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of the case, no division can be made in words of one syllable however long. Straight, scratch, drought, contain only one vowel-sound and must be written and printed entire. Two principles should regulate the separation of words of more than one syllable into parts: as far as possible we ought to follow

(1) the etymology,

(2) the pronunciation.

Hence the hyphen is placed between the prefix or suffix and the root of derivatives, and between the constituent parts of compounds: en-large, duch-ess, free-man. But sometimes the division according to pronunciation is at variance with the division according to etymology. For example, orthography, geology, would be divided thus, if we follow the pronunciation as our guide,-orthog-raphy, geol-ogy, whereas their etymology would direct us to divide them thus,— ortho-graphy, geo-logy. In cases of conflict of this kind it is generally best to place the hyphen consistently with the etymology'.


I. Add to each of the following words the prefix which reverses the meaning :-contented, proper, visible, pleasant, ingenuous, natural.

2. Define the terms prefix and suffix. Illustrate your answer by analysing the following words into their component parts:-believing, darling, forlorn, islet, nethermost, requital, spinster, uncouth.

3. Does the phrase 'Ærated bread' require correction?

['Ærated bread' would be bread made of bronze (Latin aes, aeris). What sort of bread is sold at the ABC shops, and whence does it get its name?]

Break up the words mistrustfully, unwholesomeness, into syllables, and explain how each syllable contributes to the meaning of the words.

5. Why are the following words hybrids?-forbear-ance, duke-dom, somnambul-ist, un-just, social-ism, master-ship.

1 See Angus' Handbook of the English Tongue, pp. 111-2.

6. Give the derivation and history of the following words; and mention any case of double meaning, or of change of meaning :— alderman, defeat, drake, idiot, invalid, involve, kaleidoscope, middle, megrim, monk, orchard, pilgrim, scholar, uncouth.

7. What are the chief constituent elements of the English language?

Give the derivation of the following words, pointing out any change of meaning:-ally, agony, dyspeptic, girl, journal, lord, person, ornithologist, poison, rival, sherry, silly, somersault, telegraph, villain, volume.

8. Give the derivation of the following words, showing from what languages they were taken:-caitiff, cardinal, frenzy, seraph, nightingale, welkin.

9. Give the etymology of the following words:-gazette, tinsel, blame, loyal, archbishop, sheriff.

IO. Which is the right place for the hyphen in the following words? Why?-sui-cide or suic-ide; locom-otive or loco-motive; viad-uct or viaduct; apo-stle or apos-tle; epig-ram or epi-gram; dec-line or de-cline; sus-pect or susp-ect; kin-dred or kind-red; lanc-et or lan-cet; mor-ning or morn-ing; hil-lock or hill-ock; univers-ity or univer-sity; semin-ary or semi-nary; catas-trophe or cata-strophe.

II. What is the force of each of the following prefixes, and from what language does it come? Give a word in illustration-with-, contra-, dia-, sub-, per-, sym-, arch-, un-, ab-.

12. Point out the prefixes in the following words and give their force:-extract, misuse, retrograde, antecedent, antipathy, outdo, besmear, accede, ignoble, immense.

13. What is the force of the -en in each of the following words?— gold-en, sweet-en, vix-en, childr-en, maid-en.

14. Give the force of the suffixes in these words:-black-ish, yeoman-ry, spin-ster, malt-ster, young-ster, doct-or, dar-ling, man-hood, god-head, free-dom, lanc-et, ring-let, shad-ow.

15. Give the Primary Derivatives from the following words :-heal, dig, weave, deep, lie, bath, love.

[By a Primary Derivative is here meant a word formed from another word as its root, by the addition of a sound not significant alone, or by the modification of an existing sound. Thus from strong is formed strength, where we have both addition and modification; from glass is formed glaze, where we have modification only. Now if, from the Primary Derivatives, fresh words are formed by similar processes, these words are called Secondary Derivatives. So, from the Primary Derivative strength we form strengthen; from glaze, glazier. Strengthen and glazier are Secondary Derivatives.]

16. Distinguish derivatives and compounds.

Comment on the following formations:—witticism, oddity, wondrous, honeyed.

[Some of the words are hybrids. For honeyed read p. 202.]

17. Reverse the meaning of each of the following words by adding a prefix: happy, possible, rational, contented, valid, noble, sense. Give four examples of diminutive forms in English nouns.

What is meant by saying that the word bicycle is a hybrid? 18.

Write three derivatives with English suffixes, three with Latin, three with Greek, and three with French.

19. What suffixes are used in English to express diminutiveness (a) in nouns, (b) in adjectives, (c) in verbs?

Mention suffixes which indicate (1) agency, (2) state.

