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tact of a fluid (gas), varies in a geometrical progression, the excess of temperature vary. ing also in a geometrical progression. If the ratio of the last progression be 2, that of the first is 2.35; whatever the nature of the gas, or whatever its force of elasticity. This law may also be expressed by saying, that the quantity of heat abstracted by a gas in all cases proportional to the excess of the temperature of the body raised to the power of 1.233.

6. The cooling power of a fluid (gas) diminishes in a geometrical progression, when its tension or elasticity diminishes also in a geometrical progression. If the ratio of this second progression be 2, the ratio of the first will be for air 1.366; for hydrogen 1.301; for carbonic acid 1.431; for olefiant gas 1.415. This law may be expressed in the following manner :

The cooling power of gas is, other things being equal, proportionate to a certain power of the pressure. The exponent of this power, which depends on the nature of the gas, is for air 0.45; for hydrogen 0.315; for carbonic acid 0.517; for olefiant gas


7. The cooling power of a gas varies with its temperature; so that, if the gas can dilate so as to preserve the same degree of elasticity, the cooling power will be found diminished by the rarefaction of the gas, just as much as it is increased by its being heated; so that ultimately it depends upon its tension alone.

It may be perceived, from the above propositions, that the law of cooling, composed of all the preceding laws, must be very complicated; it is not therefore given in common language, but may be found in a mathematical form in the body of the me


Lithography. The French Academy of Fine Arts, having appointed a Committee to examine the lithographical drawings of M. Engelmann of Mulhause, in the Upper Rhine, have reported, that the stone must be rendered capable of imbibing water, and also of receiving all greasy or resinous substances. The first object can be effected by an acid, which will corrode the stone, take off its fine polish, and thus make it susceptible of water. Any greasy substance is capable of giving an impression upon stone, whether the lines be made with a pencil or with ink; or otherwise, the ground of a drawing may be covered with a black greasy mixture, leaving the lines in white.

Hence result two distinct processes: first, the engraving, by tracing, produced by the line of the pencil, or brush dipped in the greasy ink: secondly, the engraving by dots or lines, as is done on wood or copper.

Impressions of prints may be easily obtained without any reversing, by transposing on the stone a drawing traced on paper with the prepared ink.

All kinds of close calcareous stone, of an

even and fine grain, which are capable of taking a good polish with pumice-stone, and having the quality of absorbing water, may be used for lithography.

Composition of the Ink-Heat a glazed earthen vessel over the fire; when it is hot, introduce one pound by weight of white Marseilles soap, and as much mastic in grains; melt these ingredients, and mix them carefully; then incorporate five parts by weight of shell lac, and continue to stir it; to mix the whole, drop in gradually a solution of one part of caustic alkali in five times its bulk of water. Caution, however, must be used in making this addition, because should the ley be put in all at once, the liquor will ferment and run over. When the mixture is completed by a moderate heat and frequent stirring, a proportionate quantity of lamp-black must be added, after which a sufficient quantity of water must be poured in to make the ink liquid.

Drawing. This ink is used for drawing ing on the stone, in the same manner as on paper, either with a pen or pencil; when the drawing on the stone is quite dry, and an impression is required, the surface of the stone must be wetted with a solution of nitric acid, in the proportion of fifty to one of water; this must be done with a soft sponge, taking care not to make a friction in the drawing. The wetting must be repeated as soon as the stone appears dry; and when the effervescence of the acid has ceased, the stone is to be carefully rinsed with clean


Printing. While the stone is moist, it should be passed over with the printer's ball charged with ink, which will adhere only to those parts not wetted. A sheet of paper, properly prepared for printing, is then to be spread on the stone, and the whole committed to the press, or passed through a roller.

To preserve the drawing on the stone from dust, when not in use, a solution of gum-arabic is passed over it, which can be easily removed by a little water. Instead of ink, chalk crayons are sometimes used for drawing upon the stone or upon paper, from which a counter-proof is taken upon the stone. The crayons are thus madethree parts of soap, two parts of tallow, and one part of wax, are all dissolved together in an earthen vessel. When the whole is well mixed, a sufficient quantity of lampblack, called Frankfort black, to give it an intense colour, is added; the mixture is then poured into moulds, where it must remain till it is quite cold, when it will be proper to be used as chalk pencils.

