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of the whole of mankind; but only for such as are saved."

To these were afterwards added, as doctrines of Gotteschalcus :

They who are predestinated to destruction, cannot be saved; and they who are predestinated to the kingdom, cannot perish.

“ Ever since the first man fell by his free-will, none of us are able to use their free-wills unto good, but only to evil ().”

Gotteschalcus' opinions were, undoubtedly, stated by Hincmar in the most rigorous and exceptionable terms. For this reason, let us hear the judicious and learned martyr speak for himself. This he continues to do, in two separate confessions of his faith, penned by his own hand, and which are, happily, still preserved (P).

“ I believe," says he, “and acknowledge, that the Almighty and unchangeable God gratuitously foreknew and predestinated the holy angels, and elect men, unto life eternal. -St. Austin asks, • Wherefore, said our Lord to the Jews, ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep? Because' (saith Austin) 'our Lord perceived that they were predestinated to everlasting destruction, and were not purchased with the price of his blood. What mischief, then, can the wolf do? What hurt can the thief and robber do? They can destroy those only who are predestinated thereunto. The same St. Austin, speaking of the two worlds, expresses himself thus: “The church is a (9) whole world, and there is also a whole world which hateth the

(0) Usser. ibid. p. 28.
(P) Apud Usser. ibid. à p. 211. ad p. 237.

(9) Witsius has a similar thought; but much more elegantly expressed. “ Electi fideles, post vocationem efficacem, et considerati cum exornante eos gratiâ Dei ; licet minor, melior tamen mundi pars, et immundi mundi mundus sunt.' De Oecon. Fæd. l. 2. c. 9.

s. 13.

church. The world' [of the reprobate] 'hateth the world' [of the elect] : the world of those who are at enmity with God, hateth that world which is reconciled to him; the world of the condemned hateth the world of the saved; the world of the impure hateth the world of the holy.' Austin saith again : “There is a world, of which the apostle says, That we should not be condemned with the world, 1 Cor. ii. 32. For this world, our Lord doth not pray. So also speaketh St. Isidore; (r) • There is à double predestination : of the elect, unto happiness; and of the reprobate, unto death'(s).”

The above extract is from Gotteschalcus' smaller confession. His larger one runs in the form of a most pious and solemn address to Almighty God. It were needless to cite any parts of it, after what has been already produced. Whoever pleases, may see it at full length, in Usher's History, referred to below.

For thus believing, the great and good man was degraded from the

from the order of priesthood, and imprisoned in the monastery of Hault-Villier.

was, moreover, sentenced to undergo the

He was,

(r) I suppose the person here quoted by Gotteschalcus, was that Isidore, who fixed his seat of retirement at, or near Pelusium (now Belbeis) in Egypt; whence he is commonly called, Isiaorus Pelusiota. He flourished about A. D. 412.

(s) Credo et confiteor, Deum omnipotentem et incommutabilem præscîsse et prædestinâsse angelos sanctos, et homines electos, ad vitam gratis æternam.- -Beatus Augustinus- -ità dicit, Quare dicit dominus Judæis, vos non creditis, quia non estis ex ovibus meis ? Nisi quia videbat eos ad sempiternum interitum prædestinatos, non ad vitam æternam sui sanguinis pretio comparatos.---Quid potest lupus? Quid potest fur et latro? non perdit nisi ad interitum prædestinatos. Item, de duobus loquens mundis : Totus mundus ecclesia est, et totus mundus odit ecclesiam. Mundus igitur odit mundum : inimicus, reconciliatum : damnatus salvatum : inquinatus, mundatum. Item. Est mundus, de quo dicit apostolus. Ne cum hoc mundo damnemur. Pro isto mundo dominus non rogat. Unde dicit et S. Isidorus: Gemina est prædestinatio, sive electorum ad requiem ; sive reproborum, ad mortum.” Apud Usser. U. s. p. 211, 212.

punishment of scourging: which inhuman discipline was continually repeated, with the most merciless severity, until, by mere dint of torture, they had compelled him to commit one of his own books to the flames, which he had written, in favour of

predestination, against Rabon, archbishop of Mentz. His sufferings might, at any time, have been exchanged for liberty and ease, had he but dissembled his judgment, and ceased to avow his faith. But he was enabled to continue stedfast, to the very last. No torments could induce him to deny, with his mouth, the grace which he loved in his heart. In him was eminently realized that saying ascribed to Ignatius : Stand firm as a beaten anvil. It is the part of a magnanimous combatant, to be torn to pieces, and yet to overcome (t).

