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possible speed, to be distributed among such as shall be considered most necessitous, and that more particularly require present succour and relief.

And as we are not ignorant how deeply the miseries and wrongs of those very barmless people have affected yourselves, and that you will not grudge any labour or pains which may contribute to their relief, we make no scruple to commit the distribution of this sum of money to your care, and to give you this further trouble, that according to your wonted piety and prudence, you would take care that the said money be distributed equally to the most necessitous, to the end that, though the sum be small, there may, nevertheless, be something to refresh and revive the most indigent and needy, till we can afford them a' more plentiful supply.

And thus, not doubting but that you will take in good part the trouble imposed upon you, we beseech Almighty. God to stir up the hearts of all his people professing the orthodox faith, to resolve upon the common defence of themselves, and their mutual assistance of each other, against their inveterate and most implacable enemies ! in doing which we should rejoice that our helping hand might be any way serviceable to the church.

Farewell. June 8, 1655.

P.S. £1,500 of the aforesaid £2,000 will be remitted by Gerard Hench, from Paris, and the other £500 will be taken care of by letters from the Lord Stoup.

These letters abundantly prove the firm hold which the case of the Waldenses had taken on the mind of the English government, and the lively interest which the latter so honourably. took in their affairs. I cannot, however, dismiss this part of the subject without laying before the reader one letter more, not only because it is intimately connected with the narrative, but because it exhibits a pleasing specimen of the liberal and enlightened policy of the protector's councils. It was written in the following year, and addressed to the King of Sweden, who was, at that moment, threatening the States of Holland with a

war,

OLIVER, PROTECTOR OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF

ENGLAND, &c. TO The Most SERENE PRINCE, CHARLES GUSTAVUS, King of the Swedes, Gotus, AND VANDALS, &c.

Most SERENE KING, OUR DEAREST FRIEND AND CON

FEDERATE. As we are fully assured of your majesty's concurrence both in thoughts and councils for the defence of the Protestant faith against its enemies, which never was more dangerously assailed than at present; though we cannot but rejoice at your successful enterprizes and the daily tidings of your victories, yet we cannot, on the other hand, but be as deeply concerned at one thing which disturbs and interrupts our joy; we refer to the sad news which is intermingled with so much welcome tidings, that the ancient friendship between your majesty and the States of the United Provinces presents a gloomy aspect, and that the mischiet' is exasperated to that pitch, particularly in the Baltic Sea, as seems to forbode an unhappy rupture! We acknowledge ourselves ignorant of the causes; but we too easily foresee that the events, which God avert, will be fatal to the interests of the Protestants. And, therefore, both out of regard to that most intimate alliance now subsisting between us and your majesty, and also from that affection and love to the reformed religion, by which we ought all of us chiefly to be swayed, we consider it our duty, as we have most earnestly exhorted the States of the United Provinces to peace and moderation, so now to persuade your majesty to the same. The Protestants have enemies every where enough and to spare, inflamed with inexorable revenge: nor were they ever known to have conspired, more perniciously to our destruction-witness the vallies of Piedmont still reeking with the blood and slaughter of the miserable-witness Austria, lately embroiled with the emperor's edicts and proscriptions—witness Switzerland. But it is needless to expatiate at large in recalling the bitter lamentations and recollections of so many calamities! Who so ignorant as not to know that the councils of the Spaniards and of the Roman pontiff, for these two years past, have filled all these places with conflagrations, murders, and persecutions of the orthodox ? But, if to these mischiefs there should happen the still greater evil of dissention among the Protestants themselves, who are brethren, and more especially between two powerful states, on whose courage, wealth, and fortitude, so far as human strength may be relied on, the support and hope of all the reformed churches depend, the Protestant religion must necessarily be in great jeopardy, if not upon the brink of destruction. On the other hand, if the whole Protestant name would but preserve perpetual peace among themselves, cultivating that brotherly union which becomes their profession, there would be no occasion to fear what all the artifices and power of our enemies could do to hurt us, which our fraternal concord and harmony alone would easily repel and frustrate, And, therefore, we most earnestly request and beseech your majesty to foster in your bosom propitious thoughts of peace, and a disposition of mind to repair the breaches of your ancient friendship with the United Provinces, if in any part it may have accidentally suffered the decays of mistakes and misconstructions,

If there be any thing on which our labour, our fidelity and diligence may be useful towards effecting a compromise, we tender and shall cheerfully devote all to your service. And may the God of heaven favour and prosper your noble and pious resolutions, which, together with all felicity and a course of perpetual victory, we cordially, wish to your majesty.

Your majesty's most affectionate,

OLIVER, Protector, &c. &c.

From our palace, Westminster, August, 1636.

It has been already noticed that, upon the very first annunciation of the distresses of the Waldenses, the Protector issued a proclamation for a day of national hu. miliation throughout all England and Wales; commanding, at the same time, that collections should be made in all the churches and chapels for their relief; and a committee, consisting of about forty of the first of the nobility, gentry, and clergy, was formed for conducting it, Sir Thomas Viner, and Sir Christopher Pack, aldermen of London, being appointed treasurers. In no long time the sum total of the collections amounted to THIRTYEIGHT THOUSAND, TWO HUNDRED

FORTY-ONE POUNDS, TEN SHILLINGS AND SIX PENCE,* which, if we take into account the relative value of money between that and the present time, must certainly give us a very favourable impression of the liberality of our forefathers. Nor is it less gratifying to witness such a proof of the humane and benevolent spirit which, as Protestants, our countrymen evinced on an occasion that so justly called for it.

AND

• Of this amount the cities of London and Westminter contributed the sum of £9,384 6 11, exclusive of the £ 2,000 given by the protector.

For the satisfaction of the community at large, the protector and his council ordered a narrative to be published, explanatory of their proceedings, with a very minute and circumstantial account of the sums contributed, specifying the counties, the number of parishes in each, with the precise amount of their contributions, as well as of the application that was made of the same, through the medium of Sir Samuel Morland, who, to carry into effect the liberality of the English people, was ordered to take up his residence at Geneva, a city contiguous to the vallies of Piedmont, where he continued about three years.

The whole of the document referred to is interestingbut occupying, as it does, twelve pages in folio, its entire insertion in this place is impracticable. I shall, however, gratify the reader with the introductory paragraph.

“ His highness, the Lord Protector, having received intelligence about the month of May, 1655, that many bundreds of the poor Protestants in the vallies of Piedmont (otherwise known by the name of Waldenses) within the territories of the Duke of Savoy, were most cruelly masa sacred by a Popish party; and having upon his spirit a deep sense of their calamities, which were occasioned by their faithful adherence to the profession of the reformed religion, was pleased, not only to mediate, by most pathetic letters, in their behalf, to the King of France and Duke of Savoy, but did also graciously invite the people of this nation to seek the Lord by prayer and humiliation, in reference to their then sad condition and future relief; and from a confidence that the good people of this nation would be sensibly touched with the afflictions of Joseph,” and in that day of their brethren's trouble manifest a sensible resentment of, and sympathy with the sufferings of their fellow-members, professors of the same faith; did forthwith publish a DECLARATION, expressing his earnest desire that the people might be stirred up to a free

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