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sometimes dislike and disesteem; as, reproach, reject, rejec, tion.
22. Retro, which signifies backward; as, retrospect, retrogade motion.
23. Se which signifies without, or by itself; as secure separate, seclude.
2 to Sub, which sigoifies under; as, to subscribe.
25. Subter, which also signifies under; as, subterfuge, i. e. a refuge uoder.
26. Super, which signifies upon, over, or above ;/as superscription, superfluous.
27, Traos, which signifies over or beyond; as, to transport, to transgress; sometimes it signifies the moviog from one place to another; as, to transplant, to transpośé: sometimes it denotes the changing of one thing into another; as, to transform, transubstantiation.
Q. Which are the prepositions in composition derived from the Greek ?
A. 1. A, which siguifies privation or not; as, anonymous anarchy.
2. Amphi; which signifies on both sides and about; as, amphibious, amphitheatre, amphibology.
3. Aota and apti, which signifies against; as, antagonist, antichrist.
4. Hyper, which signifies over and above; as, hyperbole, . 5. Hypo, which signifies under; as, hypocrisy.
6. Meta, which signifies beyond; or else denotes the chang: ing of one thing into another; as, metaphor, metamorphosis. 7. Peri, which signifies about; as, periodical, periphery. 8. Syo, which signifies with or together; as synod, syntax.
OF AN INTERJECTION. Q. What is an interjection?
A. Ao interjection is a part of speech, which depoteth a suddep passion of the mind, without the help of any other words; and therefore interjections are as various as the sudden passions of the mind themselves; as, ho, brave boys ! kiere is news for you.
Q. Which are the interjections ?
A. These following are some of them: ah! alack! alas ! away! fie! foh! good lack! good sir! ha, ha, be! ha'! heigh! hem! ho hoi! how Dow! hush! now! 0! oh! O brave! O strange! O hoe! pish! shuh! sirrah! sono Fly insh! jell done! Fe!! anid! when! we !
OF THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. Q. What is the derivation of words?
A. It shows how every word may be formed in its proper case, mood, tepse, and quality.
Q. How is the genitive case singular formed, without the preposition of prefixed ?
Å. By putting 's to the substantive of the possessor; as, the master's eye, i.e. the eye of the master makes the horse fat.
Note. 1. That the possessor, or the thing possessed, with this termination's may be accounted either a substautive of the genitive singular, or an adjective possessive; as, my master's son, where master's is an adjective possessive; which may be properly rendered otherwise, by the genitive case, the son of my master.
2. it must nevertheless be carefully observed, that the single s added io the end of a word, which before ended in o does not make such a word a genitive case, or an adjective possessive; neither does it add any syllable to the word; for the e to which it is added, is cast away in the pronunciation, and the s, on ly adds to the number of that ord, and is sounded together with the last consonant thereof; as, in the words share, shares, trade, trades; spade, spades; &c. except where the words end in ge; as, cage, cages; or se; as, case, cases ; or ee; as, lace, laces.
Q. How are verbs derived from other parts of sposch?
A. Many substantives, and sometimes adjectives; and sometimes the other parts of speech become verbs, by prefixiog the sign to, before them, or by addiog the termination en to the adjective; as, from a house comes to house; from warm, to warm; from hard, to harden.
Q. Do pot substantives come sometimes from verbs?
A. Yes; almost every verb has some substaotive coming from it; for by the edition of er to the coding of the present lepse, comes a substantive sigoisying the agent or doer, which is therefore called a verbal noun; as, from to hear; comes a hearer ; from to carry, a carrier.
Note. Some substantives are formed from verbs, by the addition of or to the ending of the present tense; as from to govern, comes a governor; from 10 solicit, a solicitor; from to visit, a visitor: from to possess, a possessor; from to sạil, a sailor ; from to vend or sell, a vendor; also from to contribute, comes a contributor; and from to survive, a survivor, dropping the e.
Q. Are not adjectives sometimes formed from substantives;
A. Yes; I. By adding the termination y, are formed adjectives of plenty or of abounding; as, from health, comes healthy; from wealth, wealthy.
2.By adding, the termination en, are formed adjectives, that signify the matter out of which any thing is made; as,
from ash, comes ashes ; from birch, birchen; from oak, oakEQ; &c. as, ap oaken stick, a birchen broom.
3. By adding the termination ful, are formed adjectives, denoting fulness; as from joy, comes joyful, from youth, youthful; from sin, sinful; also from to abash, bashful : &c.
4. By adding the termination some are formed adjectives, denoting inuch the same; as, from trouble, comes troublesome, from game, gamesome; &c. though sometimes the e is left out.
5. By adding the termination less, are formed adjectives, signifying want; as, from worth, comes worthless; from help, belpless; from tooth, toothless; &c.
Note. The same thing is also signified by un, in or im, preixed to adjectives; as unpleasant, indecent, improper, &c.