French Kaleidoscopes.-Our readers will no doubt have seen the various paragraphs in the French papers respecting the improvements on the kaleidoscope, and will have formed their own opinion of the pretensions of that class of inferior opticians. We have had occasion to see several of their

system generally, a subscription for a survey has been opened, and plans by Mr Stevenson, engineer, are in considerable forwardness.

instruments, and it is a remarkable fact, that not one of the makers of those which we have seen have the slightest knowledge of the principles or construction of the kaleidoscope. The very reflectors are placed at the wrong angle, the eye wrong placed, and the pictures destitute of symmetry. They are indeed inferior to the common kaleidoscopes made by the Jews in London, or the beggar boys in Edinburgh. Improvement and Extension of Iron Railways.-The Highland Society of Scotland have recently announced the following premium, viz.

A piece of plate, of fifty guineas value, will be given for the best and approved essay on the construction of rail-roads, for the conveyance of ordinary commodities. In this essay it will be essential to keep in view, how far rail-roads can be adapted for common use in a country; the means of laden carriages surmounting the elevations occurring in their course; and whether rail-roads, or the wheels of carriages, may be so constructed as to be applicable to ordinary roads as well as to rail-roads, so that no inconvenience shall be experienced on leaving either to travel on the other: the essay to be accompanied with such models or drawings as shall be sufficient to illustrate the statements it contains.

It is desirable that some account should be given of the principal rail-roads in Britain, together with a brief history of their introduction. The premium not to be decided until the 10th November 1819.

And with the same view, the following circular letter has been addressed to the various iron-masters in Scotland and England, viz.

"SIR,-Although the railway that is now in contemplation in the vicinity of Edinburgh be entirely a matter of local concern, the peculiar plan of it is certainly to be viewed in a different light, as an object that well deserves the attention of the various classes of the community throughout the kingdom. Instead of insulated patches of railway here and there, for particular pur poses, and for the conveniency of private individuals, as is now the case, it is here proposed, through the medium of railways, to open extensive communications to branch them out from the metropolis of Scotland in various directions, and to distant points-and thus to facilitate conveyance in general by an improved system of roads for heavy carriages.

"The Highland Society of Scotland have, in a very patriotic manner, offered a premium of fifty guineas for the best essay on the means of attaining so desirable an object as the introduction of railways for the purposes of general carriage.

With a view to the establishment of the railway in question, for the conveyance of commodities to and from Edinburgh, and thereby to give a commencement to the

"It seems to be desirable, that railways, for alternate carriage and general use, should proceed on a continued level, or upon successive levels; and a simple system of lockage (if it may be so called), by which loaded waggons may easily be elevated or depressed, from one level to another, would appear to be a desirable attainment. The edge railway is generally used and preferred in Scotland, as causing less friction and less expense of horse power; and it would tend to facilitate the general use of railways, if, by some simple change, the wheel usually employed for the road or street could be made also to suit the rail-way, or the railway wheel be made to suit the road or street, so that the cart or waggon which brings the commodity from the colliery or stone-quarry, the farm-yard, or the manufactory, to the railway, might travel along it to the termination of the railway, and proceed from thence through the streets of the town to the dwelling of the consumer, without unloading or change of carriage.

"The general use of railways by ironmanufacturers, for their own peculiar objects, qualifies them in an eminent degree to afford valuable suggestions on the best means of perfecting the railway system; and from a desire to collect the general sense of enlightened and scientific men, we take the liberty of submitting the annexed queries to your consideration, and to request, if agreeable to you, that you will be pleased to favour us with any suggestions which may occur to you upon the subject.

"Nothing could give a stronger impulse to the iron-manufacture than the complete success of this scheme. It seems to claim the attention of the iron-manufacturers of Great Britain as a body, and to merit their individual and collective support." Edinburgh, March 25, 1818.


1. What is the best breadth of railway, and the best form of a waggon or carriage, for the conveyance of commodities in general?

2. Supposing the trade alternate, it will be desirable that the railway should proceed on a continued level, or upon successive levels. What are deemed the best means, with reference to economy and despatch, for elevating or depressing the laden carriages from one level to another?

