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contrary to all that was supposed by his side-her face was still fitting for her sex, and at the lovely, though itgleamed through same time forcing upon him a the veil of adversity--nay, her sense of the very beauty of her whole deportment, even now, conduct by its principled excess. would have convinced any man It is probable, that as he could that she had seen better days.not prevail upon her to give up She was leaning on her right arm her design, he had sworn some on the verdant turf, listening, as religious oath when he made his I thought, to the evening songpromise :, but, be this as it may, sters in the grove, at the same he took every possible precaution time attentive to her children, to secure her modesty from hurt. sportive among the pebbles of The people of Coventry were or- the brook that ran at their feet. dered to keep within doors, to The ass was feeding hard by-it close up all their windows and had borne its burthen in the heat outlets, and not to give a glance of the day—and was now tasting, into the streets upon pain of in its kind, the common bounty death. The day came, and Co- of Providence to all way-faring ventry, it may be imagined, was beasts. silent as death. The lady went Le Bon drew the book from out at the palace door, was set his eyes as I approached himon horseback, and at the same and after a short salutation, began time divested of her wrapping his tale of woe :garment, as if she had been go- “ I have travelled," said he, ing into a bath ; then taking the through the regions of art and fillet from her head, she let down sciences, with a light purse and a her long and lovely tresses, thread-bare coat—the food which which poured around her body nourished me I carefully culled like a veil ; and so, with only her from simples of erudition, and white legs remaining conspicu- my drink was from the streams ous, took her way through the of Helicon. I surmounted the streets.
height of classic Appenine without a companion, and travelled the flinty fields of philosophy
without a vade mecum—how, or The sun was half eclipsed by for what I toiled, I cannot tellthe western hills, as we entered but fortune shews me at length, the borders of Lorrain. Le Bon that learning is vain, and study a was sitting on a bank by the way weariness. side-it was the same Le Bon I “ A weariness indeed !” said I, had formerly seen in weal- “ and wert thou in my country, thy and gay. Shame on fortune, where there is an asylum for the said I to myself-how fleeting necessitous, a protection for are her favours !--the rich man learning and learned men, thou of this year may be the poor shouldst there find shelter, and man of the next.
--Le Bon was thy labours in learning should sitting under a hawthorn bush, not be in vain-thou shouldst holding in his hand, Seneca on there be favoured with the counbenefits-his wife, the sharer of tenance of the great-thou his pleasures and his woes, sat shouldst eat the bread of prospe
rity, and drink of the horn of once a long dispute with Caliease-kindness should be shown gula, and as he was withdrawto thy offspring, and the effects of ing : “ Be not deceived," said a dedication would be thy con- that phalaris to him, (so Seneca tinual support."
called Calgula);" I have given orI touched upon the string on ders for your being put to death,” which his sorrows hung--he “Ithank my good graciousprince" looked upon the stream that run replied Julius Canus, without bemurmuring by, and began to mo- traying the least emotion. Acralize on precedency and power. cording to a decree of the senate
“ There is a tide,” said he,“ in that had passed under Tiberius, the affairs of men, which taken there was to be a respite of ten at the flood-"
days between judgment and exeHere he paused, and casting cution. Canus, during this interhis eyes upon his wife and chil- val, shewed neither fear nor undren, said, “I will try some easiness, though convinced in his other way to be found useful.”- mind, Caligula's threats, in such Nature here had a struggle ! and cases, were infallible and irrevocI could perceive, by what issued able. When the centurion came from his eyes, that he was no to give him notice to prepare for more than mortal. “ Fie on de- execution, he found him playing pendency,” said I, “ how preca- at draughts with a friend. He rious is the tenure of favour-the reckoned his men, and those of wealthy man's friends are like his adversary,“that" said he,"you the flies of a summer day, which might not brag you had the adthe warmth of the sun produceth vantageover me. “And" he added, and cherisheth, but which disap- turning to the centurion, “ you pear at the approach of chilly will be my witness that I have night."-Le Bon resumed the the best of the game by one man.' book he had laid aside on the This frivolous care may shew verdant turf, and with a look ex- some ostentation in the magnapressing satisfaction at what I nimity of this gentleman ; but uttered, walked slowly towards what he said to his friends is
more worthy of an intrepid soul. SHANDY. Seeing them in deep affliction and shedding
tears, he them :
"Why those moans ?