6. By adding the termination ly, are formed adjectives, which denote likeness; as, from man comes manly; from God, godly; also from to fit comes fitly; from certaio, certaiuly, &c.
7. By adding the termination ish, are formed adjectives, denoting the same thing; as, from wolf comés wolfish; from child, childish; sheep, sheepish ; &c. also from books comes bookish; and from to tickle comes ticklish.. Note. ). From adjectiros, by adding the same termination, are formed adjec: tives diminutive ; as, from green comes greenisha , soft, sostish ; hard, hardish, &c.
2. There are also some national names which end in ish; as, English, Spaq. ish, Danish, &c. and in ic; Brilannic, Germanic, Italic.
Q. By what other means are words derived from their primitives?
A. By adding -ship, -dom, -rick, -wick, -ness, - head, -hood.
1. Words ending in-ship, denote office, employmevt, or condition; as, stewardship, fellowship, lordship, &c.
2. Words ending in-dom, signity, office or charge with power and dominion, or without them; as, popedom, kingdom. Also,
They signify the state, condition, quality, propriety, and place in which a person exercises liis power; as, freedom thraldom, whoredom, wisdom, dukedom, &c.
3. Words ending in -rick and -wick, denote office and domiDion; as, bishoprick, baily wick.
Note. ment and -age are purely French terminations, and have the same meaning with us, as with them, and scarce ever occur but in words derived from that language: as commandment, usage.
4. Substantives ending in .Dess, signify the essence of the thing; and are formed from adjectives ; as, from white, comes whiteness; from hard, hardness, &c. Note. These are called abstract nouns,
Nows that end in -head and -hood, denote the state, condi. tion and quality of a thing, or person; as, godheady manhcod, widowhood, brotherhood, livelihood, &c.
Note. There are also substantives (derived from adjectives and verba) which are made by adding the ending th, with some small change; as, from Jong coines length; strong, strength; warın, warmth ; inoon, modib; &c. also from to die, comes death; from grow, growth; &c.
OF SUBSTANTIVES DIMINUTIVE. Q. What is a substautive diminutive?
A. It is another method of derivation, by which a noun is formed, to lessen the sense of its primitive word; as, from Lamb come lampkin, which is a little lamb.
OF THE SYNTAX. Q. What is syntax ?
A. It is the disposing of words in their right case, gender, number, person, and mood, tense and place, in a sentence.
2. Give an example?
A. Gcod boys are not beaten; there the words are placed according to syntax; whereas should I say, Beaten not are boys good, it would be unintelligible; because here is no sgnfax in this sentence.
Q: How many kind of sentences are there?
Å. It is that wherein there is but one verb, and one nomi. native word of the subject, either expressed or understood; as, The boy reads. Q. What is a compound sentence ?
A. It is two simple sentences joined together by a conjunction, or by a relative; as, wbo, which, that; or by a comparitive word; as, so, as, such, so many, as many more than; as, I am diligent, apd you are negligent. He is a Daughty boy, who deserves correction.
Q. What do you mean by a dominative word ?
A. The word that goes before the verb, and answers to the question who or what; as Boys play; Where it may be asked, Who do play? Answer, Boys. Q. Does the nominative case or words always go
before the verb?
A. Yes; except when a question is asked, and then the nominative case follows the verb, or more commonly the sign of the verb; as, Did Joho go to London? Do I neglect my business?
and are times the dative; as, I gave the book to the master: and
Q. What is the construction of the verb with the dominaE tive word ?
A. The verbs must be of the same number and person with the nominative word; as, I stapd, thou standest, he standeth: Not I standest; thou standeth, be stand.
Q. Is the nomioative case to the verb always a substantive?
A. No: Sometimes the infinitive mond stands for the nominative word; as, to lie is shameful: and sometimes a whole clause foregoing; as, to rise betimes in the morniog, is the most wholesome thing in the world.
Q. If two or more substantives singular come together how must the verb be put?
A. Ia the plural number; as, Peter and Jobo fight.
Q. What number is the verb putio, wheu it follows a noun of multitude ?
A. It may be put in the plural, when circumstances absolutely determine the case to be more than one; but it is most commonly of the singular number; as, the multitude is very noisy. The heap is removed.
Q. Of what case must these nouns be, which follow verbs,
sometimes the accusative, as, I love my master.
Q. What is the construction of the vocative?
A. The vocative is no part of the sentence, but only the person to whom the sentence is addressed; and is always of the second person singular or plural; as, Joha! where have you been, that you have staid so long ? Ladies! why do
you Hot mind your writing ?
Q. Of what is the ablative case governed ?
A. The ablative is always governed of some preposition, expressed or understood; such as, in, with, through, for, from, by, and than; as, be took it from me. He went with you.
OF TRANSPOSITION. Q. What is Transposition ? A. It is the placiog of words out of their natural order, to render the sound of them more agreeable to the ear.
Example. It cannot be avoided, but that scandals will arise, and differences will grow in the church of God, so long as there is wickedness on eartb, or waliçe io hello