[With reference to (c) observe that the frequentative endings have also in some instances a diminutive force: glim-m-er (from gleam), gam-b-le (from game), dazz-le (from daze), wadd-le (from wade) are examples.]

20. In the following words what is the force of the parts printed in italics?-around, numerous, governesses, recite, English.

21. Why is it important which part of a compound word is placed first?

22. State the meaning of the following prefixes and suffixes:forlorn, misuse, abstract, bespeak, livelihood, whiten, swinish, satchel.

23. Mention the force of the following suffixes and the language from which each is derived: -fy, -ness, -tion, -ible, -en, -isk, -ly, -tude. 24. What is the force of the following prefixes and suffixes?—fore-, in-, meta-, -en, -le, -er.

Explain and derive the words umpire, icicle, jovial, tawdry, sirloin, squirrel, trivial, utopian, solecism, boycott.

25. By the addition of prefixes or suffixes convert the following adjectives into verbs:-large, just, strong, wide, dim, clean, dear.

26. Mention some suffixes by the addition of which we form (1) adjectives from nouns, (2) nouns from adjectives, (3) verbs from nouns or adjectives, (4) adverbs from pronouns.

27. With what familiar English root-words can you connect the following derivatives?—ditch, wander, gift, month, husband, length, woof, seed, burden, forlorn, vixen, shadow.

28. Give the meaning and account for the form of each of the following words :-kine, riches, rather, naught, hillock, surname.

29. Comment on the forms of the words empress, alms, nearer, none, atheism, surface.

30. By the use of a suffix change each of the following nouns into an adjective:-sister, fame, quarrel, slave, silver.

31. Distinguish the meanings of older and elder; latest and last; masterly and masterful; virtuous and virtual; stationary and stationery; idiotic and idiomatic; idol and idyll; politic and political; confident and confidant; expedient and expeditious; credible and creditable.

32. Write short notes on the etymology of the following words :— cambric, dandelion, drawing-room, laconic, nostril, posthumous, tantalise, profusely, bicycle, surgeon.

33. What is the force of the suffix in darkness, hillock, friendship, drunkard, farthing? Can you explain the vowel in the first syllable of kitten, thimble, vixen? [See § 54, (3).]

34. Explain the force of the adjectival endings -ish, -ine, -en, -Y, -al, -ic, -ous, -less, -some, adding an example of each.

35. Comment on the structure of the following words and state whether any of them are anomalous in form:-kine, shepherdess, spinster, unjust, mineralogy, deodorize, children, sovereign, talkative, laughable.

36. What ideas are indicated by the following suffixes and prefixes?— Jew-ry, duck-ling, wit-ness, trump-et, tromb-one, a-board, Arch-duke.

37. Mention English words containing prefixes and suffixes of Latin and Greek origin corresponding in their force to the following of native origin:-al-mighty, ill-starred, thorough-fare, with-stand, wood-en, black-en, learn-ed.

38. 'In word-building, Prefixes alter the meanings of words and Suffixes alter their functions.' Illustrate this statement.

[The term 'functions' is explained in § 64. The antithesis in the passage quoted above is scarcely accurate, for a word which changes its function must change to some extent its meaning. The writer wishes to call attention however to a distinction which is sometimes real and important. Take, for instance, kind. Unkind reverses its meaning: kindly and kindness change its functions. Treat the roots man, trust, dress, truth, in a similar way.]

39. Mention some of the chief ways in which the vocabulary of a language may be increased. Give illustrations.

[See the note to Q. 11, p. 20, and think what processes there are, besides importation from foreign sources, by which fresh words may be added to an existing stock.]

40. Mention other English words cognate with hospital, vision, tenant, victor, sequel.

[As an example of what is required, let us take the word frail and give some of its cognates. Frail is a derivative from Latin frango, fractum, and from the same ultimate source we obtain fragile, fracture, fragment, fraction, refraction, &c. These are called 'cognates.']




219. Syntax deals with the combination of words in sentences, their government, agreement, and order.

In the course of our treatment of Etymology, many points belonging strictly to the province of Syntax have been already touched upon. The remaining chapters will contain a brief recapitulation of these points, with the addition of such details as are required to complete the information, on the subject of Syntax, which may fairly be looked for in an elementary text-book.

When, in dealing with Conjunctions, we explained the difference between a Compound and a Complex Sentence, our transition from Etymology to Syntax was complete. The student is recommended to read again the remarks on this difference which were made in Chapter xx., as they form a suitable introduction to the concluding section of this book. Syntax has to do with the relations of words to each other in sentences. To enable us intelligently to discuss these relations, it is essential that we should clearly understand the nature of a sentence, the elements of which it is composed, and the varieties of form which it


220. We described a Sentence as a collection of words by which we say something about a thing.

W. E. G.


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