Why those tears ? Ye are very EQUANIMITY.
anxious to know if the soul be Julius Canus, an illustrious Ro- immortal ; I am going to see this man, was always remarkable for matter cleared up in an instant." a noble firmness of mind, calm and composed, and scarce ever disconcerted by any cross accident. In this undisturbed situation, he could behold death as a
From Sir Richard Phillips's Eswelcome present to him, from
says. the savage Caligula. Canus's The tides are simple and palmind was well cultivated with pable phenomena of motion. The the study of philosophy. He had motion of the waters is a neces
THE THEORY OF TIDES.
sary consequence of other mo- The tides are, therefore, caustions. If the earth stood still, ed by the disturbance of the there would be no tides. If the centre of the earth's motion, or earth turned on a mathematical forces, which produce phenomecentre, or axis, and no cause ever na at the surface ; the disturbdisturbed the forces acting on ance is rendered apparent by the each side of that centre, or axis, waters of the sea, because fluids there would be no tides, or flux can move from place to place, and re-flux of the waters. If the obeying a force and restoring an earth were
a smooth sphere, equilibrium. The solid parts of equally covered with water, its the earth may have a tendency equable and uniform motions to move, but the force is great would cause no tides.
enough to move the Auids only; But, if the forces which re- and, when the equilibrium is revolve the earth, were to act stored by these, the force created unequally on its sides, so as to by the disturbance ceases to act. have a tendency to vary
the But if, instead of a projecting centre, then the waters, by their side, we were to suppose a small mobility, would restore the equi- globe to be annexed or joined to librium as the disturbance took the earth, both revolving togeplace, so that the disturbance ther on a common centre, or would be simultaneously cor- centre of their quantity of matter, rected, and the means of correc- then the centre of gyration tion would, by those motions of would be considerably elevated the waters, produce what are towards that side, and the wacalled tides.
ters, in respecting that -centre, And, again, if the earth were would be impelled towards the not a true sphere, or had pro- annexed small globe. jecting parts, or were denser on Suppose, further, that this anone side than on the other; then, nexed globe were separated from as the momenta of the two sides, the other, and carried to a disproduced by a common force, tance, their masses still revolvmust necessarily be equal, the ing about a common centre actside least dense, or having least ing and re-acting through a matter, would perform a larger fixed or a gaseous lever, it is circuit than the other; or, in evident that the former effect other words, the centre of gyra- would not be diminished, and tion and the mathematical cen- that the waters, in being able, by tre would not be the same, and their mobility, to respect that then the moveable fluids, because centre of motion, would be immoveable, would rush to restore pelled or raised towards the sethe equilibrium
* The reader who is accustomed to consider space as a vacuum, because with his eye he does not see any thing in space; or he who has adopted the notion of a vacuum, because any matter in space might interfere with the necessary perpetuity of Newton's. whimsical projectile force, may ask, what connects the bodies when thus separated ? To this, it may be replied, that the gaseous medium which fills space, is as perfect a lever as a rod of iron or platina, but it propagates force to any distance by a law, sui generis, or diffusively as the reciprocal square of the disThe moveable fluids always Such are the circumstances of accomodate themselves to the the earth and moon. They move centre of gyration, which be- in the medium of space, round a comes their centre, without re- common centre, or fulcrum, the gard to the disposition of the arms or distances of the gaseous fixed concrete masses, which lever being in the inverse duplithey keep in mundane equilibri- cate ratio of their distances and um : hence it is, that, if a moun- of their quantities of matter ; tain on one side of a globe occa- and the mundane fluids, as fluids, sions the centre of gyration to in respecting the centre of moapproach that mountain, the wa- tion, rise towards the centre of ters, in accomodating themselves motion, or towards the fulcrum to that centre, will accumulate of the mutual revolution of the about the mountain : hence, if two bodies, which is necessarily another globe be annexed in in the right line joining the cencontact (suppose the moon in tres of the earth and moon. contact with the earth), and the But, while this joint revolucentre of gyration were then tion of the earth and moon is raised considerably towards that performed round the fulcrum of annexed globe, the waters, in the gaseous lever of space, the respecting the circle of gyration earth is turning on its axis by a performed by both globes, would separate motion ; and as all parts fill up the chasms between the of its surface are successively curved surfaces of the two presented to the moon, or to the globes : and hence also, if the common fulcrum, so the succestwo globes, being separated and sive portions of waters are eleconnected in motion only by a vated towards the moon or fulgaseous lever (like the earth and crum ; and hence the phenomena moon in the medium of space), arise which we call tides, governstill, the centre or fulcrum of ed necessarily in successive rotamotion would, as a centre of tions by the times which the gyration, influence the moving moon, or the common fulcrum, waters, and they would flow, or passes the meridian of
any endeavour to flow towards that places. fulcrum, and would even flow The fulcrum of the earth and around it, if they were not re- moon is the point about which strained by a local rotatory force both revolve, and is the centre like that of the earth, and by a of their reciprocal momenta. It density of the Auid, sufficient to necessarily lies in the line which counteract the tendency to as- joins the centres of the earth cend to the common centre of and moon; and, being the cenmotion.
