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Q. What is the second exception ?

A. Words formed and compounded, must be divided ac. cording to the fifth and sixth general rule.

RULE II. Q. What is the second general rule for the division of syl. lables?

A. Two consonants in the middle of a word, that are proper to begin a word, must begin the syllable together; as, cluster:

Q. What exceptions have you to this rule ?

A. All such derivatives, whese primitives ending in e final, drop the e in spelliog, have the consonants in the middle of the word parted, though they be proper to begin a word; as, hous-hold.

Note. That dl, 11, kl, and :1, are often used to begin syllables, though they begin no words, as la-dle, tur-tle, wrinkle, puz.zle.



Q. What is the third general rule for division of sy llables ?

A. Two consonants in the middle of a word, that are not proper to begin a word, must be divided; as, num-ber.

Q. What exceptions have you to this rule?

A. Two consonants in the middle of a derivative, though they be pot proper to begin a word, must not be divided; as, stand-ard.

Q. What is the fourth general rule for division of sy lables?

A. If two vowels come together, not making a diphthong, they must be divided: as, ae in ja-el; ao in ex-tra-or-di-nary: co in pi-te-ous; ia in vi-ali io in vi-ol; iu in di-ur-nal; oe in co-er-ci-on; ua in u-su-al; ue in du-el; ui in ru-in, congru-i-ty; and uo in con-gru-ous.

Note 1. Ua, ue, ui, and uo, become diphthongs after g; as, quar-rel, ques.tion, qui-et, quo-tient: likewise ua in per-suade, per-sua-sion, &e.

2. Though eo cannot properly be called a diphthong, yet those vowels are not divided in peo-ple, leo-pard.


Q. What is the fifth general rule for division of syllables ?
A. Let words formed or derived, be divided acco

ccordiog to their original, or primitive.

Q. What is the consequence of this rule?

A. These terminations, age, ed, -en -er, -est, «et, -eth, -ing, -ish, ous, ard, -al, -or, ought to go by themselves in spelling; as, herb-age, boast-ed, gold-en, know-est, Jatch-et, hear-eth, hear-er, hear-ing, fool-ish, ru-in-ous, stand-ard, moou-men-tal, ex-act-or.

Q. What is the first exception to this rule?
A. Monosyllables and words accented upon the last syllable,
Sing in a single consonant, without a diphthong foregoing,

their final consonant when they take any of the forma

tive endings; and then it may be proper to put the latter consonant with the termination: as, pot-tage, blot-ted, blot-teth, blot-ting, blot-ter, rot-ten, slut-tish, a bet-tor.

Q. What is the second exception ?

A. When words in e final take any of these terminations, e final is lost even in writing, and then a consonant may be put to the termination; as, write, wri test, wri-teth, wri-ter,

Note 1. Where castiag away the e would create any confusion in the sense, I advise to retain it; as from the verb singe, I would write singe eth, singe-ing, to distinguish it from sing eth, sing ing, when the word happens to be wrote og two different lines for want of room.

2. If words in e final have the last syllable short, it is a much better guide to the ear, to let the termioation go by itself; as, for-giving, for given, lov-er, com-ing.

3. Sneh primitives as take only y after then, have some of the foregoing consonants joined to it; as, earthy ; but after u, wv, aud x, it must come alone: as, glu-y, flaw-y, dox-y.


Q. What is the sixth general rule for division of syllables ? A. Let compound words be reduced into their primitive parts. Q. What is the first consequence of this rule?

A. A preposition; as, ad-, in., un, sub-, per-, dis-, re-, pre-, must be pronounced by itself; as, ad-e-quate, in-i-qui-tý, un-e-qual, sub-urbs, per-ad-venture, dis-u-pite, re-pro-bate, pre vious. Yet, we say pe-ruse, instead of per-use. Q. What is the second consequence of this rule ?

A. Beth will be the first syllable in Beth-a-ny, Beth-el, Beth-a ba-ra, Beth-es-da, &c.

Q. What is the third consequence of this rule ?

A. The termination ham will go by itself, at the end of proper names; as Chat-ham, Fe-vers-ham, Buck-iog-ban, Elt-ham; except South-am and Wro-tham.


Q. When the consonants meet in the middle of a word, how must they be divided ?

A. l. If they begin a word, they must also begin a syllable together; as, il-lu-strate.

2. If they be proper to end a word, they may all end the syllable, as, latch-et.

3. If the two last be proper to begin a word, or the last of all bel, they begin the syllable together; as, kind-red, thim-ble.

4. If the two first of them be proper to evd a word, the third may go to the latter syllable, as, bank-rupt.

Q. What is a diphthong.

A. A diphthong is the uniting of two vowels in one syllable; as, ui, in laid.

Q. What is a tripthong?

A. A tripthong is the uniting of three vowels is one sylla. ble; as, ieu, in a-dieu.

Q. Of what do words consist ?
A. Of one or more syllables.
Q. What is the use of words ?-
A. To convey our sense of things to another-p

Q. After what mapper?
A. By joining them together in sentences.

OF SENTENCES. Q. What is a sentence ?

