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4. Adverb. State the kind of adverb; its degree, if it is an adverb of quality admitting of this modification: name the word which it limits, or 'qualifies.' The latter is the term generally used of adverbs.

5. Preposition. Name the noun which it 'governs,' that is to say, the noun whose relation to other words it shows.

6. Conjunction. Say whether it is co-ordinate or subordinate, and point out what it joins.

Abbreviations may be used with advantage, but not in such a way as to cause ambiguity. The particulars should be given in uniform order and as concisely as possible. The following examples of parsing illustrate these directions.


Can I forget the dismal night that gave
My soul's best part for ever to the grave!
How silent did his old companions tread,
By midnight lamps, the mansions of the dead.

Can verb defect. intrs. of incompl. predication,-act. indic. pres. sing. Ist.-agreeing with I.

I pers. pron. of 1st pers.-sing. nom.-subj. of can.

forget verb. strong, trans.-act. infin. pres.-prolative infin. depending on can: has for object night.

that pronoun relat.—referring to anteced. night, subj. of gave. soul's noun com.-neut. sing. possess.-dependent on part.

ever adv. of time, used here as substitute for noun: 'for ever'='for all time.'

how adv. of degree-qualif. silent.

silent adj. of quality, posit.-used as adv. of manner qualif. tread, or as adj. limiting companions.

midnight noun sing.-neut. sing.—used as adj. limiting lamps. noun com.―neut. plur.,—object of tread.



For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey,
This pleasing anxious being e'er resigned,
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day,
Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind?

W. E. G.


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For conj. subord. (Some writers take it as co-ord.)
who pron. interrog.- -masc. or fem., sing.-subj. of resigned.
forgetfulness noun abstr.-neut. sing. objective,-gov. by to.
demonst. adj. (or indef. art.)—limiting prey.


prey noun com.-neut. sing. nom.-in appos. with who.
this pronom. adj. demonst.—sing.—limiting being.
being noun abstr.-neut. sing.-object of resigned.
e'er adv. of time-qualif. resigned.

left verb, weak, trans.—act. indic. past indef. sing. 3rd,-agreeing with who; has for object precincts.

precincts noun com.-neut. plur.-object of left.

one adj. quant. card. num.—limiting look.

longing pres. part. act. of verb long,—used as adj. limiting look. look noun com.-neut. sing.—object of cast. behind adv. of place-qual. cast.


He had laid him low.

It were best let alone.

Choose whom you will, we will pay

him respect.

laid participle past, passive, of trans. verb 'lay,' limiting him. (If had laid were parsed in combination, it would be described as verb, weak, trans.-act. indic. past perf. sing. 3rd,—agreeing with he.)

low adj. of qual. used as adv.-qualif. laid.

were verb defect. of incompl. predication,—act. subj. past. indef. sing. 3rd,—agreeing with it.

best adj. of qual.-superl.-complement of predic. were and limit

ing it.

let participle past passive, of trans. verb let,-limiting it. alone adj. of qual.-limiting it.

choose verb, strong, trans.-act. imperat. plur. 2nd,―agreeing with you understood: has for obj. him understood.

whom pronoun relat.—referring to suppressed anteced. him, masc. sing. object of will (choose), the full constr. being choose you him whom you will choose.

him pronoun demonstr. of 3rd pers.-masc. sing. objective,— indir. obj. of pay.



What is a sentence? What are the necessary parts of every sentence? Write down the shortest sentence you can compose, and show that these necessary parts are comprised therein. Give examples showing how each part may be expanded.


What is the subject in the following sentence?-'It makes no part of my present subject, to detail how the success of a few ballads had the effect of changing all the purpose and tenour of my life.'

3. Are the following exclamations sentences?—‘Go.'--' Hence.''Yes.'


[How much may be left out of a sentence without its ceasing to be a sentence? Make use of your answer to this question as a principle to determine your answers about 'Go' and 'Hence.' As regards Yes,' the matter is different. Here we get beyond mere ellipsis. Yes' is a substitute for a sentence rather than a sentence from which part has been omitted.]


4. Explain the meaning of subject, predicate, and copula, and point out each of them and their expansions in the following sentence:'Is this a dagger that I see before me?'

[For copula see p. 177, Question 1.]

5. What is the subject in each of the following sentences? "Who is this?'

'Give me your hand.'

'There is said to have been a battle.'

'His horse being killed, he was taken prisoner.'

6. Define the subject of a sentence, and give one example of each of five different kinds of subjects.

7. In what cases may the subject be omitted in English?

Explain the construction of methought in the sentence-' Methought the billows spoke and told me of it.'