3. Supposing the edge railway, which is generally preferred in Scotland, to be adopted, can a wheel be so constructed as to be applicable to streets or ordinary roads, as well as to rail-roads, so that no inconvenience shall be experienced on leaving either to travel on the other?




THE continuation of Sir Richard Hoare's History of Ancient Wiltshire will, in the ensuing season, be presented to the public. It is written on the same plan as the South Wiltshire, and will describe the antiquities worthy of remark in the northern district of the county, and be accompanied with engravings by Messrs Cooke, Basire, &c.

A Description of the Islands of Java, Bali, and Celebes, with an account of the principal nations and tribes of the Indian Archipelago, is in preparation; by John Crawford, Esq. late resident at the court of the Sultan of Java.

Messrs Longman and Co. have lately received from America an interesting manuscript, containing a Narrative of the Wreck of the ship Oswego, on the coast of South Barbary, and of the sufferings of the master and the crew while in bondage among the Arabs; interspersed with numerous remarks upon the country and its inhabitants, and concerning the peculiar perils of that coast; by Judah Paddock, her late master. The work will be published in the course of the present month.

The Rev. H. J. Todd has a work in the press on Original Sin, Free-will, Grace, Regeneration, Justification, Faith, Good Works, and Universal Redemption, as maintained in certain declarations of our Reformers, which are the ground-work of the articles of the established church. will be followed by an Account of the Subscription to the Articles in 1604, and an historical and critical introduction to the whole.


M. Kotzebue is preparing for publication his account of the Russian Embassy to Persia, which will appear at the same time in London and Weymar.

Dr James Johnson, author of "The Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions," &c. will speedily publish a small work, entitled, The Influence of Civic Life, Sedentary Habits, and Intellectual Refinement, on Human Health and Human Happiness; including an Estimate of the balance of enjoyment and suffering in the different gradations of society.

Shortly will be published, Memoirs on the Present State of Science and Scientific Institutions in France; containing a descriptive and historical account of the Royal Garden of Plants; the Royal Institute; the Polytechnic School; the Faculty of Sciences; the College of France; and the Cabinet of Mineralogy: the Public Libraries; the Medical School; and the Hospitals; with plans of the latter, never before published, &c. &c.: illustrated by numerous plates and tables; by A. B. Granville, M.D. F.R.S. F.L.S. M.R.I., &c.


Dr Spiker, one of the librarians of the King of Prussia, who recently visited this, country for literary and scientific objects, has published, in German, the first volume of his Tour through England, Wales, and Scotland; a translation of which will be published here, under the authority of, and with some additional remarks by, the author.

Memoirs, Biographical, Critical, and Literary, of the most eminent Physicians and Surgeons of the present time in the United Kingdom; with a choice Collection of their Prescriptions, and a specification of the diseases for which they were given, forming a complete modern extemporaneous pharmacopoeia to which is added, an Appendix, containing an account of the different medical institutions in the metropolis, scientific. and charitable.

The Rev. S. Clapham of Christ-church, Hants, will shortly publish the Pentateuch, or Five Books of Moses illustrated; containing an explication of the phraseology incorporated with the text, for the use of families and schools.

Underwood's Catalogue of Medical Books for 1818-19, with a List of the Lectures delivered in London, is in the press.

Anderson and Chase are preparing for publication their Annual Catalogue of New and Second-hand Medical Books, with a complete List of the Lectures delivered in London, their terms, hours of attendance, &c.

Dr Jones's new translation of the Four Gospels into Welsh, will be published in a few days.

Sermons, in two volumes, by the Rev. Charles Moore, are in the press.

Robert Southey, Esq. has in the press, in two octavo volumes, Memoirs of the Life of John Wesley, the founder of the English Methodists.

Mr G. Russell, of his Majesty's Office of Works, has in the press, a Tour through Sicily in 1815; performed in company with three German gentlemen of considerable literary attainments.

Mr H. B. Fearon will soon publish, in an octavo volume, Sketches of America, being the narrative of a journey of more than five thousand miles through the eastern and

western states.

Two volumes of Sermons, by the late Rev. E. Robson, thirty-seven years curate of St Mary, Whitechapel, selected from his MSS. by the Rev. H. C. Donnoughue, are in the press.

Mr John Chalmers, author of a History of Malvern, is printing a History of Worcester, abridged from the histories of Dr Nash and Mr Green, with much additional information.

