Page images

and left, when smoke, and dust, mean enough to wish things sent and mingling flame will consum- away, brought back to table a mate the glory of the battle. second time; but do you, as a

I come now to another head. faithful servant, save her from You are all accused of being bad that disgrace. A liberal way of cooks ; and true it may be, that living and bestowing, is respectthe Highlands have produced one able; and when you secretly Ossian and a host of bards, but send off quantities of provisions, not one cook. Mesdames M’Iver it can be for nothing but the and Fraser, whatever may be credit of the family. You must their merits, are Highland by from the first day of going to a mis-alliance and not by descent. new place, show your good taste I have said you are all bad cooks in tea.

No doubt, you

were -but this is your pride and your always accustomed to this exglory. Nothing can be more pensive beverage in perfection in contemptible than the care and


mother's hut; and you may anxiety some fussing denation- expect it equally elegant when alized mistreses show about the you have the good luck to be dressing of dinners, and laying married, which no doubt will be out of tables for their families some time; so that you have a and visiters—flamming and skim- right to insist on your tea twice ming-washing and basting a day, and to take no slops nor O glorious days, say I, when a dish-washings," as you may call dozen pretty men seized a steer, it, “off any body's hands.” I have ripped him up with their dirks, known girls of spirit carry

this and made his own entrails the point with so high a hand, that seething pot ! Those times are they have left their places, and gonemstill I would

warn you starved on brochan for six months not to contaminate the dignity before they yielded it. of your Highland natures, by the But I have wandered from the Aesh pot mysteries of the Saxons. Saxon science of gastronomy, I have it to say with pride, that which literally means belly-filmany among you remain to your ling. If you must cook, contrive dying day, as ignorant of such to do it with as little washing as arts, as the day you left your mon possible : this practice blanches ther's side. Show however a meat and destroys its native proper degree of taste and dis- flavour. At the management of crimination in what you eat your- a fire for cooking, I conclude selves, and a fixed aversion to you an adept, and equally so in soups rewarmed, fish when cheap, taking care of your saucepans, and broken victuals. If shabby &e. All the Scots have a national families will produce such things antipathy to under done meat. for their hard working servants, I would, therefore, advise you to tell them with a toss of your head, show a noble disregard of hours you can eat a potatoe for your and clocks, and time fixed for part for dinner. You can indem- dinner; and if your mistress nify yourself in the proper place, interfere, show an equally noble especially when you have com- degree of self-independence. It is pany. Your mistress may be no matter of hers surely-besides, hours were made for slaves--you their fellow citizens. These new are a free-born serving lass. guides in the career of good forLet the same contempt of clocks tune, have called the science that be shown in whatever you do. leads to happiness, by the name of In roasting a joint of meat be wisdom, and, consequently, their sure to leave a good swinging doctrine the love of wisdom, black spit mark, with a garnish- which is expressed by the Greek ing of butcher's pins in it. This word philosophy. will prove

that it has been roast- It is naturally and morally imed, and not done at the bakers; possible for all mankind to beand if it be allowed to cool gent- hold the same object in the same ly on the dresser, while you clean point of view; and, consequently, yourself, and be then dished up, there soon arose, among those floating in an ocean of greasy masters of philosophy, different gravy with a sprinkling of ashes, opinions concerning happiness, it must do great honour to your and the road that leads to it : cookery. A sprinkling of ashes from hence came the different is good in many things. You symstems of philosophy, and may have heard that the Jews of those celebrated disputes, which, old, for the punishment of their at this day, appear to us so insipid sins, ate ashes for bread and I and frivolous. All that there is dare say your masters are as of certainty in this matter is, that great sinners every bit-and none of these philosophers perhave as much reason to go to ceived that the happiness of each their penitentials.”