[The subject may be omitted (1) With verbs expressing a command: ‘Go’(you); or (2) a wish, ‘(I) Would it were so !' (3) The antecedent to the relative is sometimes omitted: '(He) Who breaks, pays.' (4) Impersonal verbs of course have no subject.]

8. Point out the subject, predicate, and object, with their extensions, in the following:

'At once his trusty sword the warlike chieftain drew.'

9. Make use of the words horse, kick, man, as subject, predicate, object, respectively, to form one sentence in which (a) the subject is enlarged by an adjective clause, (b) the predicate is enlarged by an adverbial clause relating to cause.

10. Distinguish between a phrase and a sentence.

'The Saxons invaded England.' Write out this sentence (a) with the predicate extended by a prepositional phrase, (b) with the predicate extended by an adverbial clause relating to time.

a noun.

[A 'prepositional phrase ' is a phrase composed of a preposition and As the prepositional phrase here is to extend the predicate, it must have an adverbial force, describing how, why, when, or where, the

Saxons invaded England: e.g. 'in pirate-boats,' 'with a fair wind,' 'from a desire for pillage,' 'after the departure of the Romans,'' on the coast of. Kent.']

II. Write a sentence containing two extensions of the predicate, and let one of these contain an object with two enlargements of different kinds.

12. Name the three kinds of subordinate clauses. Explain why an adjective clause is so called. State to which kind each of the subordinate clauses in the three following sentences belongs, and give your


'I asked where he lived.'

'I have often seen the house where he was born.'

'I shall sit where you wish.'

13. State and explain the various terms used in the Analysis of Sentences.

14. Write three sentences, introducing in the first a clause equivalent to a noun, in the second a clause equivalent to an adjective, in the third a clause equivalent to an adverb.

15. Construct a complex sentence with two subordinate clauses of different kinds, and state the relation of each to the principal clause.

16. The thief avoided the policeman.'

Rewrite the above sentence

(1) enlarging the subject with a noun in apposition,

(2) enlarging the object with an adjectival clause,

(3) extending the predicate with an absolute phrase.

17. Rewrite the subjoined sentences, supplying in full the words required to make the construction of the subordinate clauses complete, and describe each such clause :

(a) 'She sings worse than ever.'


'Better late,

Our proverb says, than never to do well.' (c) 'Things happened precisely as you guessed.'

18. To what Parts of Speech do the following words belong?-fifty, few, kill, cavalry, their, those, sheer, pell-mell, as, why, bravo.

19. Parse the following italicised words:


(i) When you are established in the house where you intend to reside, I will call on you, if I may.'

(ii) 'I had but one house, as you know: since then I have bought another.'


20. Parse the italicised words in the following sentences:-' Have you any?' 'No, I have none.' 'When did you come?' Why is he here?' 'He went away rejoicing.' 'This is talking at random.' 'It is not true that he said that.' 'I saw the same as he did.'


Parse the italicised words: Which is which?' 'He was forgiven the fault.' 'The lady protests too much, methinks.' 'Perish the thought!' 'The ship is building.' 'Sit thee down.' 'I saw him taken.' 'So be it.'


22. Parse these sentences:- -'In the front of the eye is a clear transparent window, exactly like the glass of a watch.'

'When a man falls from his horse, he is often seriously hurt.' 'He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell.'

'Life has passed 'With me but roughly since I heard thee last.'

23. To what parts of speech would you refer the following words?— next, no, the, together, past, else, but, ere.

[Else is an adverb signifying ‘besides.' In the compound phrases anybody else or somebody else it takes the possessive inflexion, anybody else's, somebody else's.]


24. Parse the italicised words in the following sentences:write clearly.' 'Thank you.' 'Thanks.' 'You can if you like.' 'Get you gone.' 'He was accused of cheating.' 'He was accused of having cheated.'

[The construction of please was formerly impersonal, but It pleases me' has become 'I please,' as 'It likes me' has become 'I like.' We may regard write as infinitive dependent on Please,—‘May you please (i.e. May it please you) to write clearly,'-or we may regard it as an imperative, Write clearly, if you please, (i.e. if it please you ').

The construction in the last sentence, though in common use, has been condemned by some writers as grammatically indefensible, on the ground that of should be followed by the gerund, whilst having cheated is the past participle. The objection would be valid if having cheated were indeed a past participle here, but it is not: it is a compound gerund form. (See § 162, 6.) Just as we say 'He was supposed to have (Infinitive) cheated,' so we may say 'He was accused of having (Gerund) cheated,' 'He was rejected for having cheated.']

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