and seals.

Unless arising from the fact of the Saltier in either case appearing white and black to the eye, it appears most probable that the Saltier counter compony was taken as a difference by the descendants of the heiress who married Rosendale; for though Vincent, to the chief design in his pedigree of that family, gives the Saltier ermine, yet in the same page he again gives its counter compony. Holmes, about 1634 (Harl. MSS. 1971), gives as in Harl. MSS. 1143; but to the heiress who married Rosendale as in 1822, adding “ex antiquâ ”; but against the first he observes that he has seen in some ” checky or and gules, a Saltier gobinated, ermine and ermines.

The crest now called a leopard's face, with an arrow in the mouth, appears, from the stained glass of 1610 — 20, from Vincent, from carving of about 1593, and Holmes, to be a lion's face; and it is curious that the family of Peake, of Lincolnshire, had for crests a lion's head erased, with an arrow entering the cheek and coming out at the mouth, and thus more in accordance with their arms, a chevron between three lions' heads erased. Of this family were Sir William and Sir John, Lord-Mayors, 1668, 1687, and the Sir Robert taken by Cromwell at Basing; and a pedigree is given Harl. MSS. 1484, beginning above, A. D. 1460, and ending 1562,

AN ANGLO-CAMBRIAN. London, May 10th, 1846.



1. State the name of the parish, county, &c., wherein the observation is made ; mentioning the name of the owner of the ground, ARCILÆOL. CAMB. VOL. 1.]


that of the observer, the date, &c. Reference should be made in all cases, where possible, to the Maps of the Ordnance Survey.

2. Roads. Is there any Roman road traversing the district? If so, trace its direction on the map, endeavouring to connect it with any known stations. If the road is not to be traced throughout the whole of the extent, (which in cultivated and enclosed districts is seldom the case,) then the points, at which it may be more clearly observed, should be noted down, and the following indications of a road having once existed, should be attended to :-1st. The occurrence of coins or other Roman remains, such as pottery, &c., on or near the supposed line. 2ndly. The occurrence of a Roman camp, which almost always had a road, more or less permanent, leading towards it. 3rdly. Unusual or foreign names given by the peasantry, and by local tradition, to any old or modern line of road ;— Sarn Helen, ex. gr. (It has been suggested by the late Rev. Edward Jones, of Llandegai, Com. Caernar. that the appellation of "Ty coch applied to any place in a Roman district, often indicated that red Roman pottery had been discovered there.)

3. In searching for the probable direction of a Roman road on the map, a straight line should first be drawn from station to station ; and then the natural features of the country should be taken into account. Because, though the Romans were sufficiently good engineers to make their lines straight in level countries, they had too much experience as military men, not to take full account of the physical difficulties of mountainous regions. The Itinerary of Antonine, Richard of Cirencester, and the works of modern writers, should always be carefully consulted on such points. The distance between the stations should be noted, and compared with the actual admeasurement in modern British miles.

4. Is the road flat on its surface or barrelled? Is it composed of blocks of stone throughout, or of various larger materials, such as blocks below, and smaller stones above; and vice versa? What is the mineralogical and geological nature of these materials? What is the breadth of the road? What is its height above the present surface of the ground? Is it cut into the ground like a trench, or through the solid rock ? and if so, are there traces of tracks for wheels, on the railroad principle? (This should be particularly noted.) Are there any

ditches at the side of the road ? 5. Does the line, or supposed line, of Roman road, form the boundary of any ancient or modern territorial divisions? How does it cross the streams met with in its course? Are there any traces of bridges at these points? or of embankments ?

6. Are there any Roman mile stones, towns, traces of walls, and tumuli, along the line of road?

7. Camps. Is there any Roman camp in the district, or station, or outpost, reputed to be Roman? Give the admeasurement and hearings of the sides of the camp accurately; mentioning its geographical position minutely? Is it near a river? on a flat, rising, or lilly site? with a vallum and fosse, or several valla and trenches ? Are there

any traces of stone or brick-work in the vallum? How many entrances are there? A ground plan, to a fixed scale of feet, should be carefully made; showing also, a section of the fosse, agger and vallum.