individual lies in his own opinion; and it is with reason that opinion is called the queen of the world. Passion is nothing but a

vehement desire we have to The desire of happiness is so gratify our own opinion in what natural to mankind, that it be- we think capable of procuring comes the motive of all their

our felicity. Every man laughs labours, and the spring of every at, and censures his neighbour action. It was that desire which for his bad taste in this pursuit, alone gave birth to philosophy and for the choice of the object in the earliest ages of the world. that is to make him happy. The Every mortal, by following the covetous man blames the prodiinstinct, certainly endeavours to gal; the scholar, retiring to his render himself happy; but as all study, condemns the courtier, men have not either sufficient hurried away by the fashionable discernment, or sufficient oppor- dissipations; the fine gentleman, tunity, to discover the path that in return, turns the scholar into leads to felicity, some among ridicule ; the connoisseur in them have arisen, who have per- pictures, antiquities, or natural suaded others they had discover- curiosities, cannot account for ed that path, or, at least, that that excessive love which the they applied themselves express- miser feels for his money; the ly to the search of it, and have usurer shurgs up his shoulders, established celebrated schools, and is astonished to see any perwhere they might point it out to son misspend his time in learned


pursuits; the man of sanctity, portion to the elasticity of bolifting his eyes towards heaven, dies." laments the wretched taste for In Count Rumford's ninth Esearthly enjoyments; and the man say, which is an enquiry into the of the world, on the other hand, source of heat that is excited by ridicules the enthusiast : in a friction, many interesting experiword, each is unable to account ments are related. From these for his neighbour's taste; and no experiments it appears, that sufone is satisfied, but in proportion ficient heat was produced by the as he is able to gratify his friction of two metallic surfaces favourite passion, that is, what in (when the access of atmospherihis opinion constitutes human cal air was entirely prevented) happiness.

to make water actually boil, &c. It is apparent, that we do not This ingenious philosopher, speak here of eternal happiness, when reasoning on these experifor that is the object of theology, ments, gives satisfactory reasons but of temporal felicity, which to prove that the heat could not the merest bauble is as able to be furnished either by the-air, or procure as any thing of real by the water which surrounded value. It is pleasant enough, the machinery, And, considerhowever, to hear a philosopher ing that the source of the heat, exclaim, “ mortals, you cannot generated in these experiments, be happy, but by such and such appeared evidently to be inermeans, or by such and such haustible, he naturally concluded, maxims; he forgets that the that heat could not be matter ; happiness of a woman frequently for, says he-" It is hardly neconsists in a diamond or trinket, cessary to add, that any thing and that of a courtier in a title or which


insulated body, or sysriband.

tem of bodies, can continue to furnish without limitation, cannot possibly be a material substance."

“ Another method of producing (Continued from page 172.)

heat is by the taking place of

chemical attractions. Every che" The next method of produ- mical attraction as far as we cing heat is by exciting vibration know, in taking place, produces in solids. Whether fluids can be either heat or cold; whether it thus heated we do not know : be simple combination, elective there is no clear instance of heat attraction, or compound elective being produced by their vibra- attraction. Some of the chemition. We may excite vibration cal attractions are attended, bein solids, by friction or by colli- sides the production of heat, with sion : if we rub together or another striking phenomenon, strike two bodies, if they have namely, the producing of light. any elasticity they will vibrate. For instance, this is produced by The rougher bodies are, when the combination of respired air rubbed together, the greater vi- with phlogiston: and other inbration is produced ; and, there- stances might be adduced. This fore, the greater heat. The ri- strikes out an interesting subject bration is, also, cæt. par. in pro- of philosophical inquiry.”


The fourth and fifth methods might be described to shew, that of producing heat might be des- some bodies will both communicanted upon very copiously; but cate and receive heat more readiperhaps, this would have but ly than others, &c. little tendency towards deter- “ Iron is a good conductor of mining what heat is.

