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ARTS AND SCIENCES.
AN ACCURATE AND POPULAR VIEW
OF THE PRESENT
IMPROVED STATE OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE.
BY WILLIAM NICHOLSON,
Author and Proprietor of the Philosophical Journal, and various other Chemical, Philosophical, and
UPWARDS OF 180 ELEGANT ENGRAVINGS.
VOL. XII. SUR......ZYG.
PUBLISHED BY MITCHELL, AMES, AND WHITE.
William Brown, Printer.
elevated, without extreme pain, to a linc
with the acromion. Great pain is caused Lower jaw. This bone can only be lux- by the pressure of the head of the bone ated forwards, when the condyloid pro- in its unnatural position, particularly cesses advance beyond the eminentiæ arti.
when lies in the axilla. Our object is, culares. In this case the mouth remains to dislodge the head of the os brachii open, and cannot be shut; there is pain; from its unnatural situation, in order to impaired and almost destroyed articula- bring it on a level with the glencid cavity tion and deglutition, &c. One or both of the scapula. To accomplish this purcondyles may be displaced. To reduce it, pose, extension must be made; that is, the the thumbs, well covered, should be intro- limb must be drawn forcibly outwards; duced as far backward as possible along and the bone itself should be made to the grinding teeth. The surgeon then operate as a lever, which can be best efelevates the front of the bone with his fected by the surgeon's knee placed un. fingers and the palms of his hands, while der it towards the head, while he depreshe depresses the condyles with his ses the elbow at the proper time, so as to thumbs; and the latter prominences are raise the head towards the glenoid cavity. thus forced back into the glenoid cavities The patient's body should be fixed, by of the temporal bones.
placing a broad towel round the chest, Dislocations of the head and vertebræ and tying it to some immoveable point. are probably imaginary occurrences, as The extension should be gradual, and we know hitherto of no well attested ex- kept up unremittingly, which can be ample of their occurrence.
best effected by means of pullies. The The os humeri is probably luxated more elbow should be bent, and the extending frequently than any other bone. It may power applied just above the condyles of be displaced downwards, forwards, and the humerus. When the surgeon finds backwards. In all these cases a vacancy
that the head of the bone is drawn out of is distinguishable under the acromion, in its unnatural position, he may allow the consequence of the absence of the head extention to be remitted, and depress the of the humerous from the glenoid cavity elbow. The arm should afterwards be of the scapula. The head of the bone kept quietly in a sling, a piece of soap forms a preternatural tumour in some plaster, and a spica bandage, being applisituations. The elbow cannot be carried ed to the shoulder. close to the chest, nor can the limb be Elbow. Dislocations at this joint are very difficult to discover, from the swell. The ankle may be dislocated outwards, ing which comes on so quickly. The the fibulæ being at the same time broken. radius may be displaced forwards; and This is generally a compound luxation ; here the flexion of the elbow is almost the extremity of the tibia, when displaced entirely destroyed. The ulna may at the from the astragulus, very often penetratsame time be driven backwards: it maying the integuments. Formerly this acalso be pushed inwards, so as to occupy cident was considered as a cause of amthe place of the radius. All these are putation; and many practitioners have easily reduced, when they are ascertain. been in the habit of sawing off the proed. "Leeches and cold washes should be jecting portion. Yet, by replacing the employed afterwards.
bone, closing the wound, keeping the Wrist. The distortion consequent on parts quiet, &c. the injury has been a displacement of the carpus is so consi- often recovered. Luxation may also ocderable, that the nature of the case is ren- cur in the opposite direction, and fordered immediately obvious. The reduc. wards. The latter is very difficult to retion is easy; and after it has been accom- tain in place, as the muscles of the calf plished, the hand and fore-arm should be
are so apt to move the foot. bound on a splint, and supported by a SURIANA, in botany, so named in hosling
nour of Joseph Donat Surian, a genus of Thigh. The os femoris may be dis- the Decandria Pentagynia class and order. placed downwards and inwards, so that Natural order of Succulentæ. Rosaceæ, the bead rests on the obturator foramen ; Jussieu. Essential character: calyx five. upwards and outwards, when the head is leaved; petals five ; styles inserted into towards the sacro-ischiatic foramen, and the inner side of the germs: seeds five, the trochanter forwards, and upwards naked. There is but one species, viz. S. and forwards, so that the head rests upon maritima, a native of the sea coast of the os pubis. In the first case, the toes South America, and the islands of the are turned out, and the limb elongated. West Indies. In the second, the limb is shortened, the SURRENDER, in law, a deed or infoot turned inwards, and the buttock strument, testifying that the particular temore prominent. Great pain is excited nant of lands or tenements for life, or by attempting to move the limb in all years, doth sufficiently consent and cases of luxation, and a vacuity is dis- agree, that he which has the next or imcernible in the natural situation of the mediate remainder, or reversion thereof, head of the bone. The patient should be shall also have the present estate of the placed on the side opposite to the acci. same in possession; and that he yields and dent, and his pelvis should be fixed by gives up the same unto him; for every means of a sheet passed under the perine. surrenderer ought forthwith to give pos.
Extension may be made by fixing a session of the things surrendered. Where broad towel, or the pullies, just above a surrender is made in consequence of a the condyles. When the head of the fresh lease, and that lease turns out invabone is on the dorsum ilii, the extension lid, the surrender is considered as not is to be continued until it has been valid, and the former lease is establishbrought to the acetabulum, into which ed. Surrender into the hands of the the surgeon must guide it. In the dislo- lord is the mode of passing copyholds, cation of the obturator foramen, we and a surrender to the use of a will is should make a lever of the bone, by pass. necessary, in order to pass them by a ing a towel under the thigh, near the tro. will. chanter, and elevating it, after a slight SURROGATE, one who is substitut. extension has been made, the condyles ed or appointed in the room of ano. being at the same time depressed. ther; as the bishop or chancellor's sur
The patella may be dislocated either in- rogate. wards or outwards. Its reduction is very SURSOLID, in arithmetic and algebra, easy, when the muscles inserted into it the fifth power, or fourth multiplication have been relaxed.
of any number or quantity, considered as The knee hardly admits of complete a root. See Root. luxation, without such injury of the parts SURSOLID problem, in mathematics, is as would render the loss of the limb ne- that which cannot resolve cessary. The nature of the accident curves of a higher nature than a conic must be obvious from the altered figure section, v. gr. in order to describe a re. of the parts, and replacement is perfectly gular endecagon, or figure of eleven easy. Inflammation must be guarded sides in a circle, it is required to de. against afterwards.
scribe an isosceles triangle on a right