A. Words duiy joined together in construction, make a sentence; as, pride is a remarkable sin.

Q. What things are necessary for the true writing and reading of sentences ? A. Stops apd marks of distinction.

OF STOPS AND MARKS. Q. Which are the stops and marks of distinction used in a sentence ?

A. They are, a comma, semicolon, colon, period, and notes of interrogation and admiration: to which may be added the parenthesis, parathesis, hyphen, apostrophe, diæresis, caret, asterism, index, obelisk, and quotation.

Q. What is a comma. A. The comma, marked thus (,) is a pote of respiration, at which we may take breath, but must not tarry.

Q. What is the use of the comma?

A. It is of use for distinguishing words of the same kiod; as nouns, verbs, and adverbs; coming together in the same sentence; for dividing long sentences into short parts, and for the taking away ambiguities.

Q. Give me an example ?

A. Nature clothes the beasts with hair, the birds with feathers, and the fishes with scales.

R. Wbat is a semicolon ?

A. A semicolon, marked thus (;) notes a middle breathing between the comma and the colon.

Q. What is the use of the semicolon?

A. Its chief use is in distinguishing contraries, and fre. quent divisions.

Q. Give an example.
A. You consider the power of riches; but not of virtue.
Q. What is a colon ?

A. The colon, marked thus (:) is a note of long breathing, as is exemplified below.

2. What is the use of a colon?

A. It distinguisheth a perfect part of a sentence, which has a full meaning of its own; but yet leaves the mind in suspense, and expectation to koow what follows.

Q. Give an example.

A. Before all things, it is necessary for a man to take a true estimate of bimself: for we inostly think ourselves able to do more than we can.

Q. What other use does a colon serve to ? A. It is also used before a comparitive conjunction in a similitude.

Q. Give an example.

A. As we perceive the shadow upon the sub-dial, but discero nyt its progression ; and as the shrub or grass appears in time to be grown, but is seen by none to grow : so also the proficiency of our wits, advancing slowly by small improvements, is perceived only after some distauce of time.

Q. What is a period ?
A. The period is a full point, thus (.)
Q. Of what use is the period ?

A. It denotes the full endiog and finishing of a whole sentence, at the co?clusion of which it is always placed.

Q. Give an example.
- A. There is po man without his peculiar failing.
Q. What are the proper pauses of these stops ?
A. The proper pause or rest of each of these stops may

be thus measured; the time of stopping or resting at the comma, is the time of saying one; at the semicolon, one, one; at the colon, one, one, one; and the period, one, oue, one, one, before you begin che next clause or sentence.

Q. Which is the mark of interrogation.
A. The note of interrogation is (?)
Q. What is the use of this note?
A. To show the reader when a question is asked.
Q. Give an example.
A. What is the use of this book ?
Q. Which is the note of admiration?
A. The note of admiration is (:)
Q. What is the use of this note?
A. It is used to express our wonder.
2. Give an example.
A. the cares of mankind !
Q. What are the pauses of these potes of interrogation and
admiration ?

A. They are the same as that of a period.
Q. What do you call a parenthesis?

A. A parenthesis has two crooked strokes thus ()
Q. What is the use of a parenthesis ?

A. It serves to include one sentence in another without confounding the sense of either; and yet is necessary for the explaоation thereof: and should be read with a lower tone of the voice, as a thing that conies in by the by.

Q. Give an example.

A. I verily believe (nor is it a vain belief that there is a God, who can reward and punish us.

Q. What is the pause proper for the parenthesis?
A. Each part of it is equal to a comma.
Q. What is a parenthesis?

A. A parenthesis, brackets, or crotchets, are usually expressed by angular lines, thus []

Q. What is the use thereof?

A. To distinguish such words from the sentence, which are an explication of the word immediately preceding.

R. Give an example.
A. A treatise of [concerning) physic.

[] Q. What is a hyphen?

A. A hyphen is a small hair-stroke drawn from one word to another, thus [-]

Q. What is the use of the hyphen ?

A. It admonisheth the reader, that the two words thus joined together, must be pronounced like a single word : as, bird-cage.

It is also used to connect the syllables of the same word, written either, for want of room, iu two different lines, or for instruction in spelling in one line: as al-tar.

Q. What is an apostrophe ?
A. An apostrophe is a comına put at the top of a word.
Q. What is the use of an apostrophe?

A. It denotes the omission of a letter, to make the sound of the word more grateful to the ear; in verse to cut off a syllable for the sake of the metre; as, judg'd for judged; and in substantives, to shew them to be the genitive case singular.

Q. What is a diæresis?

A. The diæresis, or dialysis, is noted by two full points placed at the top of the latter of two vowels.

Q. What is the use of the diæresis?

4. To dissolve the diphthong, and to divide it into two syllables: as, Capernaum.

Q. What is a caret?
A. The caret, mark'd thus (a) is placed underneath the lipe.
Q. What does it denote?
A. It denotes that some letter, word, or sentence is left out.

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