heat; on the contrary, wood is Lastly—“ Heat is produced in one of the best non-conductors of volcanos. This has commonly heat known. That the former is heen supposed to be the burning a conductor, and the latter a of fuel ; but it is evident that it non-conductor, is evident from cannot be produced by this cause, the following simple experiment or by any other known means of - If you take a nail or a small the production of heat. The piece of iron and hold it in the burning of fuel, is known, de- flame of a fire or candle, it will stroys a proportionate quantity of speedily become so hot all over, air : to produce a very great de- as to oblige you to relinquish gree of heat requires still more your hold; but if you take a to be applied than is naturally small piece of wood and hold it in combined with phlogiston. Now, the flame, you may keep hold of the whole island, Santalina, is it till it is nearly all consumed a mass of iron ore, very difficult by the fire, without being incomof fusion, which was fused and moded by the heat of the wood.' thrown up from the bottom of Hence, heat passes with ease in the sea, in the midst, betwixt iron, and with difficulty in two shores, by this heat, where wood.” no air could, therefore, possibly From the results of various come ; and, if it could, it would experiments, Count Rumford conhave required more in quantity cludes that water, oil, mercury, than would have exhausted the and air, are non-conductors of whole atmosphere, to animate heat; indeed, he thinks it essenfuel enough to have produced the tial to all fluids, that they should heat. In Friesland, some time be non-conductors of heat, or that ago, there was a tract of country, all interchange and communicaone hundred miles across, the tion of heat among their particles, whole of which, with men, ani- or from one of them to the other, mals, trees, and whatever was is absolutely impossible. Glass, on it, was melted into one com- when rendered of a loose texture, mon mass.

This heat then, can- conducts heat with very great not be produced by the burning difficulty; insomuch, that the of fuel ; much less can it be by lava of a volcano has, sixteen the decomposition of pyrites, years after an eruption, been which is, indeed, the burning of found red-hot a foot under the sulphur. And by what means surface of such glass, though such intense heat is produced, we this was quite cool. This cirare at a loss to determine.” cumstance might, very probably,

Having spoken of the various give the hint for the assertion methods of producing heat, we

(paradoxical as it may seem must next observe, that bodies without proper deliberation), may be heated by communica- " that it would be no difficult tion. And several experiments matter to convey an iron ball dies ;


red-hot, from London to Lincoln." Whether these conclusions To perform this, it must be in- may be safely relied on, is not closed in pumice stone, which is for us to determine. The great very porous glass, formed by mysterious Being who made and volcanos, and then covered over governs the universe, has set with fur. It is also easy, by a part, only, of the chain of covering a room with fire, to causes in our view; and we find, preserve the air in it of the same that as He, himself, is too high temperature, without bringing for our comprehension, so His any thing into it either hot or more immediate instruments are, cold, for a very great length of also, involved in an obscurity time.

that our feeble endeavours are As to the effects produced by not able to dissipate. heat, it is known to expand bo

and some late chemists affirm, that it tends to diminish every attraction we are acquaint- The honourable Mr. Boyle reed with, &c.

lates, that when he was in Ireland, From a review of what has an Irish captain, coming with been here advanced, we shall some of his followers to surrenfind there are few, or, perhaps, der to lord Broghil, was casually we may confidently say, no ap- intercepted by a party of the pearances but what will admit English, his lordship being then of as easy an explanation by con- absent. This was an unexpected jecturing that heat is a quality, misfortune, and the terrors of as by supposing it is a substance. death had so remarkable an effect Nay, some of the phenomena, on the captain, that, before lord particularly those which attend Broghil's return, his hair changthe production of heat by friction ed its colour in a surprizing manor vibration, in solids, will, as ner ; some of his locks became must appear from what has been perfectly white, and being interpreviously observed, induce us spersed with the rest which reto incline more to the former tained their usual redish hue, hypothesis than to the latter, &c. exhibited a very uncommon ap

pearance. We have also seen that light A young nobleman having may be produced by particular violated a lady's chastity, was means, the solar rays, for in- imprisoned, and condemned to stance-it

may, likewise be de- lose his head the next day. Bestroyed. The method of reason- ing brought into the imperial ing just applied to heat, may, presence, before the execution of with equal propriety, be used his sentence, he could not be here ; and this will induce us to known. The beauty of his face conclude, that light, instead of was vanished, his countenance being a fluid, per se, as has been exactly resembled that of a sometimes conjectured, is a qua- corpse, and his hair and beard lity, and can no more exist in- entirely grey. So wonderful an dependently of matter than heat alteration gave reason to suspect

the person was a counterfeit; but after a strict examination,


« PreviousContinue »