tre of their joint momenta, is
tances; and is more perfect in the exact proportion of its rarity—that is, the more rare, the more capable of propagating motion and force from one part of space to another. All the bodies in the universe are thus necessarily connected, and the connection is formed by the gaseous medium filling space, which diffuses or diverges all forces ånd motions inversely as the squares of the distances, and directly as the quantities of matter moving with equal velocity. Solid levers propagate force by propulsion, and fluid and gaseous ones by diffusion.
the point acted upon by the sun's and European shores; and is not impulses on the medium of space, such second tide a necessary in producing the orbicular mo- consequence of the waters having tion; and is, therefore, con- been so accumulated on the stantly in the earth's orbit; shores of America ? Would not while the centres of the earth the constant 'succession of this and moon constantly revolve sufficient cause produce the same around it, by their mutual action equable effect in the secondary as and re-action each other in the primary tide ? Would through the medium of space. not such constant succession
Suppose the earth to be turn- produce a species of oscillation ing on its axis, with the fulcrum of the waters in the beds of the vertical Over the meridian of ocean, just such as exists in the central Africa, where, as there is tides? no sea, there will be no apparent
We need not accompany the tide-though the seas of the ant- phenomena to the shores of the arctic ocean would be slightly Pacific, where the oscillations are affected. In an hour, the rotation less, because the liquid pendulum carries the shores of the Atlantic is larger and heavier-but where opposite the moon or fulcrum, exactly the same causes produce and the waters being capable of a primary and secondary tide. rushing to restore the equilibri- That is, as soon as the moon, or um, in consequence of the dis- fulcrum, arrives over the western turbance already explained, they coasts of America, the waters rise towards the fulcrum or cen- rise and follow the moon, or fultre of lunar and mundane gyra- crum, till it reaches the shores of tion, and the elevation continues Asia ; and then, being left there as long as the Atlantic is pass- they oscillate back, producing a ing under the moon; or fulcrum. second tide.
But, when the Atlantic shores In a word, the second tide arises of America arrive opposite the from the re-actions of the first moon or fulcrum, the waters rise tide against the visible continents along the coast, and fill the en- and invisible rocks which bound trances of the rivers ; but, when and fill the ocean ; and which the continent is presented to the re-actions concur with the demoon, or fulcrum, then no tide parture of the force over land to is raised. Nevertheless, the wa- other meridians, so that a returnters were brought to the shores ing tide the returning stroke of and left there-what then be- a primary one. “And, in confircomes of them? The cause which mation of this theory of the seproduced their elevation has de- condary tide, is it not notorious, parted over another meridiän. that in certain parts of the South Is it not astonishing that no one Pacific, where few or no disturever asked," or ever answered, bances are created by re-actions, this question ?-Must they not or reflections of land, there is swing back like the oscillation of but tide in twenty-four
endulum, and is not this the hours ? true cause of the second 'tide ? The other peculiarity of the Is not this a necessary cause of tides-their neap and spring, dethe second tide on the African pending on the relative positions