8. How is this camp connected with any smaller posts in its immediate vicinity? Are there any traces of trenches or raised roads, embankments or drains, leading from the camp?

9. Are there any traces of buildings, or foundations of walls, within the circuit of the camp? of a prætorium in the middle? or of buildings, &c., immediately outside ? of a breast-work at any of the entrances ?

10. Is the form of the camp in any place accommodated to the nature of the ground, or is it rectangular, with sharp or rounded corners? Is there any indication of a smaller work close within any of the entrances, or in a corner of the camp?

11. What name is given to the camp, by the inhabitants of the district? (For the most satisfactory description of a Roman camp, derived from ancient authority and modern examination, we refer the reader to Mr. Stewart's Caledonia Romana, p. 221, et sequent; a work of singular elegance and sterling value.)

12. Is there reason to suppose that any of the British stations and encampments of the district, were occupied by the Romans?

13. BUILDINGS. Are there in this district, any watch-towers or light-houses, presenting traces of Roman construction? or near which any Roman coins or other remains have been found? If their bearings and positions should be carefully noted, and their measurements given.

14. Are there any subterraneous constructions of the Romans which

may have served either as wells or storehouses ? Are there any subterraneous channels which may have been used as aqueducts or drains ? If so, the dimensions and nature of the substances used, or found in them, should be mentioned.

15. Are there any Roman walls of towns, or houses, or other constructions, extant in this district ? above ground, or discovered by excavation? The unevenness of the ground and the scantiness or lateness of vegetation, (especially after rains) will often lead to the discovery of walls, beneath the surface of ground, supposed to have been occupied by the Romans.

[ocr errors]

As a guide to our correspondents in the examination of Roman walls, we cannot do better than give the following queries, communicated to us by the learned author.


CONSTRUCTIONS. 1. What are the materials employed for the outer and inner parts of the wall? Give their mineralogical and geological characters.

2. How many courses are there of stone up to the first bonding

line, and how many bonding courses ? Are they of brick or stone? If of brick, are the edges recurved ?

3. Are the bricks black in the centre, and red outside, or the reverse ?

4. If of stone, is it the same as the ashlar facing, limestone, or sandstone ?

5. Mention the thickness of joints of mortar in the bondings and other courses?

6. Is the wall built on piles.
7. Are the footing courses larger than those above?

8. How many sorts of mortar are observable? How made? with sea sand? river sand? dry sand ? pounded brick ?

9. Do the stones fall edgwise in the heart of the wall?

10. Count the number of ashlar courses, in regular order from the ground, thus—five courses ashlar, two courses tile, six courses ashlar, three courses tile, &c., and so on to the summit: measure the face of these stones generally.

11. Do the bonding courses run clear through the wall ?

12. Are there round holes, three inches diameter, through the wall? are they plastered?

13. Give the height in the highest part, the breadth, and the existing length.



St. David's Day, March 1st.

It is not its use with his bread or his pottage,
Nor the thought it revives of his hearth and his home,
Where the goats of the wilderness sport round his cottage,
And the voice of the harp and the waterfall come:
He digs from the turf-pit the spearhead and arrow,
He climbs to the altar once radiant with flame,
He oft in the desert encounters the barrow,
The camp and the pillar, how faithless to fame !
To the heart of the Welshman such monitors speak,
They tell of the Druids who honoured the Leek.
In Ewias vale, and by Honddu's wild river,
He thinks of St. David, an anchoret there,
While steeling his soul for each nobler endeavour,
And the Leek, “sacred herb,” and the stream were his fare:
They first wore the Leek at their Saint's instigation,
When their hero, Cadwalladr, worsted the foe,
And the Welshmen at Creci, in bold imitation,
And at Azincourt made it in victory glow.
Tradition and Shakspeare its eminence speak,
For the dews of his poetry hallow the Leek.

« PreviousContinue »