I have termed Gotteschąlcus a martyr. · And such in fact, he was. I grant his execution was more tedious and lingering, than that of those who are usually crowned with that venerable name. His sufferings did not terminate with the pain of an hour, but were extended through a long series of years : and nothing, inferior to the Almighty power of God, could have kept him faithful unto death. Exhausted, at length, by an uninterrupted succession of hardships, he breathed out his soul into the hands of Christ, A. D. 870, in about the one and twentieth year of his imprisonment. Hincmar, to whose restless persecutions this man of God stood indebted for most of his calamities, did not always ride triumphant on the wheel of prosperity. About twelve years after the death of Gotteschalcus, the Nordmans, swarming from the north of Europe, made irruptions into France; on which, the prelate of Rheims thought proper to consult his personal safety, by deserting his flock. Abdicating, there

(t) Ignat. ad Polyc.

fore, the see which he had so unworthily filled, he retreated (Barbarus à Barbaris) to a more solitary and secure part of the kingdom : in which melancholy retirement, surrounded with woods and morasses, he died (probably of a broken heart) A. D. 882.

III. Remigius, archbishop of Lyons, and Gotteschalcus' cotemporary, deserves to be mentioned here, as an eminent assertor of the doctrines of grace.

Hincmar of Rheims had written a letter of complaint against Gotteschalcus, addressed to the church of Lyons. This was replied to by Remigius; part of whose answer ran thus. The blessed fathers of the church do, with one consent, with one voice, and as it were with one spirit, display and celebrate that immoveable truth of God's prescience and predestination, respecting both its parts, viz. concerning the elect and reprobate: to wit, [the predestination] of the elect, unto glory; and of the reprobate, not unto sin, but unto punishment. And in these particulars, they [i. e. the fathers] openly affirm that the unchangeable series of God's disposals is demonstrated to us; which divine disposals are not temporal, neither did they commence in any period of time, but are strictly eternal. Nor is it possible for any one elect person to perish: or that any of the reprobate should be saved, because of their hardness and impenitency of heart. This both the verity of the sacred writings, and the authority of the holy and orthodox fathers, harmoniously declare, and inculcate on us, as a point to be believed and held by us without the least doubt or scruple. Pursuant to the foregoing account of the universal faith, Almighty God did, from the beginning, prior to the formation of the world, and before he had made any thing, predestinate (for certain just, and immutable reasons of his eternal counsel) some certain persons to glory, of his own gratuitous favour : of which certain persons, not one shall perish, through his mercy protecting them. Other certain persons he hath predestinated to perdition, by his just judgment, for the evil desert of their ungodliness, which he foreknew: and, of these, none can be saved.

Not because of any compulsive violence offered them by the divine power, but because of the stubborn and persevering naughtiness of their own iniquity (u).” Remigius expresses himself with a prudential guardedness, which reflects no little honour on his judgment. He acknowledged, as the present Calvinists also do, 1. That there most certainly are a twofold prescience and predestination, terminating on two sorts of persons, the elect and reprobate. 2. That God's disposals, or decrees, are strictly eternal: and, 3. That they are anchangeable. 4. That, consequently, not one elect person can perish ; nor, 5. any reprobate be saved. 6. That the election of the for

(u) “ Ecce beatissimi patres ecclesiæ uno sensu, uno ore, quia et uno spiritu, Divinæ præscientiæ et prædestinationis immobilem veritatem, in utrâque parte, electorum, scilicet et reproboum, prædicant et commendant: electorum utique, ad gloriam ; reproborum verò, non ad culpam, sed ad pænam.

Et in his, non temporalium, neque ex alioquo tempore inchoantium, sed sempiternarum, dispositionum Dei immutabilem ordinem nobis demonstrari confirmant: nec aliquem electorem posse perire, nec ullum reproborum (propter duritiam et impænitentiam cordis sui) posse salvari. Hoc et Divinarum scripturarum veritas, et sanctorum atque orthodoxorum patrum auctoritas constantèr annuntiant, indubitantèr nobis credendum et tenendum inculcant.-Juxta præmissam Catholicæ fidei rationem, omnipotens Deus, ante constitutionem mundi, antequàm quicquam faceret, à principio, certis et justis atque immutabilibus causis æterni consilii sui, quosdam ad regnum, gratuitâ bonitate suâ, ex quibus nemo set periturus, protegente nuisericordiâ suâ; et quosdam prædestinaverit ad interitum, justo judicio suo, propter meritum, quod præscivit, impietatis eorum, ex quibus nemo possit salvari. Non propter violentiam aliquam Divinæ potestatis ; sed propter indomabilem et perseverantem nequitiam propriæ iniquitatis.” Remigius, apud Usser. Gottesc. p. 29.

The masterly comment of Remigius, on that controverted passage, Who will have all men to be saved and to come to tie knowledge of the truth, 1 Tim. ii. 4. may be seen at large, in Usher, u. E. p. 31. I wish it was not too prolix for insertion here.

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