4 Z

Mr Henry Thomson will soon publish, Remarks on the Conduct of a Nursery; intended to give information to young mothers, and those likely to become such.

Mr A. T. Thomson has in the press, in an octavo volume, the London Dispensatory; containing the Elements and Practice of Materia Medica and Pharmacy, with a translation of the London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Pharmacopoeias.

The Rev. Fred. Nolan is preparing a Grammatical Analysis (on a plan altogether new) of the French, Italian, Spanish, Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Syriac Languages, with a Classed Vocabulary; to be printed in a duodecimo volume.

The third edition of the late Dr Saunders' Treatise on Diseases of the Eye, with a short account of his life by Dr Farre, will soon appear.

The fifth edition of the History of the British West Indies, by Bryan Edwards, continued to the present time, in four octavo volumes, with a quarto one of maps and plates, is expected early in next month.


A MOST accurate Compendium of the Faculty Collection of Decisions, from its commencement in 1752 to the Session of 1817; by Mr Peter Halkerston, solicitor in the Supreme Courts.

Martin's Voyage to St Kilda in 1697, and Supplement to the Feuds and Conflicts of the Clans, from an original MS. in 1656. A new edition of Inquiry whether Crime

and Misery are produced or prevented by our present system of prison discipline; by Thomas Fowell Buxton, Esq. M. P.

Reports of Cases Tried in the Jury Court, from the Institution of the Court in 1815, to the sittings at Edinburgh ending in March 1818.

Mr Brydson, Edinburgh, is preparing for immediate publication, in 4to, a new work on Distinctions of Rank, as belonging to the Governments of Modern Europe, and derived from the Political and Military Institutions of the Feudal System. A part of this treatise, under the title of Heraldry, was formerly laid before the public, and met with a favourable reception. The present publication will include, 1. An historical deduction of the feudal system, in its territorial structure, and distinctive military constitution termed Chivalry-the former consisting of fiefs, or feudal possessions in land, the latter of incorporeal fiefs, or feudal possessions in dignity, rank, and precedence. 2. A view of the government of the British kingdoms, in reference to the general design of this work. 3. Of distinctions of rank as inseparable from the establishment of society. 4. The specific degrees of gentlemen and esquire, the dignity of knighthood, and the pre-eminent dignity of the peerage, belonging respectively to the political department of the feudal system, and designated by titles and symbols of Chivalry, which symbols are here exemplified in a series of vignette armorial engravings.

The Appeal, a tragedy; as performed at the Theatre-Royal, Edinburgh.




The History and Antiquities of Gainsborough, in the county of Lincoln; together with a topographical account of Stow, principally in illustration of its claim to be considered as the Roman Sidnacester; by William Hett, M.A. 8vo. 10s. 6d. boards.


Memoirs of Count de las Casas, communicated by himself, comprising a Letter from Count de las Casas, at St Helena, to Lucien Buonaparte, giving a faithful account of the voyage of Napoleon to St Helena, his residence, 'manner of living, and treatment on that island; also, a Letter addressed by Count de las Casas to Lord Bathurst, 8vo. 8s. 6d.

Memoirs of the public and private Life of John Howard, the philanthropist; compiled from his private diary and letters, the journal of his confidential attendant, the communications of his family and surviving friends, and other authentic sources of information; most of it entirely original; by James Baldwin Brown, Esq. of the Inner Temple, barrister at law, 4to:


Conder on Protestant Nonconformity, 2 vols Svo. 14s.

Reflections concerning the Expediency of a Council of the Church of England and the Church of Rome being holden, with a view to accommodate Religious Differences, and to promote the Unity of Religion in the Bond of Peace; humbly but earnestly recommended to the serious attention of the Prince Regent, the archbishops, the bishops, the clergy, and all lay-persons who are able and willing dispassionately to consider the important subject; by Samuel Wix, A. M. F. R. and A. S. 3s.

The Protestant Church alone Faithful in Reading the Word of God, proved, by a contrast with the Church of Rome, in a Sermon by the Hon. and Rev. Edward John Turnour, A. M. 2s.

Discourses on several Subjects and Occasions; by the Rev. W. Hett, M. A. 2 vols 8vo. 18s.

On the Being and Attributes of God; by Wm Bruce, D. D. 8vo. 8s.

