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things that are secret, and to reveal the truth of things to come, which is forbidden by God. Lev. xix. “ Thou shalt not regard them that have fainiliar spirits, neither seek after wizards. Moreover, thou shalt not divine nor give any heed to dreams. Thou shalt not be an inchanter, neither take council with familiar spirits, or wizards, nor inquire the truth among the dead, for all these things are an abomination to the Lord.” And as to the punishment which God, in a way of vengeance, inflicts upon such, we read in the Book of Kings, that “ Elijah demanded of Ahaziah, saying, What! is there no God in Israel, that ye go to inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron ? Now, therefore, thus saith the Lord, Thou shalt not come down from that bed on which thou art gone up, but shalt surely die.” Saul died, because he had prevaricated with the commandment that God had given him: he kept it not, neither put his trust in the Lord, but asked counsel of a witch, wherefore the Lord slew him, and transferred his kingdom to David the son of Jesse. It is also said, in the book of Leviticus, that, “ whosoever shall turn aside to enchanters and wizards, I will lay my hand upon him, and cut him off from the midst of bis people.” Every one ought to know that all enchantment, or conjuration, or charms, or spells, carried for a remedy to men or beasts, are of no avail, but on the contrary a snare and ambush of the old adversary the devil, through which he endeavours to deceive mankind.

11. One more charge against them is, that they compelled their pastors to follow some trade. Their answer to this is surely a very satisfactory one. " We do not think it necessary, say they, that our pastors should work for bread. They might be better qualified to instruct us, if we could maintain them without their own labour; but our poverty has no remedy."*

* Perrin's Hist. des Vaudois, b. i. ch. iv. and Usher de Christ. Eccles. succ, et statu.

The Catholic writers frequently reproached them with making little or no account of the pastoral office-affirming that they made the duty of preaching the gospel common to every member of the church, both male and female; and that they allowed persons who had not the suffrages of the church, to administer the ordinances of gospel worship. That this was an unfounded accusation has been very satisfactorily shewn by Dr. Allix, whose researches into the history of those churches entitle him to the gratitude of posterity. I subjoin the substance of his defence of them against this charge.

1. Bernard, abbot of Fonçaud, in his Treatise against the sect of the Waldenses, ch. vi. accuses only some of them of having no pastors; which shews, as he very properly remarks, that the body of that church had a fixed ministry before the end of the twelfth century. There is, therefore, nothing in this to support the charge of their making light of the pastoral office; for it is only what has happened to societies of Christians in every age of the world, to be for a time without presbyters or pastors, until the great Head of the Church raises up among them persons properly qualified by age, experience, and gifts, to take the oversight of their brethren, to labour in the word and doctrine, and rule the church of God. It is plain that it was so with the first churches for a time. Acts, xiv. 23. Titus,

i. 5.

2. Reinerius Saccho, who lived about the year 1250, acknowledges that in Lombardy, where he himself resided, they had their bishops, or pastors; “ Lombardiam intrantes, visitant episcopos suos,are his words, cap. v. that is, “ when they come into Lombardy they visit their elders.” Again, Matthew Paris (under the year 1249) speaks of a bishop of the Paterines in Cremona, who was deposed by them for fornication. And, further, Pilickdorf, a writer quoted by Bossuet in his history of the Variations, p. 223, Vol. II.


says, " they do not approve of a layman's celebrating the Eucharist," ch. i. which sufficiently proves, says Dr. Allix, that they made a signal difference between the people and their pastors. * * 3. Commenius, who published a Synopsis of the discipline of the churches of Bohemia, dwells particularly upon this article; and shews that “a stated ministry was always considered as a matter of great importance among the Waldensian churches." A dreadful persecution broke out against the Bohemian brethren, in the days of Commenius, which produced such havoc among them that he himself was “ the only surviving bishop that escaped.” The scattered brethren, in process of time, elected three persons as qualified for the pastoral office, but “ found themselves greatly perplexed about their ordination.” Having understood that there were some Waldensian churches on the confines of Moravia and Austria, to satisfy their own scruples, as well as those of others, they resolved to send Michael Zambergius, one of their pastors, with two other persons, to find out those Waldenses, and give them an account of what had passed among them, and especially to ask their advice upon the matter in hand. They met with one Stephen, a Waldensian bishop, who sent for others also residing in that quarter, with whom they had a conference upon the doctrines of the gospel and the state of their churches, and by them the said three pastors were ordained by the imposition of hands.

“ Hence," says Dr. Allix, “ it is abundantly evident, that as the Waldenses have preserved the faith that was committed to them, so have they been as careful to preserve entire amongst them the ancient discipline of the church-and, hence it will follow, that nothing can be more false than what is pretended, viz. that they had no kind of lawful ministry among them, but that laymen took upon themselves the power of preaching, of ordaining ministers, and administering ordinances.”*

* Dr, Allix's Remarks, p. 139,


Additional testimonies in favour of the Principles and Prac

tices of the Waldenses, collected from the writings of both friends and foes; with miscellaneous remarks in illustration of their character and history.

HAVING, in the two preceding sections, endeavoured to lay before the reader a fair and impartial representation of the doctrinal sentiments, and social religious practices of the Waldenses, and especially as these stood in opposition to the whole prevailing system of popery, I shall, before proceeding to a detail of their general history, adduce a few additional particulars of a more miscellaneous nature than hath been hitherto submitted to his consideration.

The enemies of the Waldenses, while they stigmatize them as heretics, and think no cruelties too horrid to be inflicted upon them, on account of their opposition to the whole system of the papal hierarchy, are, nevertheless, constrained, by the force of truth, to bear the most honourable testimony to the integrity, uprightness, and exemplary deportment, which so conspicuously characterized this denomination of Christians. In proof of this, let us attend to the testimony of their adversaries.

An ancient inquisitor, to whose writings against the Waldenses, I had occasion to refer in a former section, thus describes them." These heretics are known by their manners and conversation, for they are orderly and modest in their behaviour and deportment. They avoid all appearance of pride in their dress; they neither indulge in finery of attire, nor are they remarkable for being mean or ragged. They avoid commerce, that they may be free from deceit and falsehood. They get their livelihood by manual industry, as day-lab yurers or mechanics, and their teachers are weavers or tailors. They are not anxious about amassing riches, but content themselves with the neces-aries of life. They are chaste, temperate, and sober. They abstain from anger.

* Allix's Remarks, p. 245.

Even when they work, they either learn or teach. In like manner also, their women are very modest, avoiding back biting, foolish jesting, and levity of speech, especially abstaining from lies or swearing, not so much as making use of the common asseverations, “ in truth,” “ for certain,” or the like, because they regard these as oaths—contenting theinselves with simply answering “yes” or “no.” *

Claudius Seisselius, archbishop of Turin, from whose Treatise against the Waldenses I have quoted largely in a former section, is pleased to say, that “their heresy excepted, they generally live a purer life than other Christians. They never swear but by compulsion, and rarely take the name of God in vain. They fulfil their promises with punctuality; and, living for the most part in poverty, they profess to preserve the apostolic life and doctrine. They also profess it to be their desire to overcome only by the simplicity of faith, by purity of conscience, and integrity of life; not by philosophical niceties and theological subtleties.” And he very candidly admits that—" In their lives and morals they are perfect, irreprehensible, and withput reproach among men, addicting themselves with all their might to observe the commands of God.”+

* Allix's Remarks, p. 235. + Usher de Christ. Ecoles. success. et statu.-Perrin, b. i. ch. v,

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