The Spirit of the Gospel; or the Four Evangelists Elucidated, by explanatory observations, historical references, and miscel

laneous illustrations; by the Rev. Stephen Gilly, M. A. Rector of Fanbridge, Essex, 8vo. 10s.

More Work for Dr Hawker, in Reply to his Misrepresentations of the Gospel of Jesus Christ; by the Rev. Thomas Smith, of St John's College, Cambridge, and Master of Gordon House Academy, Kentish Town, Middlesex.

The Scripture Testimony to the Messiah; an Inquiry with a view to a satisfactory determination of the doctrine taught in the Holy Scriptures concerning the Person of Christ; including a careful examination of the Rev. Thomas Belsham's Calm Inquiry, and of the other principal Unitarian works on the same subject; by John Pye Smith, D.D. Vol. 1, 8vo. 14s.

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A Digest of the Law of the Distribution of the Personal Estates of Intestates; by F. Mascall, Esq. of Lincoln's Inn, 8vo. 6s.

The Practical Abridgement of the Laws of Customs and Excise relative to the import, export, and coasting trade of Great Britain and her dependencies; including tables of the duties, drawbacks, bounties, and premiums. Interspersed with the treaties with foreign powers, regulations of trading companies, proclamations, orders in council, reports of adjudged cases, opinions of law officers, and official documents. To which are now added, the Russia and Levant dues; duties of scavage, package, and baillage; and pilotage and dock rates; together with the American navigation laws and tariff. The statutes brought down to the end of 58. Geo. III. and the other parts to September 1, 1818; by Charles Pope, controlling surveyor of the warehouses in Bristol, and late of the customhouse, London, 8vo. £1, 15s.

The other additions embrace an enlarged statement of all the regulations at present affecting our West India and American possessions; the Liverpool dock laws; and a variety of miscellaneous matters.-

Should there be any consolidation of customs in the next Session, the same will be published separately, at about 3s. 6d.


An Experimental Inquiry into the Laws of the Vital Functions, with some observations on the nature and treatment of internal diseases; by A. P. Wilson Philip, M. D. F. R.S. E. 8vo. 10s. 6d.

Medico-chirurgical Transactions, published by the Medical and Chirurgical Society of London. Vol. 9, part 1, 8vo, 12s.

A Succinct Account of the Contagious Fever of this Country, as exemplified in the epidemic now prevailing in London, with the appropriate method of treatment, as practised in the House of Recovery. To which are added, Observations on the Nature and Properties of Contagion, tending to correct the popular notions on this subject, and pointing out the means of prevention; by Thomas Bateman, M.D.F.L.S. physician to the Public Dispensary, and consulting physician to the Fever Institution in London, &c. &c. 8vo. 6s. 6d.


Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, the 38th volume, which completes the debates of the last Session of Parliament. £1:11:6.

Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey, and other Countries of the East; edited from manuscript journals, by Robert Walpole, M. A. second edition, 4to. £3, 3s.

Self-cultivation Recommended; or, Hints to a Youth leaving School. Third edition, foolscap 8vo. 5s. 6d.

A Full and Correct Account of the Trial which took place at the last Dorchester assizes, before Mr Justice Park and a special jury, in the case of the King on the prosecution of George Lowman Tuckett, Esq. v. James Bowditch and nine other defendants, upon an indictment for conspiracy, assault, and false imprisonment: taken from the short-hand notes of Mr Richardson. 3s. 6d.

Advice to the Teens; or, Practical Helps toward the Formation of One's Own Character; by Isaac Taylor of Ongar, foolscap 8vo. 5s.


Memoirs of the Montagu Family; a novel, illustrative of the manners and society of Ireland, 2 vols 12mo. 21s.


The Natural History of the Birds of Paradise, Toucans, and Barbus, followed by that of the Promerops, Guepiers, and Couroucous; by F. Levaillant. Thirty-three livraisons, 3 vols folio.


Essays on the Proximate Mechanical Causes of the general Phenomena of the Universe; by Sir R. Phillips, 12mo. 3s. 6d.

The First Part of the Philosophical Transactions for 1818. £1, 10s.


The History of the County Palatine of Chester; by J. H. Hanshall, editor of the Chester Chronicle, parts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

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